Abstract

Measurement of atmospheric temperature through the monitoring of laser energy absorption at the center of an O2 resonant absorption line near 770 nm has been demonstrated using a dual frequency system. The average temperature of a 1-km path can be determined to better than 1.0° C with a noise level of 0.3° C. An iterative algebraic expression for determining temperature from the measured absorption was developed and shown to be applicable in the troposphere. The effects of pressure and humidity on temperature determination are clear from the algorithm and found to be small near the earth's surface.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. “The First GARP Global Experiment,” GARP Publication Series 11, World Meteorology Organization (Mar.1973).
  2. C. L. Korb, J. E. Kalshoven, C. Y. Weng, “A Lidar Technique for the Measurement of Atmospheric Pressure Profiles,” Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 60, 333 (1979), Spring Meeting, Washington, D.C. (May–June 1979).
  3. R. G. Strauch, V. E. Derr, R. E. Cupp, Appl. Opt. 10, 2665 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Gill, K. Geller, J. Farina, J. Cooney, J. Appl. Meteorol. 18, 225 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. B. Mason, Appl. Opt. 14, 76 (1975).
    [PubMed]
  6. E. R. Murray, D. D. Powell, J. E. van der Laan, Appl. Opt. 19, 1794 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Endemann, R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 5, 452 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. L. Korb, C. Y. Weng, “A Two Wavelength Lidar Technique for the Measurement of Atmospheric Temperature Profiles,” Conf. Abs., Ninth International Laser Radar Conference, Munich, West Germany (July 1979), p. 185.
  9. R. M. Schotland, in Proceedings, Third Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1964).
  10. J. E. Kalshoven, C. L. Korb, NASA Tech. Memo. 79538 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1978).
  11. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, R. C. Weast, Ed. (Chemical Rubber Co., Cleveland, 1967), p. D-110.
  12. R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. CIough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, Environmental Research Paper 434, AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., Jan.1959.
  13. S. S. Penner, Quantitative Molecular Spectroscopy and Gas Emissivities (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1959).
  14. D. E. Burch, D. A. Gryvnak, Appl. Opt. 8, 1493 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Tables of the Error Function and its Derivative, Natl. Bur. of Stand. Appl. Math. Ser. 41 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 22Oct.1954).

1980

1979

C. L. Korb, J. E. Kalshoven, C. Y. Weng, “A Lidar Technique for the Measurement of Atmospheric Pressure Profiles,” Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 60, 333 (1979), Spring Meeting, Washington, D.C. (May–June 1979).

R. Gill, K. Geller, J. Farina, J. Cooney, J. Appl. Meteorol. 18, 225 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1975

1971

1969

Benedict, W. S.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. CIough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, Environmental Research Paper 434, AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., Jan.1959.

Burch, D. E.

D. E. Burch, D. A. Gryvnak, Appl. Opt. 8, 1493 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. CIough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, Environmental Research Paper 434, AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., Jan.1959.

Byer, R. L.

Calfee, R. F.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. CIough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, Environmental Research Paper 434, AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., Jan.1959.

CIough, S. A.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. CIough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, Environmental Research Paper 434, AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., Jan.1959.

Cooney, J.

R. Gill, K. Geller, J. Farina, J. Cooney, J. Appl. Meteorol. 18, 225 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Cupp, R. E.

Derr, V. E.

Endemann, M.

Farina, J.

R. Gill, K. Geller, J. Farina, J. Cooney, J. Appl. Meteorol. 18, 225 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Fox, K.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. CIough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, Environmental Research Paper 434, AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., Jan.1959.

Garing, J. S.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. CIough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, Environmental Research Paper 434, AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., Jan.1959.

Geller, K.

R. Gill, K. Geller, J. Farina, J. Cooney, J. Appl. Meteorol. 18, 225 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Gill, R.

R. Gill, K. Geller, J. Farina, J. Cooney, J. Appl. Meteorol. 18, 225 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Gryvnak, D. A.

Kalshoven, J. E.

C. L. Korb, J. E. Kalshoven, C. Y. Weng, “A Lidar Technique for the Measurement of Atmospheric Pressure Profiles,” Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 60, 333 (1979), Spring Meeting, Washington, D.C. (May–June 1979).

J. E. Kalshoven, C. L. Korb, NASA Tech. Memo. 79538 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1978).

Korb, C. L.

C. L. Korb, J. E. Kalshoven, C. Y. Weng, “A Lidar Technique for the Measurement of Atmospheric Pressure Profiles,” Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 60, 333 (1979), Spring Meeting, Washington, D.C. (May–June 1979).

C. L. Korb, C. Y. Weng, “A Two Wavelength Lidar Technique for the Measurement of Atmospheric Temperature Profiles,” Conf. Abs., Ninth International Laser Radar Conference, Munich, West Germany (July 1979), p. 185.

J. E. Kalshoven, C. L. Korb, NASA Tech. Memo. 79538 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1978).

Mason, J. B.

McClatchey, R. A.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. CIough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, Environmental Research Paper 434, AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., Jan.1959.

Murray, E. R.

Penner, S. S.

S. S. Penner, Quantitative Molecular Spectroscopy and Gas Emissivities (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1959).

Powell, D. D.

Rothman, L. S.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. CIough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, Environmental Research Paper 434, AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., Jan.1959.

Schotland, R. M.

R. M. Schotland, in Proceedings, Third Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1964).

Strauch, R. G.

van der Laan, J. E.

Weng, C. Y.

C. L. Korb, J. E. Kalshoven, C. Y. Weng, “A Lidar Technique for the Measurement of Atmospheric Pressure Profiles,” Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 60, 333 (1979), Spring Meeting, Washington, D.C. (May–June 1979).

C. L. Korb, C. Y. Weng, “A Two Wavelength Lidar Technique for the Measurement of Atmospheric Temperature Profiles,” Conf. Abs., Ninth International Laser Radar Conference, Munich, West Germany (July 1979), p. 185.

Appl. Opt.

J. Appl. Meteorol.

R. Gill, K. Geller, J. Farina, J. Cooney, J. Appl. Meteorol. 18, 225 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Trans. Am. Geophys. Union

C. L. Korb, J. E. Kalshoven, C. Y. Weng, “A Lidar Technique for the Measurement of Atmospheric Pressure Profiles,” Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 60, 333 (1979), Spring Meeting, Washington, D.C. (May–June 1979).

Other

“The First GARP Global Experiment,” GARP Publication Series 11, World Meteorology Organization (Mar.1973).

Tables of the Error Function and its Derivative, Natl. Bur. of Stand. Appl. Math. Ser. 41 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 22Oct.1954).

C. L. Korb, C. Y. Weng, “A Two Wavelength Lidar Technique for the Measurement of Atmospheric Temperature Profiles,” Conf. Abs., Ninth International Laser Radar Conference, Munich, West Germany (July 1979), p. 185.

R. M. Schotland, in Proceedings, Third Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1964).

J. E. Kalshoven, C. L. Korb, NASA Tech. Memo. 79538 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1978).

Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, R. C. Weast, Ed. (Chemical Rubber Co., Cleveland, 1967), p. D-110.

R. A. McClatchey, W. S. Benedict, S. A. CIough, D. E. Burch, R. F. Calfee, K. Fox, L. S. Rothman, J. S. Garing, Environmental Research Paper 434, AFCRL-TR-73-0096 (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories, Bedford, Mass., Jan.1959.

S. S. Penner, Quantitative Molecular Spectroscopy and Gas Emissivities (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1959).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Percent difference in the fit of Eq. (14) to the Voigt line shape function at line center.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Configuration of the fixed target experiment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured absorption coefficient as a function of thermometer measured temperature. The solid curve is a fit with Eq. (15).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scatter plot of the laser measured temperature with respect to the single point thermometer temperature.

Equations (19)

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0 R K ν d r = ½ ln ( I / I o I r / I r o ) ,
K ν = N ( P , T ) S ( T ) F ( ν ν 0 ) ,
N ( P , T ) = q W n s ( P P s ) ( T s T ) ,
W = 1 2.23 × 10 9 H P exp ( 5385 T )
S ( T ) = S ( T s ) T s T exp [ 1.439 E ( 1 T s 1 T ) ] ,
F ( ν ν 0 ) = F π 0 cos ( x t ) exp ( a t + t 2 / 4 ) d t
F = ( ln 2 / π ) 1 / 2 α D ,
a = α L α D ( ln 2 ) 1 / 2 ,
x = ν ν 0 α D ( ln 2 ) 1 / 2 ,
α D = ν 0 ( 2 k T ln 2 m c 2 ) 1 / 2 ,
α L = α L s ( P P s ) ( T s T ) n ,
F ( 0 ) = F exp a 2 [ 2 π a exp ( z 2 ) d z ] = F exp a 2 ( 1 erf a ) .
a = 2.14 × 10 5 α L s ν 0 P T .
F ( 0 ) = 1 3 α L [ 1 exp ( 1 ) 10 a ] .
K 0 = A 0 T 3 / 2 W exp ( 1.439 E / T ) [ 1 exp ( 1 ) 10 a ] ,
A 0 = q n s 3 T s 3 / 2 S ( T s ) α L s exp ( 1.439 E / T s ) .
d K 0 K 0 ( 1.44 E T 3 2 ) d T T = g d T T .
d T T 1 g d A 0 A 0 .
T n + 1 = 1.44 E ln [ A 0 W T n 3 / 2 ( 1 e 10 a ) K 0 ] .

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