Abstract

The cloud impulse response (spatial and temporal) to optical pulse propagation has been measured. Experimental data are reported for the radiance function, pulse stretching, and (the first published) delay time. The results have been confirmed by Monte Carlo modeling. A geometric scattering model is presented explaining the temporal results for the test conditions.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. “Integrated Operational Nudet Detection System (IONDS) Concept Definition Study (U),” Vol. IIIA, Appendix B, WDL TR 7212 (Aeronutronic Ford Corp., Palo Alto, Calif., 30Aug.1976).
  2. Experimental Determination of the Effects of Clouds on a Geodetic Technique, HSS-P058 (HSS, Inc., Bedford, Mass., 1976).
  3. H. Stewart, L. Woolaver, The Use of All-Sky Photographs to Deduce Pulsed Light Transfer Functions Between Ground Level and Space, HSS-B-040 (HSS, Inc., Bedford, Mass., 1978).
  4. E. A. Bucher, R. M. Lerner, Appl. Opt. 12, 2401 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. H. Paik, M. Tebyani, D. J. Epstein, R. S. Kennedy, J. H. Shapiro, Appl. Opt. 17, 899 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. C. Mooradian, M. Geller, L. B. Stotts, D. H. Stephens, R. A. Krautwald, Appl. Opt. 18, 429 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. A. Bucher, Appl. Opt. 12, 2391 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. B. Stotts, Appl. Opt. 17, 504 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. G. Bradley, J. C. Matter, “Time Delay, Pulse Stretching, and Radiance Distribution for 532-nm Laser Pulses Propagating in Atmospheric Clouds with Application to Satellite Optical Ranging,” SAND79-1180 (Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 1980).
  10. Tellus 9, 471 (1957).
  11. Tellus 19, 347 (1967).
  12. T. Takahashi, J. Geophys. Res. 77 (21), 3869 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Takahashi, T. Craig, J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 51 (3), 191 (1973).
  14. RCA Electro-Optics Handbook, EOH-11 (RCA, Harrison, N.J., 1974).
  15. E. J. McCartney, Optics of the Atmosphere (Wiley, New York, 1976).
  16. D. G. Collins, “Time Delay and Pulse Stretching Calculations for Laser Radiation Propagation in Clouds,” RRA-T7905, Radiation Research Associates, Ft. Worth, Tx. (1979).

1979 (1)

1978 (2)

1973 (3)

1972 (1)

T. Takahashi, J. Geophys. Res. 77 (21), 3869 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

Tellus 19, 347 (1967).

1957 (1)

Tellus 9, 471 (1957).

Bradley, R. G.

R. G. Bradley, J. C. Matter, “Time Delay, Pulse Stretching, and Radiance Distribution for 532-nm Laser Pulses Propagating in Atmospheric Clouds with Application to Satellite Optical Ranging,” SAND79-1180 (Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 1980).

Bucher, E. A.

Collins, D. G.

D. G. Collins, “Time Delay and Pulse Stretching Calculations for Laser Radiation Propagation in Clouds,” RRA-T7905, Radiation Research Associates, Ft. Worth, Tx. (1979).

Craig, T.

T. Takahashi, T. Craig, J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 51 (3), 191 (1973).

Epstein, D. J.

Geller, M.

Kennedy, R. S.

Krautwald, R. A.

Lerner, R. M.

Matter, J. C.

R. G. Bradley, J. C. Matter, “Time Delay, Pulse Stretching, and Radiance Distribution for 532-nm Laser Pulses Propagating in Atmospheric Clouds with Application to Satellite Optical Ranging,” SAND79-1180 (Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 1980).

McCartney, E. J.

E. J. McCartney, Optics of the Atmosphere (Wiley, New York, 1976).

Mooradian, G. C.

Paik, W. H.

Shapiro, J. H.

Stephens, D. H.

Stewart, H.

H. Stewart, L. Woolaver, The Use of All-Sky Photographs to Deduce Pulsed Light Transfer Functions Between Ground Level and Space, HSS-B-040 (HSS, Inc., Bedford, Mass., 1978).

Stotts, L. B.

Takahashi, T.

T. Takahashi, T. Craig, J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 51 (3), 191 (1973).

T. Takahashi, J. Geophys. Res. 77 (21), 3869 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Tebyani, M.

Woolaver, L.

H. Stewart, L. Woolaver, The Use of All-Sky Photographs to Deduce Pulsed Light Transfer Functions Between Ground Level and Space, HSS-B-040 (HSS, Inc., Bedford, Mass., 1978).

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

T. Takahashi, J. Geophys. Res. 77 (21), 3869 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. (1)

T. Takahashi, T. Craig, J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 51 (3), 191 (1973).

Tellus (2)

Tellus 9, 471 (1957).

Tellus 19, 347 (1967).

Other (7)

R. G. Bradley, J. C. Matter, “Time Delay, Pulse Stretching, and Radiance Distribution for 532-nm Laser Pulses Propagating in Atmospheric Clouds with Application to Satellite Optical Ranging,” SAND79-1180 (Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, N. Mex., 1980).

RCA Electro-Optics Handbook, EOH-11 (RCA, Harrison, N.J., 1974).

E. J. McCartney, Optics of the Atmosphere (Wiley, New York, 1976).

D. G. Collins, “Time Delay and Pulse Stretching Calculations for Laser Radiation Propagation in Clouds,” RRA-T7905, Radiation Research Associates, Ft. Worth, Tx. (1979).

“Integrated Operational Nudet Detection System (IONDS) Concept Definition Study (U),” Vol. IIIA, Appendix B, WDL TR 7212 (Aeronutronic Ford Corp., Palo Alto, Calif., 30Aug.1976).

Experimental Determination of the Effects of Clouds on a Geodetic Technique, HSS-P058 (HSS, Inc., Bedford, Mass., 1976).

H. Stewart, L. Woolaver, The Use of All-Sky Photographs to Deduce Pulsed Light Transfer Functions Between Ground Level and Space, HSS-B-040 (HSS, Inc., Bedford, Mass., 1978).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Test site topographic map.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Test site terrain profiles.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Laser transmitter system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical receiver systems.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Digital data acquisition/reduction systems.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Delay time (clock pair offset).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Pulse stretching. Transmitted pulse, single mode.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Pulse stretching. Received pulse, clear air.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Pulse stretching. Received pulse, maximum stretching.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Geometric scattering model.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Radiance function: 8 τ 12.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Radiance function: 12 τ 15.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Radiance function: 15 τ 20.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Controlled Test Parameters

Tables Icon

Table II Cloud Parameter Values

Equations (1)

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R h ( τ , θ ) = A h ( τ ) θ f h ( τ ) ,

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