Abstract

A new, highly precise, optical fiber outer diameter measuring technique based on near-field resonant backscattered light is described. Relative accuracies of ±10−2μm were achieved in diameter measurements using Fabry-Perot resonances and ±10−3μm in average diameter measurements using dielectric surface-wave resonances for ∼100-μm fibers. The shape of a new type of low birefringence spun fiber, made by rapidly spinning a near circular preform in the pulling oven, was measured. We observed a small ellipticity which rotated helically along the fiber. The possibility of making absolute and real-time outer diameter measurements is discussed.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. S. Watkins, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 767 (1974);D. H. Smithgall, L. S. Watkins, R. E. Frazee, Appl. Opt. 16, 2395 (1977);L. S. Watkins, Appl. Opt. 18, 4089 (1979);D. H. Smithgall, C. M. Schroeder, Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements, 28–29 Oct. 1980, Boulder, Colo.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Chýlek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, Phys. Rev. A: 18, 2229 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Ashkin, Science 210, 1081 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Chýlek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, A. Ashkin, in Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D. W. Scheuerman, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), p. 153.
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Opt. 20, 1803 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. I. P. Kaminow, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 15 (1980).
  8. A. W. Snyder, W. R. Young, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 297 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. H. Stolen, V. Ramaswamy, P. Kaiser, W. Pleibel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 699 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. R. Norman, D. N. Payne, M. J. Adams, A. M. Smith, in Technical Digest, Fifth ECOC, Amsterdam, 1979, paper 10.1,H. Schneider, H. Harms, A. Papp, H. A. Aulich, Appl. Opt. 17, 3035 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. J. Barlow, J. J. Ramskov-Hansen, D. N. Payne, Appl. Opt., to be published, 1981.
  12. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).
  13. R. Ulrich, S. C. Rashleigh, W. Eickhoff, Opt. Lett. 5, 273 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. V. Ramaswamy, R. H. Stolen, M. D. Divino, W. Pleibel, Appl.Opt. 18, 4080 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969), p. 255.

1981 (1)

1980 (3)

I. P. Kaminow, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 15 (1980).

A. Ashkin, Science 210, 1081 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ulrich, S. C. Rashleigh, W. Eickhoff, Opt. Lett. 5, 273 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

V. Ramaswamy, R. H. Stolen, M. D. Divino, W. Pleibel, Appl.Opt. 18, 4080 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (3)

P. Chýlek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, Phys. Rev. A: 18, 2229 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Snyder, W. R. Young, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 297 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stolen, V. Ramaswamy, P. Kaiser, W. Pleibel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 699 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

Adams, M. J.

S. R. Norman, D. N. Payne, M. J. Adams, A. M. Smith, in Technical Digest, Fifth ECOC, Amsterdam, 1979, paper 10.1,H. Schneider, H. Harms, A. Papp, H. A. Aulich, Appl. Opt. 17, 3035 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Opt. 20, 1803 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, Science 210, 1081 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977).
[CrossRef]

P. Chýlek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, A. Ashkin, in Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D. W. Scheuerman, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), p. 153.
[CrossRef]

Barlow, A. J.

A. J. Barlow, J. J. Ramskov-Hansen, D. N. Payne, Appl. Opt., to be published, 1981.

Chýlek, P.

P. Chýlek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, Phys. Rev. A: 18, 2229 (1978).
[CrossRef]

P. Chýlek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, A. Ashkin, in Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D. W. Scheuerman, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), p. 153.
[CrossRef]

Divino, M. D.

V. Ramaswamy, R. H. Stolen, M. D. Divino, W. Pleibel, Appl.Opt. 18, 4080 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Dziedzic, J. M.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Opt. 20, 1803 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Eickhoff, W.

Kaiser, P.

R. H. Stolen, V. Ramaswamy, P. Kaiser, W. Pleibel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 699 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kaminow, I. P.

I. P. Kaminow, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 15 (1980).

Kerker, M.

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969), p. 255.

Kiehl, J. T.

P. Chýlek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, Phys. Rev. A: 18, 2229 (1978).
[CrossRef]

P. Chýlek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, A. Ashkin, in Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D. W. Scheuerman, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), p. 153.
[CrossRef]

Ko, M. K. W.

P. Chýlek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, Phys. Rev. A: 18, 2229 (1978).
[CrossRef]

P. Chýlek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, A. Ashkin, in Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D. W. Scheuerman, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), p. 153.
[CrossRef]

Norman, S. R.

S. R. Norman, D. N. Payne, M. J. Adams, A. M. Smith, in Technical Digest, Fifth ECOC, Amsterdam, 1979, paper 10.1,H. Schneider, H. Harms, A. Papp, H. A. Aulich, Appl. Opt. 17, 3035 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Payne, D. N.

S. R. Norman, D. N. Payne, M. J. Adams, A. M. Smith, in Technical Digest, Fifth ECOC, Amsterdam, 1979, paper 10.1,H. Schneider, H. Harms, A. Papp, H. A. Aulich, Appl. Opt. 17, 3035 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Barlow, J. J. Ramskov-Hansen, D. N. Payne, Appl. Opt., to be published, 1981.

Pleibel, W.

V. Ramaswamy, R. H. Stolen, M. D. Divino, W. Pleibel, Appl.Opt. 18, 4080 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stolen, V. Ramaswamy, P. Kaiser, W. Pleibel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 699 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ramaswamy, V.

V. Ramaswamy, R. H. Stolen, M. D. Divino, W. Pleibel, Appl.Opt. 18, 4080 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stolen, V. Ramaswamy, P. Kaiser, W. Pleibel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 699 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ramskov-Hansen, J. J.

A. J. Barlow, J. J. Ramskov-Hansen, D. N. Payne, Appl. Opt., to be published, 1981.

Rashleigh, S. C.

Smith, A. M.

S. R. Norman, D. N. Payne, M. J. Adams, A. M. Smith, in Technical Digest, Fifth ECOC, Amsterdam, 1979, paper 10.1,H. Schneider, H. Harms, A. Papp, H. A. Aulich, Appl. Opt. 17, 3035 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snyder, A. W.

Stolen, R. H.

V. Ramaswamy, R. H. Stolen, M. D. Divino, W. Pleibel, Appl.Opt. 18, 4080 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stolen, V. Ramaswamy, P. Kaiser, W. Pleibel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 699 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

Watkins, L. S.

Young, W. R.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. H. Stolen, V. Ramaswamy, P. Kaiser, W. Pleibel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 699 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Appl.Opt. (1)

V. Ramaswamy, R. H. Stolen, M. D. Divino, W. Pleibel, Appl.Opt. 18, 4080 (1979).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

I. P. Kaminow, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 15 (1980).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A: (1)

P. Chýlek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, Phys. Rev. A: 18, 2229 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

A. Ashkin, Science 210, 1081 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

P. Chýlek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, A. Ashkin, in Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D. W. Scheuerman, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), p. 153.
[CrossRef]

S. R. Norman, D. N. Payne, M. J. Adams, A. M. Smith, in Technical Digest, Fifth ECOC, Amsterdam, 1979, paper 10.1,H. Schneider, H. Harms, A. Papp, H. A. Aulich, Appl. Opt. 17, 3035 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Barlow, J. J. Ramskov-Hansen, D. N. Payne, Appl. Opt., to be published, 1981.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969), p. 255.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of apparatus for measuring resonant backscattered light.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Near-field photographs of backscatter from a 100-μm spun fiber: (A) taken at a minimum of F.P. resonance; (B) taken at a maximum of F.P. resonance.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(A) Sketch of near-field backscattered light image showing location of surface wave and F.P. sampling slits P and Q; (B) cross-sectional sketch of fiber showing origin of backscattered surface-wave resonant light S and F.P. resonant light R.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical spectra of near-field backscattered light: (A) Surface wave spectrum; (B) F.P. spectrum.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of experimental variation of fiber diameter D with angle θ (solid curve) with angular variation for an ellipse (dotted curve) at axial position Z = 0.6″.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(A) Variation of fiber diameter D with length Z at a fixed azimuth angle θ = 90° as measured by shifts in F.P. resonances. (B) Variation in average diameter Dav with length Z as measured by shifts in surface-wave resonances.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Variation of fiber diameter D with azimuth angle θ at several positions Z along the fiber length.

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