Abstract

Airborne laser fluorosensor measurements of fluorophore concentrations in surface waters are highly sensitive to interference from changes in optical attenuation. This interference can be eliminated by normalizing the fluorescence signal with the concurrent water Raman signal. In our application to remotely monitor chlorophyll a concentrations in fresh waters, the Raman-corrected chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements were found to be highly correlated with chlorophyll a ground truth data. Also, the reciprocal of the water Raman signal was seen to vary directly as the beam attenuation coefficient. It is suggested that this latter relationship be exploited as a means for remotely sensing changes in the optical attenuation of surface waters.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. F. Fantasia, H.C. Ingrao, “Development of an Experimental Airborne Laser Remote Sensing System for the Detection and Classification of Oil Spills,” in Proceedings, Ninth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment, 15–19 Apr. 1974 (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1974), p. 1711.
  2. R. A. O’Neil, L. Buja-Bijunas, D. M. Rayner, Appl. Opt. 19, 863 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Appl. Opt. 19, 3269 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. B. Mumola, O. Jarrett, C. A. Brown, “Multiwavelength Laser Induced Fluorescence of Algae in-vivo: A New Remote Sensing Technique,” in Proceedings, Second Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmenal Pollutants, Washington, D.C., 10–12 Dec. 1973, p. 53.
  5. M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, R. Furtek, “A Laser-Fluorosensor Technique for Water Quality Assessment,” in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment, 23–27 Apr. 1979 (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1979), p. 397.
  6. F. H. Farmer, C. A. Brown, O. Jarrett, J. W. Campbell, W. Staton, “Remote Sensing of Phytoplankton Density and Diversity in Narragansett Bay using an Airborne Fluorosensor,” in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment, 23–27 Apr. 1979 (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1979), p. 1793.
  7. J. F. Fantasia, T. M. Hard, H.C. Ingrao, “An Investigation of Oil Fluorescence as a Technique for Remote Sensing of Oil Spills,” Final Report, DOT-TSC-USCG-71-7, NTIS PB204-792 (June1971).
  8. R. Horvath, W. L. Morgan, S. R. Stewart, “Optical Remote Sensing of Oil Slicks: Signature Analysis and Systems Evaluation,” Final Report, Contract DOT-USCG 92580-A, Project 724104.2/1, Willow Run Laboratories, U. Michigan, Ann Arbor (Oct.1971).
  9. R. M. Measures, M. P. F. Bristow, “The Development of a Laser Fluorosensor for Remote Environmental Probing,” AIAA Paper 71-1121, in Proceedings, Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, Palo Alto, California, 8–10 Nov. 1971 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York 10017, 1971).
  10. E. J. Friedman, G. D. Hickman, “Laser Induced Fluorescence in Algae: A New Technique for Remote Detection,” Final Report, sponsored by NASA, Wallops Island under Contract NAS 6-02081, Sparcom, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia (Oct.1971).
  11. E. V. Browell, “Analysis of Laser Fluorosensor Systems for Remote Algae Detection and Quantification,” NASA Technical Note TN D-8447, NASA, Washington, D.C. (June1977).
  12. R. E. Morrison, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 612 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. A. Kiefer, R. W. Austin, Limnol. Oceanogr. 19, 55 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. G. Shannon, “Light Attenuation Measurements with a Unique Transmissometer System,” IEEE International Conference on Engineering in the Ocean Environment, Halifax, 21–23 Aug. 1974, IEEE Publication 74CH0 873-0 OCC (1974).
  15. N. G. Jerlov, Marine Optics (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1976), p. 47.
  16. A. J. Campillo, V. H. Kollman, S. L. Shapiro, Science 193, 227 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. C. A. Brown, F. H. Farmer, O. Jarrett, W. L. Staton, “Laboratory Studies of In Vivo Fluorescence of Phytoplankton,” in Proceedings, Fourth Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, New Orleans, Louisiana, 6–11 Nov. 1977 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1978), p. 782.
  18. C. S. Yentsch, C. M. Yentsch, J. Mar. Res. 37, 471 (1979).
  19. H. H. Kim, Appl. Opt. 16, 46 (1977).
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  20. J. G. Shannon, “Correlation of Beam and Diffuse Attenuation Coefficients Measured in Selected Ocean Waters” in Proceedings, SPIE Conference on Ocean Optics, 19–20 Aug. 1975 (SPIE, New York, 1975), Vol. 64, p. 3.
  21. G. S. Ofelt, “Relation Between Beam and Diffuse Attenuation Coefficients in the Lower Chesapeake Bay Area,” Institute of Oceanography, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Va., Technical Report 32 (Oct.1976).
  22. M. P. F. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, J. Baker, “Airborne Laser Fluorosensing of Surface Water Chlorophyll a,” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV, Project Report EPA-600/4-79-048 (Aug.1979).
  23. M. P. F. Bristow, W. R. Houston, R. M. Measures, “Development of a Laser Fluorosensor for Airborne Surveying of the Aquatic Environment,” in Proceedings of the Symposium on the Use of Lasers for Hydrographic Studies, NASA Wallops Island, Va., 12 Sept. 1973 (NASA Special Publication SP 375, Washington, D.C., 1975).
  24. M. P. F. Bristow, D. Nielsen, “Remote Monitoring of Organic Carbon in Surface Waters,” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, Nev., Project Report EPA-600/4-81-001 (Feb.1981).
  25. G. E. Walrafen, J. Chem. Phys. 47, 114 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. H. Chang, L. A. Young, “Seawater Temperature Measurement from Raman Spectra,” AVCO Research Note 960, AVCO Everett Research Laboratory Inc., Everett, Mass. (Jan.1974).
  27. P. L. Smart, B. L. Finlayson, W. D. Rylands, C. M. Ball, Water Res. 10, 805 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
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  29. R. C. Smith, J. E. Tyler in Photochemical and Photobiological Reviews (Plenum, New York, 1976), Vol. 1, p. 117.
    [CrossRef]
  30. M. P. F. Bristow, Appl. Opt. 18, 952 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. D. A. Kiefer, Mar. Biol. 23, 39 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  32. D. A. Kiefer, Mar. Biol. 23, 263 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  33. D. Blasco, “Variations of the Ratio in vivo—Fluorescence/a—Chlorophyll and its Applications to Oceanography. Effect of Limiting Different Nutrients, of Night and Day and Dependence on the Species Under Investigation,” NASA Technical Translation TTF—16,317, 1975 from original in Spanish, published in Investigacion Pesquera 37, 533 (1973).
  34. M. E. Loftus, H. H. Seliger, Chesapeake Sci. 16, 79 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  35. S. I. Heaney, Freshwater Biol. 8, 115 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  36. J. D. H. Strickland, T. R. Parsons, A Practical Handbook of Seawater Analysis (Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa1972), Part 4, Section 3.1, Spectrophotometric Determination of Chlorophylls and Total Carotenoids.
  37. R. Furtek, “Extraction and Analysis of Chlorophyll a and Associated Problems,” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, Project Summary (1981).
  38. M. F. Baudouin, P. Scoppa, Mar. Biol. 10, 66 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  39. E. O. Hulburt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 698 (1945).
    [CrossRef]
  40. R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, Photochem. Photobiol. 29, 311 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  41. D. M. Rayner, M. Lee, A. G. Szabo, Appl. Opt. 17, 2730 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. A. E. Strong, B. J. Eadie, Limnol. Oceanogr. 23, 877 (1978).
    [CrossRef]

1981 (1)

R. Furtek, “Extraction and Analysis of Chlorophyll a and Associated Problems,” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, Project Summary (1981).

1980 (2)

1979 (3)

M. P. F. Bristow, Appl. Opt. 18, 952 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, Photochem. Photobiol. 29, 311 (1979).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Yentsch, C. M. Yentsch, J. Mar. Res. 37, 471 (1979).

1978 (3)

D. M. Rayner, M. Lee, A. G. Szabo, Appl. Opt. 17, 2730 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Strong, B. J. Eadie, Limnol. Oceanogr. 23, 877 (1978).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Heaney, Freshwater Biol. 8, 115 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

1976 (2)

P. L. Smart, B. L. Finlayson, W. D. Rylands, C. M. Ball, Water Res. 10, 805 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Campillo, V. H. Kollman, S. L. Shapiro, Science 193, 227 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

M. E. Loftus, H. H. Seliger, Chesapeake Sci. 16, 79 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

D. A. Kiefer, R. W. Austin, Limnol. Oceanogr. 19, 55 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (3)

D. A. Kiefer, Mar. Biol. 23, 39 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Kiefer, Mar. Biol. 23, 263 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. Blasco, “Variations of the Ratio in vivo—Fluorescence/a—Chlorophyll and its Applications to Oceanography. Effect of Limiting Different Nutrients, of Night and Day and Dependence on the Species Under Investigation,” NASA Technical Translation TTF—16,317, 1975 from original in Spanish, published in Investigacion Pesquera 37, 533 (1973).

1971 (1)

M. F. Baudouin, P. Scoppa, Mar. Biol. 10, 66 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

R. E. Morrison, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 612 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

G. E. Walrafen, J. Chem. Phys. 47, 114 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1945 (1)

Austin, R. W.

D. A. Kiefer, R. W. Austin, Limnol. Oceanogr. 19, 55 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Baker, J.

M. P. F. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, J. Baker, “Airborne Laser Fluorosensing of Surface Water Chlorophyll a,” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV, Project Report EPA-600/4-79-048 (Aug.1979).

Baker, K. S.

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, Photochem. Photobiol. 29, 311 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ball, C. M.

P. L. Smart, B. L. Finlayson, W. D. Rylands, C. M. Ball, Water Res. 10, 805 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Baudouin, M. F.

M. F. Baudouin, P. Scoppa, Mar. Biol. 10, 66 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Blasco, D.

D. Blasco, “Variations of the Ratio in vivo—Fluorescence/a—Chlorophyll and its Applications to Oceanography. Effect of Limiting Different Nutrients, of Night and Day and Dependence on the Species Under Investigation,” NASA Technical Translation TTF—16,317, 1975 from original in Spanish, published in Investigacion Pesquera 37, 533 (1973).

Bristow, M.

M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, R. Furtek, “A Laser-Fluorosensor Technique for Water Quality Assessment,” in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment, 23–27 Apr. 1979 (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1979), p. 397.

Bristow, M. P. F.

M. P. F. Bristow, Appl. Opt. 18, 952 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. F. Bristow, D. Nielsen, “Remote Monitoring of Organic Carbon in Surface Waters,” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, Nev., Project Report EPA-600/4-81-001 (Feb.1981).

M. P. F. Bristow, W. R. Houston, R. M. Measures, “Development of a Laser Fluorosensor for Airborne Surveying of the Aquatic Environment,” in Proceedings of the Symposium on the Use of Lasers for Hydrographic Studies, NASA Wallops Island, Va., 12 Sept. 1973 (NASA Special Publication SP 375, Washington, D.C., 1975).

M. P. F. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, J. Baker, “Airborne Laser Fluorosensing of Surface Water Chlorophyll a,” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV, Project Report EPA-600/4-79-048 (Aug.1979).

R. M. Measures, M. P. F. Bristow, “The Development of a Laser Fluorosensor for Remote Environmental Probing,” AIAA Paper 71-1121, in Proceedings, Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, Palo Alto, California, 8–10 Nov. 1971 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York 10017, 1971).

Browell, E. V.

E. V. Browell, “Analysis of Laser Fluorosensor Systems for Remote Algae Detection and Quantification,” NASA Technical Note TN D-8447, NASA, Washington, D.C. (June1977).

Brown, C. A.

P. B. Mumola, O. Jarrett, C. A. Brown, “Multiwavelength Laser Induced Fluorescence of Algae in-vivo: A New Remote Sensing Technique,” in Proceedings, Second Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmenal Pollutants, Washington, D.C., 10–12 Dec. 1973, p. 53.

F. H. Farmer, C. A. Brown, O. Jarrett, J. W. Campbell, W. Staton, “Remote Sensing of Phytoplankton Density and Diversity in Narragansett Bay using an Airborne Fluorosensor,” in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment, 23–27 Apr. 1979 (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1979), p. 1793.

C. A. Brown, F. H. Farmer, O. Jarrett, W. L. Staton, “Laboratory Studies of In Vivo Fluorescence of Phytoplankton,” in Proceedings, Fourth Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, New Orleans, Louisiana, 6–11 Nov. 1977 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1978), p. 782.

Buja-Bijunas, L.

Bundy, D.

M. P. F. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, J. Baker, “Airborne Laser Fluorosensing of Surface Water Chlorophyll a,” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV, Project Report EPA-600/4-79-048 (Aug.1979).

Campbell, J. W.

F. H. Farmer, C. A. Brown, O. Jarrett, J. W. Campbell, W. Staton, “Remote Sensing of Phytoplankton Density and Diversity in Narragansett Bay using an Airborne Fluorosensor,” in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment, 23–27 Apr. 1979 (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1979), p. 1793.

Campillo, A. J.

A. J. Campillo, V. H. Kollman, S. L. Shapiro, Science 193, 227 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C. H.

C. H. Chang, L. A. Young, “Seawater Temperature Measurement from Raman Spectra,” AVCO Research Note 960, AVCO Everett Research Laboratory Inc., Everett, Mass. (Jan.1974).

Eadie, B. J.

A. E. Strong, B. J. Eadie, Limnol. Oceanogr. 23, 877 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Fantasia, J. F.

J. F. Fantasia, T. M. Hard, H.C. Ingrao, “An Investigation of Oil Fluorescence as a Technique for Remote Sensing of Oil Spills,” Final Report, DOT-TSC-USCG-71-7, NTIS PB204-792 (June1971).

J. F. Fantasia, H.C. Ingrao, “Development of an Experimental Airborne Laser Remote Sensing System for the Detection and Classification of Oil Spills,” in Proceedings, Ninth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment, 15–19 Apr. 1974 (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1974), p. 1711.

Farmer, F. H.

F. H. Farmer, C. A. Brown, O. Jarrett, J. W. Campbell, W. Staton, “Remote Sensing of Phytoplankton Density and Diversity in Narragansett Bay using an Airborne Fluorosensor,” in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment, 23–27 Apr. 1979 (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1979), p. 1793.

C. A. Brown, F. H. Farmer, O. Jarrett, W. L. Staton, “Laboratory Studies of In Vivo Fluorescence of Phytoplankton,” in Proceedings, Fourth Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, New Orleans, Louisiana, 6–11 Nov. 1977 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1978), p. 782.

Finlayson, B. L.

P. L. Smart, B. L. Finlayson, W. D. Rylands, C. M. Ball, Water Res. 10, 805 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, E. J.

E. J. Friedman, G. D. Hickman, “Laser Induced Fluorescence in Algae: A New Technique for Remote Detection,” Final Report, sponsored by NASA, Wallops Island under Contract NAS 6-02081, Sparcom, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia (Oct.1971).

Furtek, R.

R. Furtek, “Extraction and Analysis of Chlorophyll a and Associated Problems,” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, Project Summary (1981).

M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, R. Furtek, “A Laser-Fluorosensor Technique for Water Quality Assessment,” in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment, 23–27 Apr. 1979 (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1979), p. 397.

M. P. F. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, J. Baker, “Airborne Laser Fluorosensing of Surface Water Chlorophyll a,” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV, Project Report EPA-600/4-79-048 (Aug.1979).

Hard, T. M.

J. F. Fantasia, T. M. Hard, H.C. Ingrao, “An Investigation of Oil Fluorescence as a Technique for Remote Sensing of Oil Spills,” Final Report, DOT-TSC-USCG-71-7, NTIS PB204-792 (June1971).

Heaney, S. I.

S. I. Heaney, Freshwater Biol. 8, 115 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hickman, G. D.

E. J. Friedman, G. D. Hickman, “Laser Induced Fluorescence in Algae: A New Technique for Remote Detection,” Final Report, sponsored by NASA, Wallops Island under Contract NAS 6-02081, Sparcom, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia (Oct.1971).

Hoge, F. E.

Horvath, R.

R. Horvath, W. L. Morgan, S. R. Stewart, “Optical Remote Sensing of Oil Slicks: Signature Analysis and Systems Evaluation,” Final Report, Contract DOT-USCG 92580-A, Project 724104.2/1, Willow Run Laboratories, U. Michigan, Ann Arbor (Oct.1971).

Houston, W. R.

M. P. F. Bristow, W. R. Houston, R. M. Measures, “Development of a Laser Fluorosensor for Airborne Surveying of the Aquatic Environment,” in Proceedings of the Symposium on the Use of Lasers for Hydrographic Studies, NASA Wallops Island, Va., 12 Sept. 1973 (NASA Special Publication SP 375, Washington, D.C., 1975).

Hulburt, E. O.

Ingrao, H.C.

J. F. Fantasia, T. M. Hard, H.C. Ingrao, “An Investigation of Oil Fluorescence as a Technique for Remote Sensing of Oil Spills,” Final Report, DOT-TSC-USCG-71-7, NTIS PB204-792 (June1971).

J. F. Fantasia, H.C. Ingrao, “Development of an Experimental Airborne Laser Remote Sensing System for the Detection and Classification of Oil Spills,” in Proceedings, Ninth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment, 15–19 Apr. 1974 (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1974), p. 1711.

Jarrett, O.

P. B. Mumola, O. Jarrett, C. A. Brown, “Multiwavelength Laser Induced Fluorescence of Algae in-vivo: A New Remote Sensing Technique,” in Proceedings, Second Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmenal Pollutants, Washington, D.C., 10–12 Dec. 1973, p. 53.

F. H. Farmer, C. A. Brown, O. Jarrett, J. W. Campbell, W. Staton, “Remote Sensing of Phytoplankton Density and Diversity in Narragansett Bay using an Airborne Fluorosensor,” in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment, 23–27 Apr. 1979 (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1979), p. 1793.

C. A. Brown, F. H. Farmer, O. Jarrett, W. L. Staton, “Laboratory Studies of In Vivo Fluorescence of Phytoplankton,” in Proceedings, Fourth Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, New Orleans, Louisiana, 6–11 Nov. 1977 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1978), p. 782.

Jerlov, N. G.

N. G. Jerlov, Marine Optics (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1976), p. 47.

Kiefer, D. A.

D. A. Kiefer, R. W. Austin, Limnol. Oceanogr. 19, 55 (1974).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Kiefer, Mar. Biol. 23, 39 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Kiefer, Mar. Biol. 23, 263 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. H.

Kollman, V. H.

A. J. Campillo, V. H. Kollman, S. L. Shapiro, Science 193, 227 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, M.

Loftus, M. E.

M. E. Loftus, H. H. Seliger, Chesapeake Sci. 16, 79 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Measures, R. M.

M. P. F. Bristow, W. R. Houston, R. M. Measures, “Development of a Laser Fluorosensor for Airborne Surveying of the Aquatic Environment,” in Proceedings of the Symposium on the Use of Lasers for Hydrographic Studies, NASA Wallops Island, Va., 12 Sept. 1973 (NASA Special Publication SP 375, Washington, D.C., 1975).

R. M. Measures, M. P. F. Bristow, “The Development of a Laser Fluorosensor for Remote Environmental Probing,” AIAA Paper 71-1121, in Proceedings, Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, Palo Alto, California, 8–10 Nov. 1971 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York 10017, 1971).

Morgan, W. L.

R. Horvath, W. L. Morgan, S. R. Stewart, “Optical Remote Sensing of Oil Slicks: Signature Analysis and Systems Evaluation,” Final Report, Contract DOT-USCG 92580-A, Project 724104.2/1, Willow Run Laboratories, U. Michigan, Ann Arbor (Oct.1971).

Morrison, R. E.

R. E. Morrison, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 612 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Mumola, P. B.

P. B. Mumola, O. Jarrett, C. A. Brown, “Multiwavelength Laser Induced Fluorescence of Algae in-vivo: A New Remote Sensing Technique,” in Proceedings, Second Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmenal Pollutants, Washington, D.C., 10–12 Dec. 1973, p. 53.

Nielsen, D.

M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, R. Furtek, “A Laser-Fluorosensor Technique for Water Quality Assessment,” in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment, 23–27 Apr. 1979 (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1979), p. 397.

M. P. F. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, J. Baker, “Airborne Laser Fluorosensing of Surface Water Chlorophyll a,” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV, Project Report EPA-600/4-79-048 (Aug.1979).

M. P. F. Bristow, D. Nielsen, “Remote Monitoring of Organic Carbon in Surface Waters,” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, Nev., Project Report EPA-600/4-81-001 (Feb.1981).

O’Neil, R. A.

Ofelt, G. S.

G. S. Ofelt, “Relation Between Beam and Diffuse Attenuation Coefficients in the Lower Chesapeake Bay Area,” Institute of Oceanography, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Va., Technical Report 32 (Oct.1976).

Parsons, T. R.

J. D. H. Strickland, T. R. Parsons, A Practical Handbook of Seawater Analysis (Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa1972), Part 4, Section 3.1, Spectrophotometric Determination of Chlorophylls and Total Carotenoids.

Rayner, D. M.

Rylands, W. D.

P. L. Smart, B. L. Finlayson, W. D. Rylands, C. M. Ball, Water Res. 10, 805 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Scoppa, P.

M. F. Baudouin, P. Scoppa, Mar. Biol. 10, 66 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Seliger, H. H.

M. E. Loftus, H. H. Seliger, Chesapeake Sci. 16, 79 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Shannon, J. G.

J. G. Shannon, “Correlation of Beam and Diffuse Attenuation Coefficients Measured in Selected Ocean Waters” in Proceedings, SPIE Conference on Ocean Optics, 19–20 Aug. 1975 (SPIE, New York, 1975), Vol. 64, p. 3.

J. G. Shannon, “Light Attenuation Measurements with a Unique Transmissometer System,” IEEE International Conference on Engineering in the Ocean Environment, Halifax, 21–23 Aug. 1974, IEEE Publication 74CH0 873-0 OCC (1974).

Shapiro, S. L.

A. J. Campillo, V. H. Kollman, S. L. Shapiro, Science 193, 227 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smart, P. L.

P. L. Smart, B. L. Finlayson, W. D. Rylands, C. M. Ball, Water Res. 10, 805 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, Photochem. Photobiol. 29, 311 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, J. E. Tyler in Photochemical and Photobiological Reviews (Plenum, New York, 1976), Vol. 1, p. 117.
[CrossRef]

Staton, W.

F. H. Farmer, C. A. Brown, O. Jarrett, J. W. Campbell, W. Staton, “Remote Sensing of Phytoplankton Density and Diversity in Narragansett Bay using an Airborne Fluorosensor,” in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment, 23–27 Apr. 1979 (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1979), p. 1793.

Staton, W. L.

C. A. Brown, F. H. Farmer, O. Jarrett, W. L. Staton, “Laboratory Studies of In Vivo Fluorescence of Phytoplankton,” in Proceedings, Fourth Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, New Orleans, Louisiana, 6–11 Nov. 1977 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1978), p. 782.

Stewart, S. R.

R. Horvath, W. L. Morgan, S. R. Stewart, “Optical Remote Sensing of Oil Slicks: Signature Analysis and Systems Evaluation,” Final Report, Contract DOT-USCG 92580-A, Project 724104.2/1, Willow Run Laboratories, U. Michigan, Ann Arbor (Oct.1971).

Strickland, J. D. H.

J. D. H. Strickland, T. R. Parsons, A Practical Handbook of Seawater Analysis (Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa1972), Part 4, Section 3.1, Spectrophotometric Determination of Chlorophylls and Total Carotenoids.

Strong, A. E.

A. E. Strong, B. J. Eadie, Limnol. Oceanogr. 23, 877 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Swift, R. N.

Szabo, A. G.

Tyler, J. E.

R. C. Smith, J. E. Tyler in Photochemical and Photobiological Reviews (Plenum, New York, 1976), Vol. 1, p. 117.
[CrossRef]

Walrafen, G. E.

G. E. Walrafen, J. Chem. Phys. 47, 114 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Yentsch, C. M.

C. S. Yentsch, C. M. Yentsch, J. Mar. Res. 37, 471 (1979).

Yentsch, C. S.

C. S. Yentsch, C. M. Yentsch, J. Mar. Res. 37, 471 (1979).

Young, L. A.

C. H. Chang, L. A. Young, “Seawater Temperature Measurement from Raman Spectra,” AVCO Research Note 960, AVCO Everett Research Laboratory Inc., Everett, Mass. (Jan.1974).

Appl. Opt. (5)

Chesapeake Sci. (1)

M. E. Loftus, H. H. Seliger, Chesapeake Sci. 16, 79 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Freshwater Biol. (1)

S. I. Heaney, Freshwater Biol. 8, 115 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

G. E. Walrafen, J. Chem. Phys. 47, 114 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

R. E. Morrison, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 612 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Mar. Res. (1)

C. S. Yentsch, C. M. Yentsch, J. Mar. Res. 37, 471 (1979).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Limnol. Oceanogr. (2)

A. E. Strong, B. J. Eadie, Limnol. Oceanogr. 23, 877 (1978).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Kiefer, R. W. Austin, Limnol. Oceanogr. 19, 55 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Biol. (3)

M. F. Baudouin, P. Scoppa, Mar. Biol. 10, 66 (1971).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Kiefer, Mar. Biol. 23, 39 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Kiefer, Mar. Biol. 23, 263 (1973).
[CrossRef]

NASA Technical Translation TTF—16,317, 1975 from original in Spanish, published in Investigacion Pesquera (1)

D. Blasco, “Variations of the Ratio in vivo—Fluorescence/a—Chlorophyll and its Applications to Oceanography. Effect of Limiting Different Nutrients, of Night and Day and Dependence on the Species Under Investigation,” NASA Technical Translation TTF—16,317, 1975 from original in Spanish, published in Investigacion Pesquera 37, 533 (1973).

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, Photochem. Photobiol. 29, 311 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

A. J. Campillo, V. H. Kollman, S. L. Shapiro, Science 193, 227 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, Project Summary (1)

R. Furtek, “Extraction and Analysis of Chlorophyll a and Associated Problems,” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, Project Summary (1981).

Water Res. (1)

P. L. Smart, B. L. Finlayson, W. D. Rylands, C. M. Ball, Water Res. 10, 805 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other (21)

7-dimethylamino-4-methyl coumarin, Eastman Organic Chemicals, Rochester, N.Y.

R. C. Smith, J. E. Tyler in Photochemical and Photobiological Reviews (Plenum, New York, 1976), Vol. 1, p. 117.
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chang, L. A. Young, “Seawater Temperature Measurement from Raman Spectra,” AVCO Research Note 960, AVCO Everett Research Laboratory Inc., Everett, Mass. (Jan.1974).

J. G. Shannon, “Correlation of Beam and Diffuse Attenuation Coefficients Measured in Selected Ocean Waters” in Proceedings, SPIE Conference on Ocean Optics, 19–20 Aug. 1975 (SPIE, New York, 1975), Vol. 64, p. 3.

G. S. Ofelt, “Relation Between Beam and Diffuse Attenuation Coefficients in the Lower Chesapeake Bay Area,” Institute of Oceanography, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Va., Technical Report 32 (Oct.1976).

M. P. F. Bristow, D. Nielsen, D. Bundy, R. Furtek, J. Baker, “Airborne Laser Fluorosensing of Surface Water Chlorophyll a,” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV, Project Report EPA-600/4-79-048 (Aug.1979).

M. P. F. Bristow, W. R. Houston, R. M. Measures, “Development of a Laser Fluorosensor for Airborne Surveying of the Aquatic Environment,” in Proceedings of the Symposium on the Use of Lasers for Hydrographic Studies, NASA Wallops Island, Va., 12 Sept. 1973 (NASA Special Publication SP 375, Washington, D.C., 1975).

M. P. F. Bristow, D. Nielsen, “Remote Monitoring of Organic Carbon in Surface Waters,” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, Nev., Project Report EPA-600/4-81-001 (Feb.1981).

J. D. H. Strickland, T. R. Parsons, A Practical Handbook of Seawater Analysis (Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa1972), Part 4, Section 3.1, Spectrophotometric Determination of Chlorophylls and Total Carotenoids.

C. A. Brown, F. H. Farmer, O. Jarrett, W. L. Staton, “Laboratory Studies of In Vivo Fluorescence of Phytoplankton,” in Proceedings, Fourth Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, New Orleans, Louisiana, 6–11 Nov. 1977 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1978), p. 782.

J. F. Fantasia, H.C. Ingrao, “Development of an Experimental Airborne Laser Remote Sensing System for the Detection and Classification of Oil Spills,” in Proceedings, Ninth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment, 15–19 Apr. 1974 (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1974), p. 1711.

J. G. Shannon, “Light Attenuation Measurements with a Unique Transmissometer System,” IEEE International Conference on Engineering in the Ocean Environment, Halifax, 21–23 Aug. 1974, IEEE Publication 74CH0 873-0 OCC (1974).

N. G. Jerlov, Marine Optics (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1976), p. 47.

P. B. Mumola, O. Jarrett, C. A. Brown, “Multiwavelength Laser Induced Fluorescence of Algae in-vivo: A New Remote Sensing Technique,” in Proceedings, Second Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmenal Pollutants, Washington, D.C., 10–12 Dec. 1973, p. 53.

M. Bristow, D. Nielsen, R. Furtek, “A Laser-Fluorosensor Technique for Water Quality Assessment,” in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment, 23–27 Apr. 1979 (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1979), p. 397.

F. H. Farmer, C. A. Brown, O. Jarrett, J. W. Campbell, W. Staton, “Remote Sensing of Phytoplankton Density and Diversity in Narragansett Bay using an Airborne Fluorosensor,” in Proceedings, Thirteenth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment, 23–27 Apr. 1979 (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1979), p. 1793.

J. F. Fantasia, T. M. Hard, H.C. Ingrao, “An Investigation of Oil Fluorescence as a Technique for Remote Sensing of Oil Spills,” Final Report, DOT-TSC-USCG-71-7, NTIS PB204-792 (June1971).

R. Horvath, W. L. Morgan, S. R. Stewart, “Optical Remote Sensing of Oil Slicks: Signature Analysis and Systems Evaluation,” Final Report, Contract DOT-USCG 92580-A, Project 724104.2/1, Willow Run Laboratories, U. Michigan, Ann Arbor (Oct.1971).

R. M. Measures, M. P. F. Bristow, “The Development of a Laser Fluorosensor for Remote Environmental Probing,” AIAA Paper 71-1121, in Proceedings, Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, Palo Alto, California, 8–10 Nov. 1971 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York 10017, 1971).

E. J. Friedman, G. D. Hickman, “Laser Induced Fluorescence in Algae: A New Technique for Remote Detection,” Final Report, sponsored by NASA, Wallops Island under Contract NAS 6-02081, Sparcom, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia (Oct.1971).

E. V. Browell, “Analysis of Laser Fluorosensor Systems for Remote Algae Detection and Quantification,” NASA Technical Note TN D-8447, NASA, Washington, D.C. (June1977).

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of operation of airborne laser fluorosensor. Not to scale.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic showing spectral emission features typical of many fresh and marine waters produced by excitation at 470 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical diagram of airborne laser fluorosensor for monitoring chlorophyll a fluorescence and water Raman signals.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of airborne laser fluorosensor for measuring chlorophyll a fluorescence and water Raman signals, showing elements of detection, monitoring, and recording systems.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Oscillogram showing time sequence of airborne laser fluorosensor signals obtained over buoy 11 in the Las Vegas Bay region of Lake Mead, Nevada on 24 Jan. 1979 for a measured chlorophyll a concentration of 2.33 μg/l.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Plot of digital laser fluorosensor record, showing time sequence of airborne laser fluorosensor signals obtained over buoy 11′ in the Las Vegas Bay region of Lake Mead, Nevada on 7 June 1979 for a measured chlorophyll a concentration of 6.8 μg/l.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Nautical chart of Las Vegas Bay region of Lake Mead bordering Nevada and Arizona, showing location of marker buoys used for airborne navigation and as grab sample sites.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Airborne laser fluorosensor profiles of PF, PR, and PF/PR for flight of 7 June 1979 over Las Vegas Bay. Profiles smoothed using a moving 5-point average scheme. Also shown are the chlorophyll a values for the 28 ground truth samples, which have been normalized to the laser fluorosensor profile for PF/PR.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Dependence of PF and PF/PR on chlorophyll a concentration nf for the 28 sampling sites in Las Vegas Bay on 7 June 1979. Airborne data were taken from the smoothed laser fluorosensor profiles for PF and PF/PR.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Variation of in situ measurement of beam attenuation coefficient with chlorophyll a concentration nf for the 28 sampling sites in Las Vegas Bay on 7 June 1979. Correlation coefficient is based on 6 samples, one of which is the mean of the group of 23 samples near the origin.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Airborne laser fluorosensor profiles of PF/PR obtained 20 min apart over same region of Las Vegas Bay on 7 June 1979. Profiles smoothed using a moving 5-point average scheme.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Dependence of in situ chlorophyll a fluorescence measured with a field fluorometer using 440-nm excitation on chlorophyll a concentration nf for the 28 sampling sites in Las Vegas Bay on 7 June 1979. Correlation coefficient is based on 6 samples, one of which is the mean of the group of 23 samples near the origin.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Airborne laser fluorosensor profiles of PF, PR, and PF/PR for flight of 7 June 1979 over Las Vegas Bay before and after smoothing with a moving 5-point average scheme. Unsmoothed data are shown as discrete points and smoothed data as continuous lines.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Airborne laser fluorosensor profiles of PF, PR, and PF/PR for flight of 23 May 1979 over Las Vegas Bay. Profiles smoothed using a moving 5-point average scheme.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Airborne laser fluorosensor profile of water Raman emission signal PR for flight of 7 June 1979 overlayed with normalized values for the reciprocal of the beam attenuation coefficient α−1 obtained from in situ measurements at the 28 sampling sites in Las Vegas Bay at the time of the overflight.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Variation of P R - 1 with beam attenuation coefficient a for the 28 sampling sites in Las Vegas Bay on 7 June 1979. Airborne data taken from the smoothed laser fluorosensor profile for PR. Correlation coefficient is based on 6 samples, one of which is the mean of the group of 23 samples near the origin.

Equations (11)

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n f = ( P F H 2 P L ) ( 4 π Δ F T η tr η rec ) × { μ w 2 exp [ H ( β L + β F ) ] ( 1 - R w ) 2 } ( k L + k F σ f ) ,     mg / m 3 ,
n f = C 1 P F ,
P R = ( P L H 2 ) n w σ w d R ( k R + k L ) ,
d R = ( T η tr η rec 4 π Δ R ) { ( 1 - R w ) 2 μ w 2 exp [ H ( β L + β R ) ] } ,
P F = ( P L H 2 ) n f σ f d F ( k F + k L ) ,
d F = ( T η tr η rec 4 π Δ F ) { ( 1 - R w ) 2 μ w 2 exp [ H ( β L + β F ) ] }
( P F P R ) = n f σ f d F n w σ w d R ( k R + k L k F + k L ) .
( P F P R ) = n f δ ( k L + k R k L + k F ) ,
δ = ( d F σ f d R n w σ w )
n f = C 2 ( P F P R ) ,
k v = C 3 P R - 1

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