Abstract

The pressure sensitivity of the phase in optical fibers has been studied analytically by taking into account the exact composition and geometry of multilayer fibers. This analysis shows that there are combinations of glass and coating materials and corresponding thicknesses which make fibers pressure insensitive.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, Appl. Opt. 16, 1761 (1977).
  2. J. H. Cole, R. L. Johnson, R. G. Bhuta, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1136 (1977).
  3. H. Aulich, N. Douklias, H. Harms, A. Papp, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper WD3.
  4. A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, G. H. Sigel, E. J. West, T. G. Giallorenzi, Electron. Lett. 10, 408 (1980).
  5. G. Schiffner, W. Leeb, H. Krammer, J. Wittmann, Appl. Opt. 18, 2096 (1979).
  6. G. B. Hocker, Appl. Opt. 18, 1445 (1979).
  7. B. Budiansky, D. C. Drucker, G. S. Kino, J. R. Rice, Appl. Opt. 18, 4085 (1979).
  8. R. Hughes, J. Jarzynski, Appl. Opt. 19, 98 (1980).
  9. J.F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Oxford U.P., New York1976).
  10. S. P. Timoshenko, J. N. Goudier, Theory of Elasticity (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970), Chap. 4.
  11. J. A. Bucaro, T. R. Hickman, Appl. Opt. 18, 938 (1979).
  12. N. Lagakos, J. A. Bucaro, R. Hughes, Appl. Opt. 19, 3668 (1980).
  13. General Electric Co., Technical Data Book S-35A.
  14. D. B. Keck, P. C. Schultz, F. Zimar, U.S. Patent3,737,292.
  15. J. Schroeder, Treasury on Material Science and Technology (Academic, New York, 1977), Vol. 12, p. 157.
  16. W. Capp, D. H. Blackburn, Natl. Bur. Stand. Report 5188 (1957).
  17. S. English, W. E. S. Turner, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 10, 551 (1927).
  18. V. E. Schnaus, Fu Jen Stud. 9, 68 (1975).
  19. M. H. Manghnani, U. Hawaii, H. Institute of Geophysics, unpublished data (1969).
  20. J. Beales et al., Proc. IEEE 123, 591 (1976).
  21. B. Scott, H. Rawson, Glass Technol. 14, 115 (1973).
  22. P. B. Macedo et al., U.S. Patent3,938,974 (17Feb.1976).
  23. C. J. Simmons, H. Sutter, “Ion Exchange on Treated Porous Glass,” American Ceramic Society, Glass Division, Bedford, Pa. (8–10Oct.1980).
  24. B. E. Yoldas, J. Mater. Sci. 14, 1843 (1979).
  25. G. B. Hocker, >FOSS Workshop, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 12–14 Dec. 1979.
  26. D. A. Pinnow, G. D. Robertson, G. R. Blair, J. A. Wysocki, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper TUC5.
  27. Corning Glass Works, Properties of Coming's Glass and Glass Ceramic Families Handbook (Corning Glass Works, Corning, N.Y.).
  28. K. L. Loewenstein, Phys. Chem. Glasses 2, 69 (1961).
  29. 3M Product Data Sheet (1974);Du Pont Product Data Sheet;and Sumitomo Product Data Sheet.

1980 (3)

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, G. H. Sigel, E. J. West, T. G. Giallorenzi, Electron. Lett. 10, 408 (1980).

R. Hughes, J. Jarzynski, Appl. Opt. 19, 98 (1980).

N. Lagakos, J. A. Bucaro, R. Hughes, Appl. Opt. 19, 3668 (1980).

1979 (5)

1977 (2)

J. H. Cole, R. L. Johnson, R. G. Bhuta, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1136 (1977).

J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, Appl. Opt. 16, 1761 (1977).

1976 (1)

J. Beales et al., Proc. IEEE 123, 591 (1976).

1975 (1)

V. E. Schnaus, Fu Jen Stud. 9, 68 (1975).

1974 (1)

3M Product Data Sheet (1974);Du Pont Product Data Sheet;and Sumitomo Product Data Sheet.

1973 (1)

B. Scott, H. Rawson, Glass Technol. 14, 115 (1973).

1961 (1)

K. L. Loewenstein, Phys. Chem. Glasses 2, 69 (1961).

1927 (1)

S. English, W. E. S. Turner, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 10, 551 (1927).

Aulich, H.

H. Aulich, N. Douklias, H. Harms, A. Papp, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper WD3.

Beales, J.

J. Beales et al., Proc. IEEE 123, 591 (1976).

Bhuta, R. G.

J. H. Cole, R. L. Johnson, R. G. Bhuta, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1136 (1977).

Blackburn, D. H.

W. Capp, D. H. Blackburn, Natl. Bur. Stand. Report 5188 (1957).

Blair, G. R.

D. A. Pinnow, G. D. Robertson, G. R. Blair, J. A. Wysocki, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper TUC5.

Bucaro, J. A.

Budiansky, B.

Capp, W.

W. Capp, D. H. Blackburn, Natl. Bur. Stand. Report 5188 (1957).

Carome, E. F.

Cole, J. H.

J. H. Cole, R. L. Johnson, R. G. Bhuta, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1136 (1977).

Dandridge, A.

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, G. H. Sigel, E. J. West, T. G. Giallorenzi, Electron. Lett. 10, 408 (1980).

Dardy, H. D.

Douklias, N.

H. Aulich, N. Douklias, H. Harms, A. Papp, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper WD3.

Drucker, D. C.

English, S.

S. English, W. E. S. Turner, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 10, 551 (1927).

Giallorenzi, T. G.

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, G. H. Sigel, E. J. West, T. G. Giallorenzi, Electron. Lett. 10, 408 (1980).

Goudier, J. N.

S. P. Timoshenko, J. N. Goudier, Theory of Elasticity (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970), Chap. 4.

Harms, H.

H. Aulich, N. Douklias, H. Harms, A. Papp, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper WD3.

Hawaii, U.

M. H. Manghnani, U. Hawaii, H. Institute of Geophysics, unpublished data (1969).

Hickman, T. R.

Hocker, G. B.

G. B. Hocker, Appl. Opt. 18, 1445 (1979).

G. B. Hocker, >FOSS Workshop, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 12–14 Dec. 1979.

Hughes, R.

Jarzynski, J.

Johnson, R. L.

J. H. Cole, R. L. Johnson, R. G. Bhuta, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1136 (1977).

Keck, D. B.

D. B. Keck, P. C. Schultz, F. Zimar, U.S. Patent3,737,292.

Kino, G. S.

Krammer, H.

Lagakos, N.

Leeb, W.

Loewenstein, K. L.

K. L. Loewenstein, Phys. Chem. Glasses 2, 69 (1961).

Macedo, P. B.

P. B. Macedo et al., U.S. Patent3,938,974 (17Feb.1976).

Manghnani, M. H.

M. H. Manghnani, U. Hawaii, H. Institute of Geophysics, unpublished data (1969).

Nye, J.F.

J.F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Oxford U.P., New York1976).

Papp, A.

H. Aulich, N. Douklias, H. Harms, A. Papp, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper WD3.

Pinnow, D. A.

D. A. Pinnow, G. D. Robertson, G. R. Blair, J. A. Wysocki, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper TUC5.

Rawson, H.

B. Scott, H. Rawson, Glass Technol. 14, 115 (1973).

Rice, J. R.

Robertson, G. D.

D. A. Pinnow, G. D. Robertson, G. R. Blair, J. A. Wysocki, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper TUC5.

Schiffner, G.

Schnaus, V. E.

V. E. Schnaus, Fu Jen Stud. 9, 68 (1975).

Schroeder, J.

J. Schroeder, Treasury on Material Science and Technology (Academic, New York, 1977), Vol. 12, p. 157.

Schultz, P. C.

D. B. Keck, P. C. Schultz, F. Zimar, U.S. Patent3,737,292.

Scott, B.

B. Scott, H. Rawson, Glass Technol. 14, 115 (1973).

Sigel, G. H.

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, G. H. Sigel, E. J. West, T. G. Giallorenzi, Electron. Lett. 10, 408 (1980).

Simmons, C. J.

C. J. Simmons, H. Sutter, “Ion Exchange on Treated Porous Glass,” American Ceramic Society, Glass Division, Bedford, Pa. (8–10Oct.1980).

Sutter, H.

C. J. Simmons, H. Sutter, “Ion Exchange on Treated Porous Glass,” American Ceramic Society, Glass Division, Bedford, Pa. (8–10Oct.1980).

Timoshenko, S. P.

S. P. Timoshenko, J. N. Goudier, Theory of Elasticity (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970), Chap. 4.

Turner, W. E. S.

S. English, W. E. S. Turner, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 10, 551 (1927).

Tveten, A. B.

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, G. H. Sigel, E. J. West, T. G. Giallorenzi, Electron. Lett. 10, 408 (1980).

West, E. J.

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, G. H. Sigel, E. J. West, T. G. Giallorenzi, Electron. Lett. 10, 408 (1980).

Wittmann, J.

Wysocki, J. A.

D. A. Pinnow, G. D. Robertson, G. R. Blair, J. A. Wysocki, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper TUC5.

Yoldas, B. E.

B. E. Yoldas, J. Mater. Sci. 14, 1843 (1979).

Zimar, F.

D. B. Keck, P. C. Schultz, F. Zimar, U.S. Patent3,737,292.

3M Product Data Sheet (1)

3M Product Data Sheet (1974);Du Pont Product Data Sheet;and Sumitomo Product Data Sheet.

Appl. Opt. (7)

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, G. H. Sigel, E. J. West, T. G. Giallorenzi, Electron. Lett. 10, 408 (1980).

Fu Jen Stud. (1)

V. E. Schnaus, Fu Jen Stud. 9, 68 (1975).

Glass Technol. (1)

B. Scott, H. Rawson, Glass Technol. 14, 115 (1973).

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

J. H. Cole, R. L. Johnson, R. G. Bhuta, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1136 (1977).

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

S. English, W. E. S. Turner, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 10, 551 (1927).

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

B. E. Yoldas, J. Mater. Sci. 14, 1843 (1979).

Phys. Chem. Glasses (1)

K. L. Loewenstein, Phys. Chem. Glasses 2, 69 (1961).

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. Beales et al., Proc. IEEE 123, 591 (1976).

Other (13)

M. H. Manghnani, U. Hawaii, H. Institute of Geophysics, unpublished data (1969).

General Electric Co., Technical Data Book S-35A.

D. B. Keck, P. C. Schultz, F. Zimar, U.S. Patent3,737,292.

J. Schroeder, Treasury on Material Science and Technology (Academic, New York, 1977), Vol. 12, p. 157.

W. Capp, D. H. Blackburn, Natl. Bur. Stand. Report 5188 (1957).

G. B. Hocker, >FOSS Workshop, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 12–14 Dec. 1979.

D. A. Pinnow, G. D. Robertson, G. R. Blair, J. A. Wysocki, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper TUC5.

Corning Glass Works, Properties of Coming's Glass and Glass Ceramic Families Handbook (Corning Glass Works, Corning, N.Y.).

H. Aulich, N. Douklias, H. Harms, A. Papp, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper WD3.

P. B. Macedo et al., U.S. Patent3,938,974 (17Feb.1976).

C. J. Simmons, H. Sutter, “Ion Exchange on Treated Porous Glass,” American Ceramic Society, Glass Division, Bedford, Pa. (8–10Oct.1980).

J.F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Oxford U.P., New York1976).

S. P. Timoshenko, J. N. Goudier, Theory of Elasticity (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970), Chap. 4.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Phase modulated Mach-Zehnder fiber interferometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical single-mode ITT fiber: A, core; B, cladding; C, substrate; D, soft coating; E, hard coating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated pressure sensitivity Δϕ/ϕΔP of the ITT fiber as a function of Hytrel thickness. z l shows the phase change due to the length change; r P and z P show the refractive-index modulation term.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated pressure sensitivity Δϕ/ϕΔP and its contributions vs Hytrel thickness for the nonconventional fiber of Table II.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated pressure sensitivity Δϕ/ϕΔP and its contributions vs thickness of calcium aluminate surrounding the ITT single-mode fiber. Outer coating: silicone (400-μm o.d.).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated pressure sensitivity, Δϕ/ϕΔP and its contributions vs thickness of nickel surrounding the ITT single-mode fiber. Outer coating: Hytrel (100-μm o.d.).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Pressure Sensitivity of the ITT Fiber

Tables Icon

Table II Pressure Insensitive Fiber With a Nonconventional Composition

Equations (11)

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Δ ϕ ϕ = z n 2 2 [ ( P 11 + P 12 ) r + P 12 z ] .
[ σ r i σ θ i σ z i ] = [ ( λ i + 2 μ i ) λ i λ i λ i ( λ i + 2 μ i ) λ i λ i λ i ( λ i + 2 μ i ) ] [ r i θ i z i ] ,
λ i = ν i E i ( 1 + ν i ) ( 1 2 ν i ) , μ i = E i 2 ( 1 + ν i ) .
r i = U 0 i + U 1 i r 2 θ i = U 0 i U 1 i r 2 z i = W 0 i ,
σ r i | r = r i = σ r i + 1 | r = r i ( i = 0 , 1 , , m 1 ) ,
u r i | r = r i = u r i + 1 | r = r i ( i = 0 , 1 , , m 1 ) ,
σ r m r = r m = P ,
i = 0 m σ z i A i = P A m ,
z 0 = z 1 = = z m ,
Δ ϕ ϕ Δ P = 0.9 × 10 12 / ( dyn / cm 2 )
Δ ϕ ϕ Δ P = 0

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