Abstract

Some examples of lidar backscatter and depolarization profiles obtained at the South Pole during the austral summer period 1976–77 are presented. The examples illustrate the variety of data obtainable from various meteorological conditions as well as how this kind of lidar can help determine cloud layer structures in the polar atmosphere. Clear sky ice crystal precipitation and light ice precipitation under overcast sky conditions produced volume backscatter coefficients in the 2–4 × 10−3-km−1 range and depolarization values up to 0.46, while mixed phase and supercooled water drop layers were also observed with maximum backscatter coefficients ranging from 5 × 10−2 to 2.4 × 10−1 km−1 and depolarization values from a few to ∼20%. Some of these layers may have contained aligned plates which resulted in enhanced backscatter values and lower depolarization values, therefore, the identification is sometimes ambiguous.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, R. Stone, J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1011 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Sassen, J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 425 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Sassen, J. Appl. Meteorol. 17, 73 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. R. Pal, A. I. Carswell, Appl. Opt. 12, 1530 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. R. Pal, A. I. Carswell, Appl. Opt. 17, 2321 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. R. McNeil, A. I. Carswell, Appl. Opt. 14, 2158 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. M. R. Platt, J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 339 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. E. Derr, N. L. Alshire, R. E. Cupp, G. T. Nice, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 1200 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. Smiley, B. Whitcomb, B. Morley, J. Warburton, J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 1074 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Liou, R. M. Schotland, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 772 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. R. Pal, A. I. Carswell, Appl. Opt. 15, 1990 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. S. Ryan, S. R. Pal, A. I. Carswell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 60 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. R. Pal, A. I. Carswell, J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 70 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. N. Smiley, Antarct. J. U.S.15 (1980), to be published.
  15. D. J. Hofmann, U. Wyoming; private communication.
  16. T. Ohtake, Antarct. J. U.S. 11, 148 (1976).
  17. T. Ohtake, Antarct. J. U.S. 12, 174 (1978).
  18. A. W. Hogan, J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 246 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. Kikuchi, A. W. Hogan, J. Fac. Sci. Hokkaido Univ. Ser.7: 5, 1 (1976).
  20. V. N. Smiley, J. A. Warburton, B. M. Morley, B. M. Whitcomb, Antarct, J. U.S. 11, 145 (1976).
  21. J. Hallett, in Low Temperature Biology of Foodstuffs, J. Hawthorne, Ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1968), p. 23.

1980 (1)

V. Smiley, B. Whitcomb, B. Morley, J. Warburton, J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 1074 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1978 (3)

T. Ohtake, Antarct. J. U.S. 12, 174 (1978).

K. Sassen, J. Appl. Meteorol. 17, 73 (1978).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Pal, A. I. Carswell, Appl. Opt. 17, 2321 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (3)

C. M. R. Platt, J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 339 (1977).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 425 (1977).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Pal, A. I. Carswell, J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 70 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (5)

T. Ohtake, Antarct. J. U.S. 11, 148 (1976).

K. Kikuchi, A. W. Hogan, J. Fac. Sci. Hokkaido Univ. Ser.7: 5, 1 (1976).

V. N. Smiley, J. A. Warburton, B. M. Morley, B. M. Whitcomb, Antarct, J. U.S. 11, 145 (1976).

V. E. Derr, N. L. Alshire, R. E. Cupp, G. T. Nice, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 1200 (1976).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Pal, A. I. Carswell, Appl. Opt. 15, 1990 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (2)

1973 (1)

1971 (2)

R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, R. Stone, J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1011 (1971).
[CrossRef]

K. Liou, R. M. Schotland, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 772 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Alshire, N. L.

V. E. Derr, N. L. Alshire, R. E. Cupp, G. T. Nice, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 1200 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Carswell, A. I.

Cupp, R. E.

V. E. Derr, N. L. Alshire, R. E. Cupp, G. T. Nice, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 1200 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Derr, V. E.

V. E. Derr, N. L. Alshire, R. E. Cupp, G. T. Nice, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 1200 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hallett, J.

J. Hallett, in Low Temperature Biology of Foodstuffs, J. Hawthorne, Ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1968), p. 23.

Hofmann, D. J.

D. J. Hofmann, U. Wyoming; private communication.

Hogan, A. W.

K. Kikuchi, A. W. Hogan, J. Fac. Sci. Hokkaido Univ. Ser.7: 5, 1 (1976).

A. W. Hogan, J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 246 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, K.

K. Kikuchi, A. W. Hogan, J. Fac. Sci. Hokkaido Univ. Ser.7: 5, 1 (1976).

Liou, K.

K. Liou, R. M. Schotland, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 772 (1971).
[CrossRef]

McNeil, W. R.

Morley, B.

V. Smiley, B. Whitcomb, B. Morley, J. Warburton, J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 1074 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Morley, B. M.

V. N. Smiley, J. A. Warburton, B. M. Morley, B. M. Whitcomb, Antarct, J. U.S. 11, 145 (1976).

Nice, G. T.

V. E. Derr, N. L. Alshire, R. E. Cupp, G. T. Nice, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 1200 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ohtake, T.

T. Ohtake, Antarct. J. U.S. 12, 174 (1978).

T. Ohtake, Antarct. J. U.S. 11, 148 (1976).

Pal, S. R.

Platt, C. M. R.

C. M. R. Platt, J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 339 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ryan, J. S.

Sassen, K.

K. Sassen, J. Appl. Meteorol. 17, 73 (1978).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 425 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, R. Stone, J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1011 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Schotland, R. M.

K. Liou, R. M. Schotland, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 772 (1971).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, R. Stone, J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1011 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Smiley, V.

V. Smiley, B. Whitcomb, B. Morley, J. Warburton, J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 1074 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Smiley, V. N.

V. N. Smiley, J. A. Warburton, B. M. Morley, B. M. Whitcomb, Antarct, J. U.S. 11, 145 (1976).

V. N. Smiley, Antarct. J. U.S.15 (1980), to be published.

Stone, R.

R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, R. Stone, J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1011 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Warburton, J.

V. Smiley, B. Whitcomb, B. Morley, J. Warburton, J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 1074 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Warburton, J. A.

V. N. Smiley, J. A. Warburton, B. M. Morley, B. M. Whitcomb, Antarct, J. U.S. 11, 145 (1976).

Whitcomb, B.

V. Smiley, B. Whitcomb, B. Morley, J. Warburton, J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 1074 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Whitcomb, B. M.

V. N. Smiley, J. A. Warburton, B. M. Morley, B. M. Whitcomb, Antarct, J. U.S. 11, 145 (1976).

Antarct, J. U.S. (1)

V. N. Smiley, J. A. Warburton, B. M. Morley, B. M. Whitcomb, Antarct, J. U.S. 11, 145 (1976).

Antarct. J. U.S. (2)

T. Ohtake, Antarct. J. U.S. 11, 148 (1976).

T. Ohtake, Antarct. J. U.S. 12, 174 (1978).

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Appl. Meteorol. (8)

R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, R. Stone, J. Appl. Meteorol. 10, 1011 (1971).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 425 (1977).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, J. Appl. Meteorol. 17, 73 (1978).
[CrossRef]

C. M. R. Platt, J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 339 (1977).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Derr, N. L. Alshire, R. E. Cupp, G. T. Nice, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 1200 (1976).
[CrossRef]

V. Smiley, B. Whitcomb, B. Morley, J. Warburton, J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 1074 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Hogan, J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 246 (1975).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Pal, A. I. Carswell, J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 70 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

K. Liou, R. M. Schotland, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 772 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Fac. Sci. Hokkaido Univ. Ser.7: (1)

K. Kikuchi, A. W. Hogan, J. Fac. Sci. Hokkaido Univ. Ser.7: 5, 1 (1976).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Other (3)

V. N. Smiley, Antarct. J. U.S.15 (1980), to be published.

D. J. Hofmann, U. Wyoming; private communication.

J. Hallett, in Low Temperature Biology of Foodstuffs, J. Hawthorne, Ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1968), p. 23.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Vertical backscatter (range-corrected) and depolarization profiles averaged over twelve shots on 4 Jan. 1977.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temperature and relative humidity for ice and water as a function of altitude from a radiosonde flight at 1100 GMT on 4 Jan. 1977.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Vertical backscatter (range-corrected) and depolarization profiles taken at 2125 GMT on 3 Jan. 1977.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temperature and relative humidity for ice and water as a function of altitude from radiosonde flight at 2300 GMT on 3 Jan. 1977.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Vertical backscatter (range-corrected) and depolarization profiles taken at 2105 GMT on 8 Dec. 1976.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Vertical backscatter (range-corrected) and depolarization profiles taken on 13 Dec. 1976 at (a) 2120, (b) 2200, (c) 2215, and (d) 2220 GMT.

Tables (1)

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Table I Lidar Specifications

Equations (2)

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δ = I / I ,
δ = ( I ) a + ( I ) w + ( I ) i + ( I ) m ( I ) a + ( I ) w + ( I ) i + ( I ) m ,

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