Abstract

Use of the wavelength and size dependence of light scattering from optically levitated liquid drops is demonstrated as a sensitive means of detecting optical resonances of dielectric spheres. High resolution spectra are presented of the radiation pressure, far- and near-field backscatter, and 90° scatter. Excellent agreement is found between experimental spectra and high resolution Mie calculations of Chylek et al. Strong evidence supporting the van de Hulst dielectric surface-wave model for these resonances is presented. Use of resonances for high precision measurement of sphere size and sphere distortion, index of refraction, temperature, and vapor pressure is discussed.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).
  3. P. Chylek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, Phys. Rev. A: 18, 2229 (1978); Appl. Opt. 17, 3019 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Walstra, Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Wet. B67, 491 (1964).
  5. W. M. Irvine, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 16 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. C. Bryant, A. J. Cox, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 1529 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. Khare, H. M. Nussenzveig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 976 (1974); Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1279 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. S. Fahlen, H. C. Bryant, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 304 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Atlas, L. J. Battan, W. G. Harper, B. M. Herman, M. Kerker, E. Matijevio, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-11, 68 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. R. Probert-Jones, Electromagnetic Scattering (Macmillan, New York, 1963), p. 237.
  11. J. Rheinstein, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-16, 89 (1968); J. J. Stephens, P. S. Ray, R. J. Kurzeja, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 785 (1971); H. Inada, Appl. Opt. 13, 1928 (1974); P. S. Ray, J. S. Stephens, T. W. Kitterman, Appl. Opt. 14, 2492 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 283 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Science 187, 1073 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 202 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Ashkin, Science 210, 1081 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. Chýlek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, A. Ashkin, in Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D.W. Scheuerman, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), p. 153.
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic; unpublished results.
  18. R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. Chýlek, private communication.
  20. H. M. Nussenzveig, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1068 (1979); Sci. Am. 236, 116 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Opt. 19, 680 (1980).
    [CrossRef]

1980 (3)

A. Ashkin, Science 210, 1081 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Opt. 19, 680 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1978 (1)

P. Chylek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, Phys. Rev. A: 18, 2229 (1978); Appl. Opt. 17, 3019 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (2)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 202 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Science 187, 1073 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

V. Khare, H. M. Nussenzveig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 976 (1974); Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1279 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 283 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1968 (2)

T. S. Fahlen, H. C. Bryant, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 304 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Rheinstein, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-16, 89 (1968); J. J. Stephens, P. S. Ray, R. J. Kurzeja, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 785 (1971); H. Inada, Appl. Opt. 13, 1928 (1974); P. S. Ray, J. S. Stephens, T. W. Kitterman, Appl. Opt. 14, 2492 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1966 (1)

1965 (1)

1964 (1)

P. Walstra, Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Wet. B67, 491 (1964).

1963 (1)

D. Atlas, L. J. Battan, W. G. Harper, B. M. Herman, M. Kerker, E. Matijevio, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-11, 68 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, Science 210, 1081 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Opt. 19, 680 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 202 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Science 187, 1073 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 283 (1971).
[CrossRef]

P. Chýlek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, A. Ashkin, in Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D.W. Scheuerman, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), p. 153.
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic; unpublished results.

Atlas, D.

D. Atlas, L. J. Battan, W. G. Harper, B. M. Herman, M. Kerker, E. Matijevio, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-11, 68 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Barber, P. W.

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Battan, L. J.

D. Atlas, L. J. Battan, W. G. Harper, B. M. Herman, M. Kerker, E. Matijevio, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-11, 68 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Benner, R. E.

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bryant, H. C.

Chang, R. K.

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Chylek, P.

P. Chylek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, Phys. Rev. A: 18, 2229 (1978); Appl. Opt. 17, 3019 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chýlek, P.

P. Chýlek, private communication.

P. Chýlek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, A. Ashkin, in Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D.W. Scheuerman, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), p. 153.
[CrossRef]

Cox, A. J.

Dziedzic, J. M.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Opt. 19, 680 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 202 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Science 187, 1073 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 283 (1971).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic; unpublished results.

Fahlen, T. S.

Harper, W. G.

D. Atlas, L. J. Battan, W. G. Harper, B. M. Herman, M. Kerker, E. Matijevio, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-11, 68 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Herman, B. M.

D. Atlas, L. J. Battan, W. G. Harper, B. M. Herman, M. Kerker, E. Matijevio, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-11, 68 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Irvine, W. M.

Kerker, M.

D. Atlas, L. J. Battan, W. G. Harper, B. M. Herman, M. Kerker, E. Matijevio, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-11, 68 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Khare, V.

V. Khare, H. M. Nussenzveig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 976 (1974); Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1279 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kiehl, J. T.

P. Chylek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, Phys. Rev. A: 18, 2229 (1978); Appl. Opt. 17, 3019 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chýlek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, A. Ashkin, in Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D.W. Scheuerman, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), p. 153.
[CrossRef]

Ko, M. K. W.

P. Chylek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, Phys. Rev. A: 18, 2229 (1978); Appl. Opt. 17, 3019 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chýlek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, A. Ashkin, in Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D.W. Scheuerman, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), p. 153.
[CrossRef]

Matijevio, E.

D. Atlas, L. J. Battan, W. G. Harper, B. M. Herman, M. Kerker, E. Matijevio, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-11, 68 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Nussenzveig, H. M.

H. M. Nussenzveig, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1068 (1979); Sci. Am. 236, 116 (1977).
[CrossRef]

V. Khare, H. M. Nussenzveig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 976 (1974); Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1279 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Owen, J. F.

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Probert-Jones, J. R.

J. R. Probert-Jones, Electromagnetic Scattering (Macmillan, New York, 1963), p. 237.

Rheinstein, J.

J. Rheinstein, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-16, 89 (1968); J. J. Stephens, P. S. Ray, R. J. Kurzeja, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 785 (1971); H. Inada, Appl. Opt. 13, 1928 (1974); P. S. Ray, J. S. Stephens, T. W. Kitterman, Appl. Opt. 14, 2492 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

Walstra, P.

P. Walstra, Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Wet. B67, 491 (1964).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 283 (1971).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 202 (1977).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (2)

J. Rheinstein, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-16, 89 (1968); J. J. Stephens, P. S. Ray, R. J. Kurzeja, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 785 (1971); H. Inada, Appl. Opt. 13, 1928 (1974); P. S. Ray, J. S. Stephens, T. W. Kitterman, Appl. Opt. 14, 2492 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Atlas, L. J. Battan, W. G. Harper, B. M. Herman, M. Kerker, E. Matijevio, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-11, 68 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

P. Chylek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, Phys. Rev. A: 18, 2229 (1978); Appl. Opt. 17, 3019 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977).
[CrossRef]

V. Khare, H. M. Nussenzveig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 976 (1974); Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1279 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Wet. (1)

P. Walstra, Proc. K. Ned. Akad. Wet. B67, 491 (1964).

Science (2)

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Science 187, 1073 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, Science 210, 1081 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

P. Chýlek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, A. Ashkin, in Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D.W. Scheuerman, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), p. 153.
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic; unpublished results.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

J. R. Probert-Jones, Electromagnetic Scattering (Macmillan, New York, 1963), p. 237.

P. Chýlek, private communication.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of levitation and feedback apparatus.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Wavelength dependence of (A) PLEV, (B) far-field backscatter, (C) far-field 90° ⊥ scatter, and (D) far-field 90° ∥ scatter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(A) PLEV spectrum, (B) backscatter with an ~1.5° acceptance angle, (C) backscatter with an ~4.0° acceptance angle, (D) theoretical PLEV, and (E) theoretical backscatter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

PLEV and backscatter spectrum for ≅11.4-μm diam oil drop of n ≅ 1.47.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Near-field backscatter photographs of a 12-μm diam silicone oil drop (A) at a sharp parallel resonance (B) at a sharp perpendicular resonance.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(A) Sketch identifying various features of backscatter light in Fig. 5; (B) sketch of the origin of the axial reflection and resonant surface-wave light.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(A) PLEV spectrum; (B) parallel resonances in backscattered light as seen at aperture L1; (C) perpendicular resonances in backscattered light as seen at aperture L2; and (D) PLEV spectrum and axially reflected light as seen at aperture L3.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Near-field photographs of 90° perpendicular light (A) when tuned off resonance and (B) when tuned onto a sharp resonance.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(A) Sketch of 90° scattered light and (B) location of apertures for recording near-field light.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Segment of the spectra of (A) PLEV and total 90° perpendicular scattered light, (B) 90° perpendicular scattered light from aperture L1, (C) 90° perpendicular scattered light from aperture L2, and (D) 90° perpendicular scattered light from aperture L3.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Sketch of a sphere levitated in the beam focus at P1 and above the beam focus at P2.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(A) PLEV spectrum for sphere at position P2 of Fig. 11 and (B) PLEV spectrum for the same sphere at position P1 of Fig. 11.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

PLEV of an evaporating oil vs time in minutes.

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