Abstract

A surface profiling instrument is described which produces digitized surface profiles and other statistical data. Sharp styli are available that can give height resolution of the order of 1–2 Å and lateral resolution of a few tenths of a micrometer on smooth surfaces. The stylus loading can be adjusted so that no permanent marks are left on the surface. Representative surface profiles and autocovariance functions are shown for various materials, and roughnesses measured with the instrument are compared with values obtained using other techniques.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. E. Bennett, J. O. Porteus, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 123 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, New York, 1963).
  3. J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 31 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, Opt. Eng. 18, 116 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).
  6. J. M. Bennett, Appl. Opt. 15, 2705 (1976), and references therein.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. E. Sommargren, Appl. Opt. 20, 610 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. N. Schwartz, R. Brown, “A Stylus Method for Evaluating the Thickness of Thin Films and Substrate Surface Roughness,” in Transactions of the Eighth Vacuum Symposium and Second International Congress (Pergamon, New York, 1961), pp. 836–845.
  9. W. B. Estill, J. C. Moody, ISA Trans. 5, 373 (1966).
  10. H. L. Eschbach, F. Verheyen, Thin Solid Films 21, 237 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Kubo, Acta Imeko 21, 115 (1964).
  12. M. Kubo, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 236 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. A. Greenwood, J. B. P. Williamson, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A: 295, 300 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Manufactured by Rank Precision Industries, Ltd., Leicester LE1 9JB, England (U.S. address: 411 East Jarvis Avenue, Des Plaines, Ill. 60018).
  15. T. R. Thomas, S. D. Probert, J. Phys. D: 3, 277 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. J. Whitehouse, J. F. Archard, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A: 316, 97 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. C. Teague, “Evaluation, Revision and Application of the NBS Stylus/Computer System for the Measurement of Surface Roughness,” Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Tech. Note 902 (U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C.Apr.1976).
  18. E. C. Teague, NBS; private communications, 1979, 1981.
  19. C. J. Pellerin, J. Christensen, R. C. Jerner, J. H. Peavey, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 496 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Manufactured by Sloan Technology Corp., 414 E. Cota St., Santa Barbara, Calif. 93101.
  21. Interferometric film thickness measurements are described on pp. 24–37 of the reference by H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, “Precision Measurements in Thin Film Optics,” in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, R. E. Thun, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1967), Vol. 4, pp. 1–96.
  22. R. J. King, M. J. Downs, P. B. Clapham, K. W. Raine, S. P. Talim, J. Phys. E: 5, 445 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Jungles, D. J. Whitehouse, J. Phys. E: 3, 437 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. F. Verrill, J. Phys. E: 6, 1199 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Manufactured by Ernst Fr. Weinz, WEKA-OHG, D-6580 Idar-Oberstein 2, Federal Republic of Germany.
  26. N. Gane, J. M. Cox, Philos. Mag. 22, 881 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  27. D. J. Whitehouse, “Stylus Techniques” in Characterization of Solid Surfaces, P. F. Kane, G. B. Larrabee, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), pp. 49–74.
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. M. Wong, G. Krauss, J. M. Bennett, “Optical and Metallurgical Characterization of Molybdenum Laser Mirrors,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1978, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 541 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1978), pp. 132–163.
  29. J. M. Bennett, S. M. Wong, G. Krauss, Appl. Opt. 19, 3562 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. D. L. Decker, D. J. Grandjean, “Physical and Optical Properties of Surfaces Generated by Diamond-Turning on an Advanced Machine,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1978, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. Spec. Publ. 541 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1978), pp. 122–130.
  31. J. M. Bennett, J. M. Elson, “Surface Statistics of Selected Optical Materials,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1977, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. Spec. Publ. 509 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1977), pp. 142–155.
  32. H. E. Bennett, Opt. Eng. 17, 480 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  33. J. M. Bennett, D. K. Burge, J. P. Rahn, H. E. Bennett, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 181, 124 (1979).
  34. J. O. Porteus, M. J. Soileau, C. W. Fountain, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 156 (1976); J. O. Porteus, D. L. Decker, J. L. Jernigan, W. N. Faith, M. Bass, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 776 (1978).
    [CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

1979 (3)

J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 31 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, Opt. Eng. 18, 116 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bennett, D. K. Burge, J. P. Rahn, H. E. Bennett, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 181, 124 (1979).

1978 (1)

H. E. Bennett, Opt. Eng. 17, 480 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

J. M. Bennett, Appl. Opt. 15, 2705 (1976), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. O. Porteus, M. J. Soileau, C. W. Fountain, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 156 (1976); J. O. Porteus, D. L. Decker, J. L. Jernigan, W. N. Faith, M. Bass, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 776 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

C. J. Pellerin, J. Christensen, R. C. Jerner, J. H. Peavey, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 496 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

H. L. Eschbach, F. Verheyen, Thin Solid Films 21, 237 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

J. F. Verrill, J. Phys. E: 6, 1199 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

R. J. King, M. J. Downs, P. B. Clapham, K. W. Raine, S. P. Talim, J. Phys. E: 5, 445 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970 (4)

J. Jungles, D. J. Whitehouse, J. Phys. E: 3, 437 (1970).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Thomas, S. D. Probert, J. Phys. D: 3, 277 (1970).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Whitehouse, J. F. Archard, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A: 316, 97 (1970).
[CrossRef]

N. Gane, J. M. Cox, Philos. Mag. 22, 881 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1966 (2)

W. B. Estill, J. C. Moody, ISA Trans. 5, 373 (1966).

J. A. Greenwood, J. B. P. Williamson, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A: 295, 300 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

M. Kubo, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 236 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

M. Kubo, Acta Imeko 21, 115 (1964).

1961 (1)

Archard, J. F.

D. J. Whitehouse, J. F. Archard, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A: 316, 97 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Beckmann, P.

P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, New York, 1963).

Bennett, H. E.

J. M. Bennett, D. K. Burge, J. P. Rahn, H. E. Bennett, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 181, 124 (1979).

H. E. Bennett, Opt. Eng. 17, 480 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Bennett, J. O. Porteus, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 123 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Interferometric film thickness measurements are described on pp. 24–37 of the reference by H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, “Precision Measurements in Thin Film Optics,” in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, R. E. Thun, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1967), Vol. 4, pp. 1–96.

Bennett, J. M.

J. M. Bennett, S. M. Wong, G. Krauss, Appl. Opt. 19, 3562 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Bennett, D. K. Burge, J. P. Rahn, H. E. Bennett, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 181, 124 (1979).

J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, Opt. Eng. 18, 116 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 31 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bennett, Appl. Opt. 15, 2705 (1976), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Bennett, J. M. Elson, “Surface Statistics of Selected Optical Materials,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1977, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. Spec. Publ. 509 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1977), pp. 142–155.

Interferometric film thickness measurements are described on pp. 24–37 of the reference by H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, “Precision Measurements in Thin Film Optics,” in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, R. E. Thun, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1967), Vol. 4, pp. 1–96.

S. M. Wong, G. Krauss, J. M. Bennett, “Optical and Metallurgical Characterization of Molybdenum Laser Mirrors,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1978, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 541 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1978), pp. 132–163.

Brown, R.

N. Schwartz, R. Brown, “A Stylus Method for Evaluating the Thickness of Thin Films and Substrate Surface Roughness,” in Transactions of the Eighth Vacuum Symposium and Second International Congress (Pergamon, New York, 1961), pp. 836–845.

Burge, D. K.

J. M. Bennett, D. K. Burge, J. P. Rahn, H. E. Bennett, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 181, 124 (1979).

Christensen, J.

C. J. Pellerin, J. Christensen, R. C. Jerner, J. H. Peavey, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 496 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Clapham, P. B.

R. J. King, M. J. Downs, P. B. Clapham, K. W. Raine, S. P. Talim, J. Phys. E: 5, 445 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cox, J. M.

N. Gane, J. M. Cox, Philos. Mag. 22, 881 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Decker, D. L.

D. L. Decker, D. J. Grandjean, “Physical and Optical Properties of Surfaces Generated by Diamond-Turning on an Advanced Machine,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1978, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. Spec. Publ. 541 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1978), pp. 122–130.

Downs, M. J.

R. J. King, M. J. Downs, P. B. Clapham, K. W. Raine, S. P. Talim, J. Phys. E: 5, 445 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Elson, J. M.

J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, Opt. Eng. 18, 116 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 31 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bennett, J. M. Elson, “Surface Statistics of Selected Optical Materials,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1977, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. Spec. Publ. 509 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1977), pp. 142–155.

Eschbach, H. L.

H. L. Eschbach, F. Verheyen, Thin Solid Films 21, 237 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Estill, W. B.

W. B. Estill, J. C. Moody, ISA Trans. 5, 373 (1966).

Fountain, C. W.

J. O. Porteus, M. J. Soileau, C. W. Fountain, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 156 (1976); J. O. Porteus, D. L. Decker, J. L. Jernigan, W. N. Faith, M. Bass, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 776 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Gane, N.

N. Gane, J. M. Cox, Philos. Mag. 22, 881 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Grandjean, D. J.

D. L. Decker, D. J. Grandjean, “Physical and Optical Properties of Surfaces Generated by Diamond-Turning on an Advanced Machine,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1978, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. Spec. Publ. 541 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1978), pp. 122–130.

Greenwood, J. A.

J. A. Greenwood, J. B. P. Williamson, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A: 295, 300 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Jerner, R. C.

C. J. Pellerin, J. Christensen, R. C. Jerner, J. H. Peavey, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 496 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Jungles, J.

J. Jungles, D. J. Whitehouse, J. Phys. E: 3, 437 (1970).
[CrossRef]

King, R. J.

R. J. King, M. J. Downs, P. B. Clapham, K. W. Raine, S. P. Talim, J. Phys. E: 5, 445 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, G.

J. M. Bennett, S. M. Wong, G. Krauss, Appl. Opt. 19, 3562 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Wong, G. Krauss, J. M. Bennett, “Optical and Metallurgical Characterization of Molybdenum Laser Mirrors,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1978, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 541 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1978), pp. 132–163.

Kubo, M.

M. Kubo, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 236 (1965).
[CrossRef]

M. Kubo, Acta Imeko 21, 115 (1964).

Moody, J. C.

W. B. Estill, J. C. Moody, ISA Trans. 5, 373 (1966).

Peavey, J. H.

C. J. Pellerin, J. Christensen, R. C. Jerner, J. H. Peavey, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 496 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Pellerin, C. J.

C. J. Pellerin, J. Christensen, R. C. Jerner, J. H. Peavey, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 496 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Porteus, J. O.

J. O. Porteus, M. J. Soileau, C. W. Fountain, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 156 (1976); J. O. Porteus, D. L. Decker, J. L. Jernigan, W. N. Faith, M. Bass, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 776 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Bennett, J. O. Porteus, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 123 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Probert, S. D.

T. R. Thomas, S. D. Probert, J. Phys. D: 3, 277 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Rahn, J. P.

J. M. Bennett, D. K. Burge, J. P. Rahn, H. E. Bennett, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 181, 124 (1979).

Raine, K. W.

R. J. King, M. J. Downs, P. B. Clapham, K. W. Raine, S. P. Talim, J. Phys. E: 5, 445 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, N.

N. Schwartz, R. Brown, “A Stylus Method for Evaluating the Thickness of Thin Films and Substrate Surface Roughness,” in Transactions of the Eighth Vacuum Symposium and Second International Congress (Pergamon, New York, 1961), pp. 836–845.

Soileau, M. J.

J. O. Porteus, M. J. Soileau, C. W. Fountain, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 156 (1976); J. O. Porteus, D. L. Decker, J. L. Jernigan, W. N. Faith, M. Bass, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 776 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sommargren, G. E.

Spizzichino, A.

P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, New York, 1963).

Talim, S. P.

R. J. King, M. J. Downs, P. B. Clapham, K. W. Raine, S. P. Talim, J. Phys. E: 5, 445 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Teague, E. C.

E. C. Teague, “Evaluation, Revision and Application of the NBS Stylus/Computer System for the Measurement of Surface Roughness,” Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Tech. Note 902 (U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C.Apr.1976).

E. C. Teague, NBS; private communications, 1979, 1981.

Thomas, T. R.

T. R. Thomas, S. D. Probert, J. Phys. D: 3, 277 (1970).
[CrossRef]

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

Verheyen, F.

H. L. Eschbach, F. Verheyen, Thin Solid Films 21, 237 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Verrill, J. F.

J. F. Verrill, J. Phys. E: 6, 1199 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Whitehouse, D. J.

J. Jungles, D. J. Whitehouse, J. Phys. E: 3, 437 (1970).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Whitehouse, J. F. Archard, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A: 316, 97 (1970).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Whitehouse, “Stylus Techniques” in Characterization of Solid Surfaces, P. F. Kane, G. B. Larrabee, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), pp. 49–74.
[CrossRef]

Williamson, J. B. P.

J. A. Greenwood, J. B. P. Williamson, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A: 295, 300 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Wong, S. M.

J. M. Bennett, S. M. Wong, G. Krauss, Appl. Opt. 19, 3562 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Wong, G. Krauss, J. M. Bennett, “Optical and Metallurgical Characterization of Molybdenum Laser Mirrors,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1978, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 541 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1978), pp. 132–163.

Acta Imeko (1)

M. Kubo, Acta Imeko 21, 115 (1964).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. O. Porteus, M. J. Soileau, C. W. Fountain, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 156 (1976); J. O. Porteus, D. L. Decker, J. L. Jernigan, W. N. Faith, M. Bass, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 776 (1978).
[CrossRef]

ISA Trans. (1)

W. B. Estill, J. C. Moody, ISA Trans. 5, 373 (1966).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Phys. D (1)

T. R. Thomas, S. D. Probert, J. Phys. D: 3, 277 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E (3)

R. J. King, M. J. Downs, P. B. Clapham, K. W. Raine, S. P. Talim, J. Phys. E: 5, 445 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Jungles, D. J. Whitehouse, J. Phys. E: 3, 437 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Verrill, J. Phys. E: 6, 1199 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. J. Pellerin, J. Christensen, R. C. Jerner, J. H. Peavey, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 496 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

H. E. Bennett, Opt. Eng. 17, 480 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, Opt. Eng. 18, 116 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Mag. (1)

N. Gane, J. M. Cox, Philos. Mag. 22, 881 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A: (2)

D. J. Whitehouse, J. F. Archard, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A: 316, 97 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Greenwood, J. B. P. Williamson, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A: 295, 300 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

J. M. Bennett, D. K. Burge, J. P. Rahn, H. E. Bennett, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 181, 124 (1979).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. Kubo, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 36, 236 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

H. L. Eschbach, F. Verheyen, Thin Solid Films 21, 237 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Other (13)

N. Schwartz, R. Brown, “A Stylus Method for Evaluating the Thickness of Thin Films and Substrate Surface Roughness,” in Transactions of the Eighth Vacuum Symposium and Second International Congress (Pergamon, New York, 1961), pp. 836–845.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

P. Beckmann, A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces (Pergamon, New York, 1963).

Manufactured by Rank Precision Industries, Ltd., Leicester LE1 9JB, England (U.S. address: 411 East Jarvis Avenue, Des Plaines, Ill. 60018).

E. C. Teague, “Evaluation, Revision and Application of the NBS Stylus/Computer System for the Measurement of Surface Roughness,” Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Tech. Note 902 (U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C.Apr.1976).

E. C. Teague, NBS; private communications, 1979, 1981.

D. L. Decker, D. J. Grandjean, “Physical and Optical Properties of Surfaces Generated by Diamond-Turning on an Advanced Machine,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1978, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. Spec. Publ. 541 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1978), pp. 122–130.

J. M. Bennett, J. M. Elson, “Surface Statistics of Selected Optical Materials,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1977, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. Spec. Publ. 509 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1977), pp. 142–155.

D. J. Whitehouse, “Stylus Techniques” in Characterization of Solid Surfaces, P. F. Kane, G. B. Larrabee, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), pp. 49–74.
[CrossRef]

S. M. Wong, G. Krauss, J. M. Bennett, “Optical and Metallurgical Characterization of Molybdenum Laser Mirrors,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1978, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Nat. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 541 (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1978), pp. 132–163.

Manufactured by Sloan Technology Corp., 414 E. Cota St., Santa Barbara, Calif. 93101.

Interferometric film thickness measurements are described on pp. 24–37 of the reference by H. E. Bennett, J. M. Bennett, “Precision Measurements in Thin Film Optics,” in Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, R. E. Thun, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1967), Vol. 4, pp. 1–96.

Manufactured by Ernst Fr. Weinz, WEKA-OHG, D-6580 Idar-Oberstein 2, Federal Republic of Germany.

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Figures (22)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the surface profiling instrument. Scanning electron micrographs of two diamond styli are shown below, with an enlargement of the sharper one shown at the lower right. On the same scale, a surface of <100-Å rms roughness and 1° rms slope appears as a straight line.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning electron micrographs of (a) conical tip stylus, 8-μm radius, and (b) shovel-shaped pyramidal tip stylus with radii of 0.2 × 2.4 μm. The tips were coated with a thin layer of gold to prevent charging.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scanning electron micrographs of (a) conical tip stylus, 1.2-μm radius, (b) triangular tip stylus, 0.8-μm radius, and (c) pyramidal tip stylus, 0.6 × 1.6-μm radii. The tips were coated with a thin layer of gold to prevent charging.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Tracks made in single-crystal KCl with different styli. From left to right, the loadings are 10, 2, 1, and 0.5 mg in (a), (b), and (c); 10 and 2 mg in (d) and (e).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation in hardness of single-crystal KCl with stylus load for two different styli. Open data points (and curves) are calculated from track widths; solid data points are calculated from diameters of stylus indentations.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Profile on single-crystal KCl showing variations in identation as a function of stylus loading using the pyramidal tip stylus with 0.6 × 1.6-μm radii.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic representation (not to scale) of a sinusoidal surface component with amplitude h and period d and a stylus of radius r (from Ref. 3).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Surface profiles of a grating ruled in aluminum on polished molybdenum (grating spacing 3.6 μm) showing the effect of stylus radius on lateral resolution. The profiles are made with (a) 8-μm and (b) 1-μm radius styli.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Surface profiles of a holographic grating formed in photoresist (grating spacing 18.1 μm) showing the effect of stylus radius on lateral resolution.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Jig used to hold stylus for inspection and cleaning. The stylus orientation can be changed from horizontal to 45° and to vertical by turning the entire block; the stylus can be rotated about its own axis.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Surface profiles of selected polished optical materials for a 600-μm scan length. The measured rms roughnesses for these surfaces are given at the right of each scan.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Surface profiles of the same materials as in Fig. 11 for a 60-μm scan length. A trace of the instrumental noise is shown between the profiles for BK-7 glass and silicon.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Surface profiles of polished molybdenum and diamond-turned copper (scan perpendicular to the grooves) for a 600-μm scan length. The measured rms roughnesses for these surfaces are given at the right of each scan.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Surface profiles of the same two materials as in Fig. 13 for a 60-μm scan length.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Autocovariance function for the extremely smooth-polished silicon surface whose profiles were shown in Figs. 11 and 12. Theinitial portion of the curve has been replotted on an expanded ρ scale. The initial spike and high frequency oscillations are instrumental effects.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Autocovariance function for the polished BK-7 glass surface whose profiles were shown in Figs. 11 and 12. The initial portion of the curve has been replotted on an expanded ρ scale.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Autocovariance function for the diamond-turned copper surface whose profiles were shown in Figs. 13 and 14. The oscillations are caused by a periodic vibration in the machine and/or tool and are not adjacent grooves on the sample.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Scattering and surface profile roughness measurements made on the same surfaces.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Separations of surface features (spatial wavelengths) which, from the grating equation, would be expected to produce light scattering at angles between 1° and 90° from the specular beam for normal incidence irradiation. The dashed lines show the range of values of d for a wavelength of 0.5 μm (from Ref. 3).

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Surface scan over a double step on a photoetched silicon wafer.

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

Profiles of a #60 standard scratch with the vertical scale equal to the horizontal scale in (a) and equal to 10 times the horizontal scale in (b).

Fig. 22
Fig. 22

Profile of a laser damage crater in multilayer film-coated molybdenum (from Ref. 28).

Tables (1)

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Table I Comparison of Surface Statistics Measured on the Surface Profiling Instrument and on an Optical Heterodyne Profilometer7

Equations (1)

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d > 2 π h r .

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