Abstract

The progress of the LLNL Laser Fusion Program in our work to achieve high gain thermonuclear microexplosions is discussed. Many experiments have been successfully performed and diagnosed using the large complex twenty-beam 30-TW Shiva laser system. A 400-kJ design of the twenty-beam Nova laser has been completed. The construction of the first phase of this facility has begun. The first phase of this Nd-doped low nonlinear index glass laser will consist of ten beams producing 100 kJ in 1-nsec pulses. One beam of the Argus laser has been converted to operation at 532 nm with 10-cm aperture. It will soon operate at 355 nm, also at 10-cm aperture. Frequency conversion crystals are being procured for full aperture operation at either 532 or 355 nm for both Argus beams. We also discuss new diagnostic instruments which provide us with new and improved resolution, information on laser absorption and scattering, thermal energy flow, suprathermal electrons and their effects, and final fuel conditions. We have made measurements on the absorption and Brillouin scattering for target irradiations at both 1.064 μm and 532 nm. These measurements confirm the expected increased absorption and reduced scattering at the shorter wavelength. Additional data have been obtained on the angular distribution of suprathermal x rays, which further confirms our observation of its nonisotropy. However, we do not yet have an explanation of the phenomena. Implosion experiments have been performed which have produced final fuel densities over the 10–100× range liquid deuterium-tritium (DT) density. The 100× achievement is the highest yet achieved in laser fusion DT fuel targets.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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  7. D. C. Hendricks, “Target Fabrication Overview,” Laser Program Annual Report-1977, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore Calif., UCRL-50021-77 (1978), pp. 5–1 to 4–5.
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  19. L. Smith, T. F. Deaton, “Large Aperture Harmonic Generation,” Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980).
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  24. D. T. Attwood, N. M. Ceglio, “X-ray Probing Diagnostics for High Density Implosion Experiments,” Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), pp. 6–38 to 6–40.
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  27. D. W. Phillion, M. W. Kobiercki, “Shiva Optical Pyrometer,” Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980).
  28. H. G. Ahlstrom, J. Phys. 40, C7-97 (1979).
  29. E. M. Campbell, W. M. Ploeger, P. H. Lee, S. M. Lane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 12 (1980).
  30. E. M. Campbell et al., “Collection-Fraction Determination Utilizing a Radioactive Tracer,” Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-83072 (1979);to be published in J. Appl. Phys. (Apr.1980).
  31. E. M. Campbell, “Neutron Activation Diagnostics for High Density Targets,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), pp. 6–45 to 6–52.
  32. E. M. Campbell et al., “Determination of Fuel ρR of ICF Targets by Neutron Activation,” Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-83073;to be published in J. Appl. Phys. (Apr.1980).
  33. S. Lane, “Implosion Measurements with Neutron Activation,” Lawrence Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980).
  34. D. W. Phillion, K. G. Estabrook, “Stimulated Raman Scattering Experiments,” Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980).
  35. C. L. Wang, H. N. Kornblum, V. W. Slivinsky, Bull Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 1106 (1979).
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    [CrossRef]
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  39. W. C. Mead, C. D. Orth, D. S. Bailey, G. McClellan, K. G. Estabrook, “Analysis of Dense Laser-Driven Implosion for Intermediate Densities,” Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-83163 (1979).
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  42. K. R. Manes, F. D. Feiock, “Laser Irradiation on Target (LITAR) Code,” Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), pp. 6–66 to 6–67.
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  45. W. E. Martin, “Progress in Rectangular Disk Amplifiers,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), pp. 7–4 to 7–8.
  46. J. T. Hunt et al., Appl. Opt. 16, 779 (1977).
    [PubMed]
  47. D. Campbell, W. Laird, T. Schwinn, “Windowless X-ray Detector with 50-psec Response,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), pp. 6–64 to 6–65.
  48. R. L. Kauffman, H. Medecki, E. P. Pierce, “A Pulsed Calibration of the Soft X-ray Streak Camera,” Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-83095 (1979).
  49. J. Cheng, J. Noonan, G. Tripp, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 1099 (1979).
  50. D. T. Attwood et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 6 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  51. D. J. Kuizenga, “Actively Mode-Locked and Q-Switched Oscillator,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1977, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-77 (1978), pp. 2–207 to2–210.
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  53. N. M. Ceglio, “Fresnel Zone Structures for Advanced X-ray Microscopy,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), pp. 6–30 to 6–37.
  54. L. N. Koppel, T. W. Barbee, D. T. Attwood, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 1098 (1979).
  55. D. T. Attwood, N. M. Ceglio, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 1105 (1979).
  56. D. W. Phillion, “Optical Preheat Diagnostic,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), pp. 6–40 to 6–45.
  57. E. K. Storm, V. W. Slivinsky, E. M. Campbell, “D-T Fuel Density Determination from Measurements of Pusher Areal Density (ρΔR),” Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980), pp. 6–60 to 6–67.
  58. J. D. Illige, “Electroplating,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980), pp. 4–23 to 4–26.
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1980

E. M. Campbell, W. M. Ploeger, P. H. Lee, S. M. Lane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 12 (1980).

G. McClellan, P. H. Y. Lee, G. Caporaso, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 658 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

J. M. Auerbach et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 1011 (1979).

C. L. Wang, H. N. Kornblum, V. W. Slivinsky, Bull Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 1106 (1979).

J. Cheng, J. Noonan, G. Tripp, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 1099 (1979).

L. N. Koppel, T. W. Barbee, D. T. Attwood, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 1098 (1979).

D. T. Attwood, N. M. Ceglio, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 1105 (1979).

J. J. Ewing, R. A. Haas, J. C. Swingle, E. V. George, W. F. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 368 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. G. M. Maaswinkel, K. Eidmann, R. Sigel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1625 (1979).
[CrossRef]

E. Fabre et al., “Experiences D'Interaction Laser-Matiere a Differentes Longuers D'Ondes,” Entrpa 15 (89–90), 47 (1979).

K. G. Tirsell, R. A. Heinle, H. N. Kornblum, V. W. Slivinsky, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 1099 (1979).

H. G. Ahlstrom, J. Phys. 40, C7-97 (1979).

1978

M. J. Boyle, H. G. Ahlstrom, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49, 746 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. K. Storm et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 24 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

1972

J. Nuckolls, L. Wood, A. Theissen, G. Zimmerman, Nature London 239, 139 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ahlstrom, H. G.

H. G. Ahlstrom, J. Phys. 40, C7-97 (1979).

M. J. Boyle, H. G. Ahlstrom, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49, 746 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Manes, H. G. Ahlstrom, R. A. Haas, J. F. Holzrichter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 717 (1977).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Ahlstrom, “Laser Fusion Implosion and Plasma Interaction Experiments,” Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-79819 (1977).

Attwood, D. T.

L. N. Koppel, T. W. Barbee, D. T. Attwood, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 1098 (1979).

D. T. Attwood, N. M. Ceglio, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 1105 (1979).

D. T. Attwood et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 6 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Attwood, N. M. Ceglio, “X-ray Probing Diagnostics for High Density Implosion Experiments,” Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), pp. 6–38 to 6–40.

Auerbach, J. M.

J. M. Auerbach et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 1011 (1979).

J. M. Auerbach et al., “Compression of Polymer Coated Laser Fusion Targets to 10× Liquid DT Density,”Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-83989 (1980);submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. M. Auerbach, “Target Alignment Codes: ALIGN, GEOBM, litar, PLANAR,” Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), Sec. 6.11.5.

Bailey, D. S.

W. C. Mead, C. D. Orth, D. S. Bailey, G. McClellan, K. G. Estabrook, “Analysis of Dense Laser-Driven Implosion for Intermediate Densities,” Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-83163 (1979).

Bangerter, R. O.

J. Nuckolls, R. O. Bangerter, J. D. Lindl, W. C. Mead, Y. L. Pan, “High-Performance Inertial Confinement Fusion Targets,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1977, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-77 (1978), pp. 4–15 to 4–19.

Barbee, T. W.

L. N. Koppel, T. W. Barbee, D. T. Attwood, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 1098 (1979).

Boyle, M. J.

M. J. Boyle, H. G. Ahlstrom, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49, 746 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Price, M. J. Boyle, “Wolter Axisymmetric X-ray Microscope Development,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), pp. 6–23 to 6–26.

Campbell, D.

D. Campbell, W. Laird, T. Schwinn, “Windowless X-ray Detector with 50-psec Response,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), pp. 6–64 to 6–65.

Campbell, E. M.

E. M. Campbell, W. M. Ploeger, P. H. Lee, S. M. Lane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 12 (1980).

E. M. Campbell et al., “Collection-Fraction Determination Utilizing a Radioactive Tracer,” Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-83072 (1979);to be published in J. Appl. Phys. (Apr.1980).

E. M. Campbell, “Neutron Activation Diagnostics for High Density Targets,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), pp. 6–45 to 6–52.

E. M. Campbell et al., “Determination of Fuel ρR of ICF Targets by Neutron Activation,” Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-83073;to be published in J. Appl. Phys. (Apr.1980).

E. M. Campbell, C. E. Max, D. W. Phillion, P. H. Y. Lee, M. Rosen, “Disk Experiments: 2ω Absorption, 2-nsec Absorption,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980).

E. K. Storm, V. W. Slivinsky, E. M. Campbell, “D-T Fuel Density Determination from Measurements of Pusher Areal Density (ρΔR),” Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980), pp. 6–60 to 6–67.

Caporaso, G.

G. McClellan, P. H. Y. Lee, G. Caporaso, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 658 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ceglio, N. M.

D. T. Attwood, N. M. Ceglio, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 1105 (1979).

N. M. Ceglio, “Fresnel Zone Structures for Advanced X-ray Microscopy,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), pp. 6–30 to 6–37.

D. T. Attwood, N. M. Ceglio, “X-ray Probing Diagnostics for High Density Implosion Experiments,” Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), pp. 6–38 to 6–40.

Cheng, J.

J. Cheng, J. Noonan, G. Tripp, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 1099 (1979).

Dahlbacka, G.

G. Dahlbacka, J. Nuckolls, “Laser Driven Isothermal Implosions,” Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-75885 (1974).

Deaton, T. F.

L. Smith, T. F. Deaton, “Large Aperture Harmonic Generation,” Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980).

W. Lee Smith, T. F. Deaton, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Inertial Confinement Fusion (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), paper ThF7.

Eidmann, K.

A. G. M. Maaswinkel, K. Eidmann, R. Sigel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1625 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Estabrook, K. G.

D. W. Phillion, K. G. Estabrook, “Stimulated Raman Scattering Experiments,” Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980).

W. C. Mead, C. D. Orth, D. S. Bailey, G. McClellan, K. G. Estabrook, “Analysis of Dense Laser-Driven Implosion for Intermediate Densities,” Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-83163 (1979).

Ewing, J. J.

J. J. Ewing, R. A. Haas, J. C. Swingle, E. V. George, W. F. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 368 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Fabre, E.

E. Fabre et al., “Experiences D'Interaction Laser-Matiere a Differentes Longuers D'Ondes,” Entrpa 15 (89–90), 47 (1979).

Feiock, F. D.

K. R. Manes, F. D. Feiock, “Laser Irradiation on Target (LITAR) Code,” Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), pp. 6–66 to 6–67.

Foster, J.

J. Foster, “Ad Hoc Experts Group on Fusion Report” (1979).

George, E. V.

J. J. Ewing, R. A. Haas, J. C. Swingle, E. V. George, W. F. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 368 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Gilmartin, T. J.

T. J. Gilmartin, R. O. Godwin, J. F. Holzrichter, W. W. Simmons, “Nova Development,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), Sec. 2.4.

Glaze, J. A.

J. A. Glaze, W. W. Simmons, J. B. Tremholme, “Update of Nova Chain Design and Performance, Nova Memorandum 79-640 (Jan.1980).

Godwin, R. O.

T. J. Gilmartin, R. O. Godwin, J. F. Holzrichter, W. W. Simmons, “Nova Development,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), Sec. 2.4.

Haas, R. A.

J. J. Ewing, R. A. Haas, J. C. Swingle, E. V. George, W. F. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 368 (1979).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Manes, H. G. Ahlstrom, R. A. Haas, J. F. Holzrichter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 717 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. W.

J. Hunt, J. Swain, J. W. Harris, “Argus 2ω Modifications,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1979, LLL, Livermore, Calif.UCRL-50021-79 (1980).

Heinle, R. A.

K. G. Tirsell, R. A. Heinle, H. N. Kornblum, V. W. Slivinsky, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 1099 (1979).

Hendricks, D. C.

D. C. Hendricks, “Target Fabrication Overview,” Laser Program Annual Report-1977, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore Calif., UCRL-50021-77 (1978), pp. 5–1 to 4–5.

Holzrichter, J. F.

K. R. Manes, H. G. Ahlstrom, R. A. Haas, J. F. Holzrichter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 717 (1977).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Gilmartin, R. O. Godwin, J. F. Holzrichter, W. W. Simmons, “Nova Development,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), Sec. 2.4.

Hunt, J.

J. Hunt, J. Swain, J. W. Harris, “Argus 2ω Modifications,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1979, LLL, Livermore, Calif.UCRL-50021-79 (1980).

Hunt, J. T.

Illige, J. D.

J. D. Illige, “Electroplating,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980), pp. 4–23 to 4–26.

Kauffman, R.

R. Kauffman, “Development of a Time Resolved, Broad-Band, Sub-Kilovolt X-ray Spectrometer for Absolute Flux Measurements,” Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980).

Kauffman, R. L.

R. L. Kauffman, H. Medecki, E. P. Pierce, “A Pulsed Calibration of the Soft X-ray Streak Camera,” Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-83095 (1979).

Key, M. H.

M. H. Key et al., “Review of Recent Work at the SRC Central Laser Facility at the Rutherford Laboratory, Abingdon,” at Thirteenth European Conference on Laser Interaction with Matter, Leipzig (Dec. 1979).

Kobiercki, M. W.

D. W. Phillion, M. W. Kobiercki, “Shiva Optical Pyrometer,” Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980).

Koppel, L. N.

L. N. Koppel, T. W. Barbee, D. T. Attwood, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 1098 (1979).

Kornblum, H. N.

C. L. Wang, H. N. Kornblum, V. W. Slivinsky, Bull Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 1106 (1979).

K. G. Tirsell, R. A. Heinle, H. N. Kornblum, V. W. Slivinsky, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 1099 (1979).

Kruer, W. L.

W. L. Kruer, “Raman Backscatter in High Temperature, Inhomogeneous Plasmas,” Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), pp. 3–42 to 3–46.

Krupke, W. F.

J. J. Ewing, R. A. Haas, J. C. Swingle, E. V. George, W. F. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 368 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kuizenga, D. J.

D. J. Kuizenga, “Actively Mode-Locked and Q-Switched Oscillator,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1977, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-77 (1978), pp. 2–207 to2–210.

Laird, W.

D. Campbell, W. Laird, T. Schwinn, “Windowless X-ray Detector with 50-psec Response,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), pp. 6–64 to 6–65.

Lane, S.

S. Lane, “Implosion Measurements with Neutron Activation,” Lawrence Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980).

Lane, S. M.

E. M. Campbell, W. M. Ploeger, P. H. Lee, S. M. Lane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 12 (1980).

Lee, P. H.

E. M. Campbell, W. M. Ploeger, P. H. Lee, S. M. Lane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 12 (1980).

Lee, P. H. Y.

G. McClellan, P. H. Y. Lee, G. Caporaso, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 658 (1980).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Campbell, C. E. Max, D. W. Phillion, P. H. Y. Lee, M. Rosen, “Disk Experiments: 2ω Absorption, 2-nsec Absorption,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980).

Lee Smith, W.

W. Lee Smith, T. F. Deaton, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Inertial Confinement Fusion (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), paper ThF7.

Lindl, J. D.

J. D. Lindl, “Low-Aspect Ratio Double Shells for High Density and High Gain,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1977, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-77 (1978), pp. 4–12 to 4–15.

J. Nuckolls, R. O. Bangerter, J. D. Lindl, W. C. Mead, Y. L. Pan, “High-Performance Inertial Confinement Fusion Targets,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1977, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-77 (1978), pp. 4–15 to 4–19.

Maaswinkel, A. G. M.

A. G. M. Maaswinkel, K. Eidmann, R. Sigel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1625 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Manes, K. R.

K. R. Manes, H. G. Ahlstrom, R. A. Haas, J. F. Holzrichter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 717 (1977).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Manes, F. D. Feiock, “Laser Irradiation on Target (LITAR) Code,” Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), pp. 6–66 to 6–67.

Martin, W. E.

W. E. Martin, “Progress in Rectangular Disk Amplifiers,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), pp. 7–4 to 7–8.

Max, C. E.

E. M. Campbell, C. E. Max, D. W. Phillion, P. H. Y. Lee, M. Rosen, “Disk Experiments: 2ω Absorption, 2-nsec Absorption,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980).

McClellan, G.

G. McClellan, P. H. Y. Lee, G. Caporaso, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 658 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Mead, C. D. Orth, D. S. Bailey, G. McClellan, K. G. Estabrook, “Analysis of Dense Laser-Driven Implosion for Intermediate Densities,” Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-83163 (1979).

Mead, W. C.

W. C. Mead, C. D. Orth, D. S. Bailey, G. McClellan, K. G. Estabrook, “Analysis of Dense Laser-Driven Implosion for Intermediate Densities,” Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-83163 (1979).

J. Nuckolls, R. O. Bangerter, J. D. Lindl, W. C. Mead, Y. L. Pan, “High-Performance Inertial Confinement Fusion Targets,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1977, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-77 (1978), pp. 4–15 to 4–19.

Medecki, H.

R. L. Kauffman, H. Medecki, E. P. Pierce, “A Pulsed Calibration of the Soft X-ray Streak Camera,” Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-83095 (1979).

Morrison, R. L.

R. L. Morrison, R. L. Woernerer, “Glass Sphere Development and Production, Diagnostic Gas Fills,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980), pp. 4–2.

Murray, J. E.

J. E. Murray, “Regenerative Pulse Compression,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1977, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-77 (1978), pp. 2–207 to 2–210,“Regenerative Pulse Compression,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), pp. 2–210 to 2–219.

Noonan, J.

J. Cheng, J. Noonan, G. Tripp, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 1099 (1979).

Nuckolls, J.

J. Nuckolls, L. Wood, A. Theissen, G. Zimmerman, Nature London 239, 139 (1972).
[CrossRef]

G. Dahlbacka, J. Nuckolls, “Laser Driven Isothermal Implosions,” Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-75885 (1974).

J. Nuckolls, R. O. Bangerter, J. D. Lindl, W. C. Mead, Y. L. Pan, “High-Performance Inertial Confinement Fusion Targets,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1977, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-77 (1978), pp. 4–15 to 4–19.

Orth, C. D.

W. C. Mead, C. D. Orth, D. S. Bailey, G. McClellan, K. G. Estabrook, “Analysis of Dense Laser-Driven Implosion for Intermediate Densities,” Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-83163 (1979).

Pan, Y. L.

J. Nuckolls, R. O. Bangerter, J. D. Lindl, W. C. Mead, Y. L. Pan, “High-Performance Inertial Confinement Fusion Targets,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1977, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-77 (1978), pp. 4–15 to 4–19.

Phillion, D. W.

E. M. Campbell, C. E. Max, D. W. Phillion, P. H. Y. Lee, M. Rosen, “Disk Experiments: 2ω Absorption, 2-nsec Absorption,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980).

D. W. Phillion, K. G. Estabrook, “Stimulated Raman Scattering Experiments,” Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980).

D. W. Phillion, M. W. Kobiercki, “Shiva Optical Pyrometer,” Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980).

D. W. Phillion, in Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980).

D. W. Phillion, “Optical Preheat Diagnostic,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), pp. 6–40 to 6–45.

Pierce, E. P.

R. L. Kauffman, H. Medecki, E. P. Pierce, “A Pulsed Calibration of the Soft X-ray Streak Camera,” Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-83095 (1979).

Ploeger, W. M.

E. M. Campbell, W. M. Ploeger, P. H. Lee, S. M. Lane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 12 (1980).

Price, R. H.

R. H. Price, M. J. Boyle, “Wolter Axisymmetric X-ray Microscope Development,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), pp. 6–23 to 6–26.

Rosen, M.

E. M. Campbell, C. E. Max, D. W. Phillion, P. H. Y. Lee, M. Rosen, “Disk Experiments: 2ω Absorption, 2-nsec Absorption,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980).

Schwinn, T.

D. Campbell, W. Laird, T. Schwinn, “Windowless X-ray Detector with 50-psec Response,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), pp. 6–64 to 6–65.

Sigel, R.

A. G. M. Maaswinkel, K. Eidmann, R. Sigel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1625 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, W. W.

T. J. Gilmartin, R. O. Godwin, J. F. Holzrichter, W. W. Simmons, “Nova Development,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), Sec. 2.4.

J. A. Glaze, W. W. Simmons, J. B. Tremholme, “Update of Nova Chain Design and Performance, Nova Memorandum 79-640 (Jan.1980).

Slivinsky, V. W.

K. G. Tirsell, R. A. Heinle, H. N. Kornblum, V. W. Slivinsky, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 1099 (1979).

C. L. Wang, H. N. Kornblum, V. W. Slivinsky, Bull Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 1106 (1979).

E. K. Storm, V. W. Slivinsky, E. M. Campbell, “D-T Fuel Density Determination from Measurements of Pusher Areal Density (ρΔR),” Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980), pp. 6–60 to 6–67.

Smith, L.

L. Smith, T. F. Deaton, “Large Aperture Harmonic Generation,” Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980).

Storm, E. K.

E. K. Storm et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 24 (1978).
[CrossRef]

E. K. Storm, V. W. Slivinsky, E. M. Campbell, “D-T Fuel Density Determination from Measurements of Pusher Areal Density (ρΔR),” Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980), pp. 6–60 to 6–67.

Swain, J.

J. Hunt, J. Swain, J. W. Harris, “Argus 2ω Modifications,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1979, LLL, Livermore, Calif.UCRL-50021-79 (1980).

Swingle, J. C.

J. J. Ewing, R. A. Haas, J. C. Swingle, E. V. George, W. F. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 368 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Theissen, A.

J. Nuckolls, L. Wood, A. Theissen, G. Zimmerman, Nature London 239, 139 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Tirsell, K. G.

K. G. Tirsell, R. A. Heinle, H. N. Kornblum, V. W. Slivinsky, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 1099 (1979).

Tremholme, J. B.

J. A. Glaze, W. W. Simmons, J. B. Tremholme, “Update of Nova Chain Design and Performance, Nova Memorandum 79-640 (Jan.1980).

Tripp, G.

J. Cheng, J. Noonan, G. Tripp, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 1099 (1979).

Wang, C. L.

C. L. Wang, H. N. Kornblum, V. W. Slivinsky, Bull Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 1106 (1979).

Woernerer, R. L.

R. L. Morrison, R. L. Woernerer, “Glass Sphere Development and Production, Diagnostic Gas Fills,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980), pp. 4–2.

Wood, L.

J. Nuckolls, L. Wood, A. Theissen, G. Zimmerman, Nature London 239, 139 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Zimmerman, G.

J. Nuckolls, L. Wood, A. Theissen, G. Zimmerman, Nature London 239, 139 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

E. M. Campbell, W. M. Ploeger, P. H. Lee, S. M. Lane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 12 (1980).

Bull Am. Phys. Soc.

C. L. Wang, H. N. Kornblum, V. W. Slivinsky, Bull Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 1106 (1979).

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc.

J. Cheng, J. Noonan, G. Tripp, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 1099 (1979).

L. N. Koppel, T. W. Barbee, D. T. Attwood, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 1098 (1979).

D. T. Attwood, N. M. Ceglio, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 1105 (1979).

K. G. Tirsell, R. A. Heinle, H. N. Kornblum, V. W. Slivinsky, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 1099 (1979).

J. M. Auerbach et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 24, 1011 (1979).

Entrpa

E. Fabre et al., “Experiences D'Interaction Laser-Matiere a Differentes Longuers D'Ondes,” Entrpa 15 (89–90), 47 (1979).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

J. J. Ewing, R. A. Haas, J. C. Swingle, E. V. George, W. F. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 368 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Phys.

H. G. Ahlstrom, J. Phys. 40, C7-97 (1979).

Nature London

J. Nuckolls, L. Wood, A. Theissen, G. Zimmerman, Nature London 239, 139 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

E. K. Storm et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 24 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. G. M. Maaswinkel, K. Eidmann, R. Sigel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1625 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Attwood et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 6 (1977).
[CrossRef]

G. McClellan, P. H. Y. Lee, G. Caporaso, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 658 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

M. J. Boyle, H. G. Ahlstrom, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 49, 746 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

R. H. Price, M. J. Boyle, “Wolter Axisymmetric X-ray Microscope Development,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), pp. 6–23 to 6–26.

D. W. Phillion, M. W. Kobiercki, “Shiva Optical Pyrometer,” Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980).

D. J. Kuizenga, “Actively Mode-Locked and Q-Switched Oscillator,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1977, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-77 (1978), pp. 2–207 to2–210.

J. E. Murray, “Regenerative Pulse Compression,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1977, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-77 (1978), pp. 2–207 to 2–210,“Regenerative Pulse Compression,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), pp. 2–210 to 2–219.

N. M. Ceglio, “Fresnel Zone Structures for Advanced X-ray Microscopy,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), pp. 6–30 to 6–37.

D. Campbell, W. Laird, T. Schwinn, “Windowless X-ray Detector with 50-psec Response,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), pp. 6–64 to 6–65.

R. L. Kauffman, H. Medecki, E. P. Pierce, “A Pulsed Calibration of the Soft X-ray Streak Camera,” Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-83095 (1979).

D. W. Phillion, “Optical Preheat Diagnostic,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), pp. 6–40 to 6–45.

E. K. Storm, V. W. Slivinsky, E. M. Campbell, “D-T Fuel Density Determination from Measurements of Pusher Areal Density (ρΔR),” Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980), pp. 6–60 to 6–67.

J. D. Illige, “Electroplating,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980), pp. 4–23 to 4–26.

R. L. Morrison, R. L. Woernerer, “Glass Sphere Development and Production, Diagnostic Gas Fills,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980), pp. 4–2.

G. Dahlbacka, J. Nuckolls, “Laser Driven Isothermal Implosions,” Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-75885 (1974).

H. G. Ahlstrom, “Laser Fusion Implosion and Plasma Interaction Experiments,” Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-79819 (1977).

T. J. Gilmartin, R. O. Godwin, J. F. Holzrichter, W. W. Simmons, “Nova Development,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), Sec. 2.4.

J. A. Glaze, W. W. Simmons, J. B. Tremholme, “Update of Nova Chain Design and Performance, Nova Memorandum 79-640 (Jan.1980).

L. Smith, T. F. Deaton, “Large Aperture Harmonic Generation,” Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980).

W. L. Kruer, “Raman Backscatter in High Temperature, Inhomogeneous Plasmas,” Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), pp. 3–42 to 3–46.

D. W. Phillion, in Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980).

R. Kauffman, “Development of a Time Resolved, Broad-Band, Sub-Kilovolt X-ray Spectrometer for Absolute Flux Measurements,” Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980).

J. D. Lindl, “Low-Aspect Ratio Double Shells for High Density and High Gain,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1977, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-77 (1978), pp. 4–12 to 4–15.

J. Nuckolls, R. O. Bangerter, J. D. Lindl, W. C. Mead, Y. L. Pan, “High-Performance Inertial Confinement Fusion Targets,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1977, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-77 (1978), pp. 4–15 to 4–19.

D. C. Hendricks, “Target Fabrication Overview,” Laser Program Annual Report-1977, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore Calif., UCRL-50021-77 (1978), pp. 5–1 to 4–5.

Laser Program Annual Report-1977, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-77 (1978), Sec. 7.

Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), Sec. 8.

J. Hunt, J. Swain, J. W. Harris, “Argus 2ω Modifications,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1979, LLL, Livermore, Calif.UCRL-50021-79 (1980).

M. H. Key et al., “Review of Recent Work at the SRC Central Laser Facility at the Rutherford Laboratory, Abingdon,” at Thirteenth European Conference on Laser Interaction with Matter, Leipzig (Dec. 1979).

E. M. Campbell, C. E. Max, D. W. Phillion, P. H. Y. Lee, M. Rosen, “Disk Experiments: 2ω Absorption, 2-nsec Absorption,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980).

D. T. Attwood, N. M. Ceglio, “X-ray Probing Diagnostics for High Density Implosion Experiments,” Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), pp. 6–38 to 6–40.

E. M. Campbell et al., “Collection-Fraction Determination Utilizing a Radioactive Tracer,” Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-83072 (1979);to be published in J. Appl. Phys. (Apr.1980).

E. M. Campbell, “Neutron Activation Diagnostics for High Density Targets,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), pp. 6–45 to 6–52.

E. M. Campbell et al., “Determination of Fuel ρR of ICF Targets by Neutron Activation,” Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-83073;to be published in J. Appl. Phys. (Apr.1980).

S. Lane, “Implosion Measurements with Neutron Activation,” Lawrence Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980).

D. W. Phillion, K. G. Estabrook, “Stimulated Raman Scattering Experiments,” Laser Program Annual Report-1979, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-79 (1980).

J. M. Auerbach et al., “Compression of Polymer Coated Laser Fusion Targets to 10× Liquid DT Density,”Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-83989 (1980);submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.

W. C. Mead, C. D. Orth, D. S. Bailey, G. McClellan, K. G. Estabrook, “Analysis of Dense Laser-Driven Implosion for Intermediate Densities,” Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-83163 (1979).

“Shiva Accomplishments,” Sec. 2.2, and “Shiva System Development,” Sec. 2.3, Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979).

J. M. Auerbach, “Target Alignment Codes: ALIGN, GEOBM, litar, PLANAR,” Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), Sec. 6.11.5.

K. R. Manes, F. D. Feiock, “Laser Irradiation on Target (LITAR) Code,” Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), pp. 6–66 to 6–67.

W. Lee Smith, T. F. Deaton, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Inertial Confinement Fusion (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1980), paper ThF7.

J. Foster, “Ad Hoc Experts Group on Fusion Report” (1979).

W. E. Martin, “Progress in Rectangular Disk Amplifiers,” in Laser Program Annual Report-1978, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif., UCRL-50021-78 (1979), pp. 7–4 to 7–8.

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Figures (40)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

LLNL Laser Fusion Program has already achieved 100× liquid DT density which corresponds to = 5 × 1014 cm−3 sec and DT ion temperatures of 8 keV. High density ignition experiments are projected for Nova.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Shiva beams arrayed in two clusters of ten where there is an inner and outer pentagonal cluster on each side. Each beam has an opposite member so that for point focusing ten diagonals would represent the twenty beams. The two ten-beam clusters are arrayed to approximate two radially polarized beams incident on the target.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Argus configuration for 2ω0 532-nm target interaction experiments.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Nova chain design. Optical schematic showing one (of ten) Nova Phase I amplifier chains. Following the amplifiers, a final spatial filter expands the beam to 74-cm clear aperture for transport to the (AR-coated) target focusing optics. Dashed amplifiers indicate later amplifier additions to achieve full 400-kJ Nova Phase II capability.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Nova chain performance assuming existing damage technology: A, fluence limit and near term improvements; B, fluence limit.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Nova target chamber for Phase I with 110° cone angle for lens clusters.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Nova target illumination geometry and intensity distribution for Phase I.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

A light collector on Shiva located at θ = 20° which directs light to the Raman scattering spectrograph.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Shiva Raman spectrograph receiving scattered light collected by the system described in Fig. 8 and transmitted to the spectrograph by a quartz optical fiber.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Dante low energy < 1-keV time resolved spectrograph using x-ray filters and critical angle reflection mirrors to provide five well-defined spectral data channels.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Typical Dante filter-mirror channel illustrates where a grazing incidence x-ray mirror provides high energy discrimination of the x-ray spectrum.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Spectral response functions of the five-channel mirror Dante spectrometer providing well-defined narrow spectral response functions from 100 to 800 eV.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Conceptual illustration of the soft x-ray streak camera spectrometer used on Shiva.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Seven x-ray spectral response functions from 100 to 900 eV employed on the Shiva soft x-ray streak camera spectrometer.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Shiva x-ray backlighting system utilizing a Wolter 22× streak camera to provide data on implosion dynamics.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Laser irradiated Ti, Ni, and Zn disks produce intense sources of He-like K x rays.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Shiva optical pyrometer used to view optical emission from the back surface of disk targets, which is produced by suprathermal electrons or shock waves: (a) plan view; (b) side view.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Kα x-ray emission from a structured target used to study the suprathermal electron spectrum.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Positron detection scheme using our 25.4-cm diameter and 25.4-cm long Nal well detector to measure the annihilation gammas and Ne 111 fluors to measure the energy of the positrons.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Short wavelengths, long pulse lengths, and low intensities produce high absorption efficiency.

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

For 2ωL experiments on Au targets, the absorption as a function of angle of incidence is constant over the 0–30° range.

Fig. 22
Fig. 22

Doppler and Brillouin shifts can be determined from the angular dependence of the mean red shift of the laser light reflected back through the focusing lens.

Fig. 23
Fig. 23

532-nm disk target experiments show the spectrum of the backreflected light shifting to the red for both Au and CH targets for increasing target tilt.

Fig. 24
Fig. 24

Raman scattered light observed on gold, barium, and tin disk targets irradiated at 5 × 1014 W/cm2.

Fig. 25
Fig. 25

Raman scattering is significantly reduced at short pulses, 100 psec.

Fig. 26
Fig. 26

The Polar angle distribution of high energy x rays is anisotropic.

Fig. 27
Fig. 27

X-ray film used as the detector. The film density distribution shows that the x-ray emission is anisotropic.

Fig. 28
Fig. 28

Fraction of the absorbed laser energy radiated by high Z targets increasing with decreasing laser intensity and laser wavelength.

Fig. 29
Fig. 29

Z dependence of the time resolved subkiloelectron volt x-ray emission from the laser-produced plasma indicating a Z dependence of the intensity threshold for inhibited conduction.

Fig. 30
Fig. 30

Time dependence of the subkiloelectron volt emission for two Au disk irradiated at two intensities also indicating an intensity threshold for inhibited conduction. The 520-eV Dante channel was used with 190-psec time resolution.

Fig. 31
Fig. 31

Typical exploding pusher target characterized by a thin glass pusher and a short high intensity irradiation pulse. High suprath- ermal electron preheat and a strong ion shock wave in the fuel lead to thermonuclear temperatures but low final density.

Fig. 32
Fig. 32

Ablatively driven implosion targets characterized by low Z ablators, high Z pushers, and long monotonically increasing laser pulses of several nanoseconds.

Fig. 33
Fig. 33

Exploding pusher and intermediate density target structures, irradiation conditions, and results compared for Shiva experiments.

Fig. 34
Fig. 34

High energy x-ray emission from 10× targets suggesting that the fraction of the absorbed energy in suprathermal electrons f hot is >0.5.

Fig. 35
Fig. 35

Radius vs time for the 10× fusion capsule showing early ablation followed by pusher decompression.

Fig. 36
Fig. 36

Fuel pressure-density trajectories must approach the Fermi degenerate isentrope for efficient compression to high densities.

Fig. 37
Fig. 37

Thermal conduction cooling of the fuel by the large mass of cool pusher material during the stagnation of the fuel leading to the peak density being achieved 160 psec after the peak burn.

Fig. 38
Fig. 38

Results of lasnex calculations of the 10× experiments showing that the fuel density can be inferred from pusher ρΔR measurements with a factor of 2 uncertainty.

Fig. 39
Fig. 39

The 6.5-keV continuum x-ray image provides additional data which supports the attainment of 10× liquid DT density.

Fig. 40
Fig. 40

High fuel density in Shiva target experiments were achieved at the expense of decreasing the final fuel temperature and thus the neutron yield.

Tables (3)

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Table I Neutron Activation Measurements of Pusher and Fuel Areal Densities a

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Table II Raman Light Measurements for Gold Disks Irradiated at High Intensity a

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Table III Measurement Summary of 10× Liquid Density Experimentsa 140 × 5 + 15 CF balls τ = 200 psec FWHM

Equations (1)

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( 0.5 ω R ω L ) max = 9 4 ( k T e m e c 2 ) .

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