Abstract

The design and operational features of a fluid-ballasted electrode structure for a high powered EDL CO2 laser are described. This new device incorporates a crossed-tube geometry and as such is much simpler and inexpensive to fabricate than previous multielement or pin electrodes. Hot boundary layer formation at the electrode surfaces is minimized by a ducted flow-through feature also incorporated into the structure. This further assists in suppression of glow-to-arc transitions. The modular design used allows easy scaling to very large discharge volumes. A 40-liter cw CO2 laser discharge system has recently been developed using this simplified crossed-tube fluid-ballasted electrode pair concept.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. L. Nighan, W. J. Wiegand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 633 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. A. Hass, Phys. Rev. A: 8, 1017 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. H. Jacob, S. A. Mani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. O. Brown, J. W. Davis, “Crossed-cycle performance of a high power electric-discharge laser.”
  5. N. P. Reilly, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 3411 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. W. Wutzke, L. H. Taylor, J. L. Pack, T. V. George, L. A. Weaver, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 730, (1978).
  7. H. J. J. Seguin, K. H. Nam, J. Tulip, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4566 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. H. Nam, H. J. J. Seguin, J. Tulip, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 44 (1979).
  9. K. H. Nam, “A Kilowatt P.I.E. CO2 Laser,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. Alberta, (1978), Chap. 3, p. 150.
  10. H. J. J. Seguin, K. H. Nam, J. Tulip, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 418 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. E. Merchant, H. J. J. Seguin, J. Dow, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 50, 1151 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. E. Hill, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 194 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. O. Brown, J. W. Davis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 480 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. A. Generalov et al., Fiz. Plazmy 3, 626 (1977).
  15. V. E. Merchant, H. J. J. Seguin, J. Dow, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49, 1631 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979

K. H. Nam, H. J. J. Seguin, J. Tulip, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 44 (1979).

V. E. Merchant, H. J. J. Seguin, J. Dow, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 50, 1151 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978

V. E. Merchant, H. J. J. Seguin, J. Dow, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49, 1631 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. J. Seguin, K. H. Nam, J. Tulip, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 418 (1978).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Wutzke, L. H. Taylor, J. L. Pack, T. V. George, L. A. Weaver, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 730, (1978).

H. J. J. Seguin, K. H. Nam, J. Tulip, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4566 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

N. A. Generalov et al., Fiz. Plazmy 3, 626 (1977).

1975

J. H. Jacob, S. A. Mani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974

W. L. Nighan, W. J. Wiegand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 633 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973

R. A. Hass, Phys. Rev. A: 8, 1017 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972

N. P. Reilly, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 3411 (1972).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Brown, J. W. Davis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 480 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971

A. E. Hill, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 194 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. O.

C. O. Brown, J. W. Davis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 480 (1972).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Brown, J. W. Davis, “Crossed-cycle performance of a high power electric-discharge laser.”

Davis, J. W.

C. O. Brown, J. W. Davis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 480 (1972).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Brown, J. W. Davis, “Crossed-cycle performance of a high power electric-discharge laser.”

Dow, J.

V. E. Merchant, H. J. J. Seguin, J. Dow, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 50, 1151 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Merchant, H. J. J. Seguin, J. Dow, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49, 1631 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Generalov, N. A.

N. A. Generalov et al., Fiz. Plazmy 3, 626 (1977).

George, T. V.

S. W. Wutzke, L. H. Taylor, J. L. Pack, T. V. George, L. A. Weaver, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 730, (1978).

Hass, R. A.

R. A. Hass, Phys. Rev. A: 8, 1017 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hill, A. E.

A. E. Hill, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 194 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Jacob, J. H.

J. H. Jacob, S. A. Mani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, (1975).
[CrossRef]

Mani, S. A.

J. H. Jacob, S. A. Mani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, (1975).
[CrossRef]

Merchant, V. E.

V. E. Merchant, H. J. J. Seguin, J. Dow, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 50, 1151 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Merchant, H. J. J. Seguin, J. Dow, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49, 1631 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nam, K. H.

K. H. Nam, H. J. J. Seguin, J. Tulip, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 44 (1979).

H. J. J. Seguin, K. H. Nam, J. Tulip, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4566 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. J. J. Seguin, K. H. Nam, J. Tulip, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 418 (1978).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Nam, “A Kilowatt P.I.E. CO2 Laser,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. Alberta, (1978), Chap. 3, p. 150.

Nighan, W. L.

W. L. Nighan, W. J. Wiegand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 633 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Pack, J. L.

S. W. Wutzke, L. H. Taylor, J. L. Pack, T. V. George, L. A. Weaver, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 730, (1978).

Reilly, N. P.

N. P. Reilly, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 3411 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Seguin, H. J. J.

K. H. Nam, H. J. J. Seguin, J. Tulip, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 44 (1979).

V. E. Merchant, H. J. J. Seguin, J. Dow, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 50, 1151 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. J. Seguin, K. H. Nam, J. Tulip, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 418 (1978).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Merchant, H. J. J. Seguin, J. Dow, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49, 1631 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. J. Seguin, K. H. Nam, J. Tulip, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4566 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, L. H.

S. W. Wutzke, L. H. Taylor, J. L. Pack, T. V. George, L. A. Weaver, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 730, (1978).

Tulip, J.

K. H. Nam, H. J. J. Seguin, J. Tulip, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 44 (1979).

H. J. J. Seguin, K. H. Nam, J. Tulip, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4566 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. J. J. Seguin, K. H. Nam, J. Tulip, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 418 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Weaver, L. A.

S. W. Wutzke, L. H. Taylor, J. L. Pack, T. V. George, L. A. Weaver, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 730, (1978).

Wiegand, W. J.

W. L. Nighan, W. J. Wiegand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 633 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Wutzke, S. W.

S. W. Wutzke, L. H. Taylor, J. L. Pack, T. V. George, L. A. Weaver, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 730, (1978).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. L. Nighan, W. J. Wiegand, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 633 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Jacob, S. A. Mani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, (1975).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Hill, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 194 (1971).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Brown, J. W. Davis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 480 (1972).
[CrossRef]

H. J. J. Seguin, K. H. Nam, J. Tulip, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 418 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Fiz. Plazmy

N. A. Generalov et al., Fiz. Plazmy 3, 626 (1977).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

S. W. Wutzke, L. H. Taylor, J. L. Pack, T. V. George, L. A. Weaver, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 730, (1978).

K. H. Nam, H. J. J. Seguin, J. Tulip, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 44 (1979).

J. Appl. Phys.

H. J. J. Seguin, K. H. Nam, J. Tulip, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4566 (1978).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Reilly, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 3411 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A:

R. A. Hass, Phys. Rev. A: 8, 1017 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

V. E. Merchant, H. J. J. Seguin, J. Dow, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 50, 1151 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Merchant, H. J. J. Seguin, J. Dow, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49, 1631 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

C. O. Brown, J. W. Davis, “Crossed-cycle performance of a high power electric-discharge laser.”

K. H. Nam, “A Kilowatt P.I.E. CO2 Laser,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. Alberta, (1978), Chap. 3, p. 150.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sectional diagram of multielement fluid-ballasted cathode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of crossed-tube fluid-ballasted electrode pair.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical V–I characteristics of fluid-ballasted crossed-tube electrode module.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Total ballasting electrode resistance vs total electrode current.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sectional isometric view of fluid-ballasting geometry.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Electrical schematic diagram of test circuit for PIE mode of operation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Discharge obtained with crossed-tube module.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Typical V–I characteristics of a crossed-tube fluid-ballasted CO2 discharge.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

V–I characteristics of laser plasma vs pulser repetition rate.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Discharge power loading vs gas flow velocity for modular electrode system.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Comparative specific discharge power loading performance of a multipin and crossed-tube electrode system.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Power loading performance of a large volume twelve-module cross-tube electrode system.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Discharge utilizing the twelve-module electrode pairs of Fig. 3.

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