Abstract

The two-step copolymerization of diethylene glycol bis(allyl carbonate) (CR-39) with methacrylic ester of fluorine containing alcohol (FMA), i.e., trifluoroethyl methacrylate (3FMA) and 1,1,3-trihydroperfluoropropyl methacrylate (4FMA), was carried out to prepare a light-focusing plastic rod. The relations between the preparation conditions and the optical characteristics of the resulting rods were considered in the following terms: (a) diffusibilities of CR-39 and FMA; (b) copolymerization of FMA with CR-39; (c) slower diffusion rate of 4FMA than that of 3FMA due to molecular size effect. Low chromatic aberration and the excellent imaging property of the CR-39-3FMA rod lens are also presented.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. Kitano, K. Koizume, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 63 (1970).
  2. T. Miyazawa, K. Okada, T. Kubo, I. Kitano, K. Nishizawa, K. Iga, Appl. Opt. 19, 1113 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Ohtsuka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 247 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Ohtsuka, A. Hirosawa, Kobunshi Ronbunshu 35, 535 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Ohtsuka, T. Senga, Kobunshi Ronbunshu 35, 721 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Ohtsuka, I. Nakamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 559 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Shimizu, Kobunshi Ronbunshu 35, 169 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Ohtsuka, M. Chino, Kobunshi Ronbunshu 35, 735 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, H. Yamazaki, Appl. Opt. 20, 280 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. Iga, N. Yamamoto, Appl. Opt. 16, 1305 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. N. Yamamoto, K. Iga, Appl. Opt. 19, 1101 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Ohtsuka, T. Senga, H. Yasuda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 659 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Terao, J. Appl. Polym. Sci.26, in press (1981).
  14. H. Kita, I. Kitano, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 54, 321 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, Sen-i Gakkaishi (J. Soc. Fiber Sci. Tech. Jpn.) 37, No. 9 (1981), in English.
  16. F. P. Kapron, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1433 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Measured with an Abbe refractometer (model 3, Atago Co., Ltd.)

1981 (2)

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, Sen-i Gakkaishi (J. Soc. Fiber Sci. Tech. Jpn.) 37, No. 9 (1981), in English.

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, H. Yamazaki, Appl. Opt. 20, 280 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (2)

1978 (4)

Y. Ohtsuka, A. Hirosawa, Kobunshi Ronbunshu 35, 535 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Senga, Kobunshi Ronbunshu 35, 721 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Shimizu, Kobunshi Ronbunshu 35, 169 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, M. Chino, Kobunshi Ronbunshu 35, 735 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

1976 (1)

Y. Ohtsuka, I. Nakamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 559 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Senga, H. Yasuda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 659 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

Y. Ohtsuka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 247 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

H. Kita, I. Kitano, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 54, 321 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (2)

I. Kitano, K. Koizume, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 63 (1970).

F. P. Kapron, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1433 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Chino, M.

Y. Ohtsuka, M. Chino, Kobunshi Ronbunshu 35, 735 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, M.

H. Kita, I. Kitano, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 54, 321 (1971).
[CrossRef]

I. Kitano, K. Koizume, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 63 (1970).

Hirosawa, A.

Y. Ohtsuka, A. Hirosawa, Kobunshi Ronbunshu 35, 535 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Iga, K.

Kapron, F. P.

Kita, H.

H. Kita, I. Kitano, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 54, 321 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Kitano, I.

T. Miyazawa, K. Okada, T. Kubo, I. Kitano, K. Nishizawa, K. Iga, Appl. Opt. 19, 1113 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kita, I. Kitano, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 54, 321 (1971).
[CrossRef]

I. Kitano, K. Koizume, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 63 (1970).

Koike, Y.

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, H. Yamazaki, Appl. Opt. 20, 280 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, Sen-i Gakkaishi (J. Soc. Fiber Sci. Tech. Jpn.) 37, No. 9 (1981), in English.

Koizume, K.

I. Kitano, K. Koizume, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 63 (1970).

Kubo, T.

Matsumura, H.

I. Kitano, K. Koizume, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 63 (1970).

Miyazawa, T.

Nakamoto, I.

Y. Ohtsuka, I. Nakamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 559 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Nishizawa, K.

Ohtsuka, Y.

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, Sen-i Gakkaishi (J. Soc. Fiber Sci. Tech. Jpn.) 37, No. 9 (1981), in English.

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, H. Yamazaki, Appl. Opt. 20, 280 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Senga, Kobunshi Ronbunshu 35, 721 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Shimizu, Kobunshi Ronbunshu 35, 169 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, A. Hirosawa, Kobunshi Ronbunshu 35, 535 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, M. Chino, Kobunshi Ronbunshu 35, 735 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, I. Nakamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 559 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Senga, H. Yasuda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 659 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 247 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Terao, J. Appl. Polym. Sci.26, in press (1981).

Okada, K.

Senga, T.

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Senga, Kobunshi Ronbunshu 35, 721 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Senga, H. Yasuda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 659 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, Y.

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Shimizu, Kobunshi Ronbunshu 35, 169 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Terao, Y.

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Terao, J. Appl. Polym. Sci.26, in press (1981).

Uchida, T.

H. Kita, I. Kitano, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 54, 321 (1971).
[CrossRef]

I. Kitano, K. Koizume, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 63 (1970).

Yamamoto, N.

Yamazaki, H.

Yasuda, H.

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Senga, H. Yasuda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 659 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Y. Ohtsuka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 247 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, I. Nakamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 559 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Senga, H. Yasuda, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 659 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

H. Kita, I. Kitano, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 54, 321 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

I. Kitano, K. Koizume, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, 63 (1970).

Kobunshi Ronbunshu (4)

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Shimizu, Kobunshi Ronbunshu 35, 169 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, M. Chino, Kobunshi Ronbunshu 35, 735 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, A. Hirosawa, Kobunshi Ronbunshu 35, 535 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Senga, Kobunshi Ronbunshu 35, 721 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sen-i Gakkaishi (J. Soc. Fiber Sci. Tech. Jpn.) (1)

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, Sen-i Gakkaishi (J. Soc. Fiber Sci. Tech. Jpn.) 37, No. 9 (1981), in English.

Other (2)

Measured with an Abbe refractometer (model 3, Atago Co., Ltd.)

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Terao, J. Appl. Polym. Sci.26, in press (1981).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of the two-step copolymerization process of CR-39–FMA system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic representation of radial distribution of M1 monomer unit in LFR: dashed curves, at the end of the immersion process; solid curves, after heat treatment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical properties of the CR-39–3FMA LFRs prepared at T2 = 60.0°C. Symbol in parentheses on each curve indicates the quality of the ordinate axis.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical properties of the CR-39–3FMA LFRs prepared at I1 = 0.99 wt.%. Symbol in parentheses on each curve indicates the quality of the ordinate axis, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical properties of the CR-39–4FMA LFRs prepared in the various conditions. Symbol in parentheses on each curve indicates the quality of the ordinate axis, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Image of the grid with a line interval of 0.1 mm formed on a photographic plane through the CR-39–3FMA LFR of 2.31-mm diam and a 20.3-mm length. Grid was placed a distance of ∼1 mm from the end face of the LFR.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Prepolymer Gel Rods of CR-39 Used

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n ( r ) = n ( 0 ) ( 1 ½ A r 2 ) = n ( 0 ) [ 1 ½ A ( r / R p ) 2 ] ,
γ = cos ( A Z ) n ( 0 ) A l 1 sin ( A Z ) ,
L = 2 π / A .
Φ = ( N D ) 2 [ ( N F N C N D ) 2 ( N F N c N D ) 1 ] × { 2 [ ( N D ) 1 ( N D ) 2 ] } 1 ,

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