Abstract

Monitoring implies the measurement and control of the parameters of optical thin films during deposition with the object of ensuring the production of an acceptable coating. Monitoring techniques usually concentrate on film thickness as the most important parameter. The principal monitoring arrangements in current use are surveyed with a brief account of their relative merits. It is shown that they are less able to cope with refractive-index errors than with simple thickness errors and that tight control of material parameters is required to take advantage of recent advances in monitoring techniques.

© 1981 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Banning, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 792 (1947).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. D. Polster, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 21 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Giacomo, P. Jacquinot, J. Phys. Rad. 13, 59A (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. H. Lissberger, J. Ring, Opt. Acta, 2, 42 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. S. Ritchie, Ph.D. Thesis, U. Reading, (1970). Summarized in H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters, (Hilger, London, 1969).]
  6. H. A. Macleod, Opt. Acta 19, 1 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Bousquet, A. Fornier, R. Kowalczyk, E. Pelletier, P. Roche, Thin Solid Films 13, 285 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, Opt. Acta 24, 907 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. A. Efremenko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 289–293 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Pelletier, R. Kowalczyk, A. Fornier, Opt. Acta 20, 509 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Vidal, A. Fornier, E. Pelletier, Appl. Opt. 17, 1038 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. B. Vidal, A. Fornier, E. Pelletier, Appl. Opt. 18, 3851 (1979).
    [PubMed]
  13. C. Holm, Appl. Opt. 18, 1978 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. Vidal, E. Pelletier, Appl. Opt. 18, 3857 (1979).
    [PubMed]
  15. S. N. Jasperson, D. K. Burge, R. C. O’Handley, Surf. Sci. 37, 548 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. H. Behrndt, Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, R. E. Thun, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1966), Vol. 3, pp. 1–59.
  17. C. J. vd Laan, H. J. Frankena, Vacuum 27, 391 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. K. Pulker, Opt. Spectra, 12(8), 43August, 1978).
  19. J. English, T. Putner, L. Holland, in Proceedings of the Fourth International Vacuum Congress (Institute of Physics and the Physical Society, London, 1968), pp. 491–95.
  20. D. J. Sandoz, Proc. IEE 123, 445 (1976).
  21. H. A. Macleod, Vacuum 27, 383 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. K. Pulker, G. Paesold, E. Ritter, Appl. Opt. 15, 2986 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. L. L. Matskevich, V. V. Bazhinov, Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 44, 98 (1977).
  24. All calculations for this paper were performed on a Texas Instrument TI Programmable 58 Calculator.
  25. T. M. Christmas, D. Richmond, Opt. Laser Technol. 9, 109 (June1977).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Yu. S. Rodichev, Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 42, 298 (1975).
  27. J. A. Dobrowolski, D. Lowe, Appl. Opt. 17, 3039 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (3)

1978 (4)

S. N. Jasperson, D. K. Burge, R. C. O’Handley, Surf. Sci. 37, 548 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Pulker, Opt. Spectra, 12(8), 43August, 1978).

B. Vidal, A. Fornier, E. Pelletier, Appl. Opt. 17, 1038 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dobrowolski, D. Lowe, Appl. Opt. 17, 3039 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (5)

L. L. Matskevich, V. V. Bazhinov, Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 44, 98 (1977).

T. M. Christmas, D. Richmond, Opt. Laser Technol. 9, 109 (June1977).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Macleod, Vacuum 27, 383 (1977).
[CrossRef]

C. J. vd Laan, H. J. Frankena, Vacuum 27, 391 (1977).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, Opt. Acta 24, 907 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (3)

V. A. Efremenko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 289–293 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Pulker, G. Paesold, E. Ritter, Appl. Opt. 15, 2986 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Sandoz, Proc. IEE 123, 445 (1976).

1975 (1)

Yu. S. Rodichev, Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 42, 298 (1975).

1973 (1)

E. Pelletier, R. Kowalczyk, A. Fornier, Opt. Acta 20, 509 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (2)

H. A. Macleod, Opt. Acta 19, 1 (1972).
[CrossRef]

P. Bousquet, A. Fornier, R. Kowalczyk, E. Pelletier, P. Roche, Thin Solid Films 13, 285 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

P. H. Lissberger, J. Ring, Opt. Acta, 2, 42 (1955).
[CrossRef]

1952 (2)

H. D. Polster, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 21 (1952).
[CrossRef]

P. Giacomo, P. Jacquinot, J. Phys. Rad. 13, 59A (1952).
[CrossRef]

1947 (1)

Banning, M.

Bazhinov, V. V.

L. L. Matskevich, V. V. Bazhinov, Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 44, 98 (1977).

Behrndt, K. H.

K. H. Behrndt, Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, R. E. Thun, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1966), Vol. 3, pp. 1–59.

Bousquet, P.

P. Bousquet, A. Fornier, R. Kowalczyk, E. Pelletier, P. Roche, Thin Solid Films 13, 285 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Burge, D. K.

S. N. Jasperson, D. K. Burge, R. C. O’Handley, Surf. Sci. 37, 548 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Christmas, T. M.

T. M. Christmas, D. Richmond, Opt. Laser Technol. 9, 109 (June1977).
[CrossRef]

Dobrowolski, J. A.

Efremenko, V. A.

V. A. Efremenko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 289–293 (1976).
[CrossRef]

English, J.

J. English, T. Putner, L. Holland, in Proceedings of the Fourth International Vacuum Congress (Institute of Physics and the Physical Society, London, 1968), pp. 491–95.

Fornier, A.

B. Vidal, A. Fornier, E. Pelletier, Appl. Opt. 18, 3851 (1979).
[PubMed]

B. Vidal, A. Fornier, E. Pelletier, Appl. Opt. 17, 1038 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pelletier, R. Kowalczyk, A. Fornier, Opt. Acta 20, 509 (1973).
[CrossRef]

P. Bousquet, A. Fornier, R. Kowalczyk, E. Pelletier, P. Roche, Thin Solid Films 13, 285 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Frankena, H. J.

C. J. vd Laan, H. J. Frankena, Vacuum 27, 391 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Giacomo, P.

P. Giacomo, P. Jacquinot, J. Phys. Rad. 13, 59A (1952).
[CrossRef]

Holland, L.

J. English, T. Putner, L. Holland, in Proceedings of the Fourth International Vacuum Congress (Institute of Physics and the Physical Society, London, 1968), pp. 491–95.

Holm, C.

Jacquinot, P.

P. Giacomo, P. Jacquinot, J. Phys. Rad. 13, 59A (1952).
[CrossRef]

Jasperson, S. N.

S. N. Jasperson, D. K. Burge, R. C. O’Handley, Surf. Sci. 37, 548 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kowalczyk, R.

E. Pelletier, R. Kowalczyk, A. Fornier, Opt. Acta 20, 509 (1973).
[CrossRef]

P. Bousquet, A. Fornier, R. Kowalczyk, E. Pelletier, P. Roche, Thin Solid Films 13, 285 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Lissberger, P. H.

P. H. Lissberger, J. Ring, Opt. Acta, 2, 42 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Lowe, D.

Macleod, H. A.

H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, Opt. Acta 24, 907 (1977).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Macleod, Vacuum 27, 383 (1977).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Macleod, Opt. Acta 19, 1 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Matskevich, L. L.

L. L. Matskevich, V. V. Bazhinov, Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 44, 98 (1977).

O’Handley, R. C.

S. N. Jasperson, D. K. Burge, R. C. O’Handley, Surf. Sci. 37, 548 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Paesold, G.

Pelletier, E.

B. Vidal, A. Fornier, E. Pelletier, Appl. Opt. 18, 3851 (1979).
[PubMed]

B. Vidal, E. Pelletier, Appl. Opt. 18, 3857 (1979).
[PubMed]

B. Vidal, A. Fornier, E. Pelletier, Appl. Opt. 17, 1038 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, Opt. Acta 24, 907 (1977).
[CrossRef]

E. Pelletier, R. Kowalczyk, A. Fornier, Opt. Acta 20, 509 (1973).
[CrossRef]

P. Bousquet, A. Fornier, R. Kowalczyk, E. Pelletier, P. Roche, Thin Solid Films 13, 285 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Polster, H. D.

Pulker, H. K.

Putner, T.

J. English, T. Putner, L. Holland, in Proceedings of the Fourth International Vacuum Congress (Institute of Physics and the Physical Society, London, 1968), pp. 491–95.

Richmond, D.

T. M. Christmas, D. Richmond, Opt. Laser Technol. 9, 109 (June1977).
[CrossRef]

Ring, J.

P. H. Lissberger, J. Ring, Opt. Acta, 2, 42 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, F. S.

F. S. Ritchie, Ph.D. Thesis, U. Reading, (1970). Summarized in H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters, (Hilger, London, 1969).]

Ritter, E.

Roche, P.

P. Bousquet, A. Fornier, R. Kowalczyk, E. Pelletier, P. Roche, Thin Solid Films 13, 285 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Rodichev, Yu. S.

Yu. S. Rodichev, Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 42, 298 (1975).

Sandoz, D. J.

D. J. Sandoz, Proc. IEE 123, 445 (1976).

vd Laan, C. J.

C. J. vd Laan, H. J. Frankena, Vacuum 27, 391 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Vidal, B.

Appl. Opt. (6)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Phys. Rad. (1)

P. Giacomo, P. Jacquinot, J. Phys. Rad. 13, 59A (1952).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (4)

P. H. Lissberger, J. Ring, Opt. Acta, 2, 42 (1955).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Macleod, Opt. Acta 19, 1 (1972).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Macleod, E. Pelletier, Opt. Acta 24, 907 (1977).
[CrossRef]

E. Pelletier, R. Kowalczyk, A. Fornier, Opt. Acta 20, 509 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

T. M. Christmas, D. Richmond, Opt. Laser Technol. 9, 109 (June1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectra (1)

H. K. Pulker, Opt. Spectra, 12(8), 43August, 1978).

Proc. IEE (1)

D. J. Sandoz, Proc. IEE 123, 445 (1976).

Sov. J. Opt. Technol. (2)

L. L. Matskevich, V. V. Bazhinov, Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 44, 98 (1977).

Yu. S. Rodichev, Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 42, 298 (1975).

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. A. Efremenko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 289–293 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. (1)

S. N. Jasperson, D. K. Burge, R. C. O’Handley, Surf. Sci. 37, 548 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

P. Bousquet, A. Fornier, R. Kowalczyk, E. Pelletier, P. Roche, Thin Solid Films 13, 285 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum (2)

C. J. vd Laan, H. J. Frankena, Vacuum 27, 391 (1977).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Macleod, Vacuum 27, 383 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

All calculations for this paper were performed on a Texas Instrument TI Programmable 58 Calculator.

J. English, T. Putner, L. Holland, in Proceedings of the Fourth International Vacuum Congress (Institute of Physics and the Physical Society, London, 1968), pp. 491–95.

K. H. Behrndt, Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, R. E. Thun, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1966), Vol. 3, pp. 1–59.

F. S. Ritchie, Ph.D. Thesis, U. Reading, (1970). Summarized in H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters, (Hilger, London, 1969).]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated reflectance of single films on a single surface of glass (n = 1.52).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram showing colors in reflection from films of index higher and lower than that of the substrate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Possible arrangement of a monitoring system for reflectance and transmittance measurements.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical thickness errors as a function of required optical thickness in thin films of index 2.35 given a monitoring error of 0.1% in reflectance at the layer termination.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation in refractive index of TiO2 films deposited by reactive evaporation of TiO2 at 4.5 Å S−1 (PPR) and 100–150 Å min−1 (MB). PPR denotes Pulker, Paesold, and Ritter22 and MG Matskevich and Bazhinov.23

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Performance calculated for an eleven-layer quarterwave stack of SiO2 (n = 1.43) and TiO2 of indices shown. Also shown is the performance expected when the stack with nH = 2.30 is exposed to a humid atmosphere assuming drift as measured by Christmas and Richmond.25

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Design and calculated performance of AR coating used in comparing various monitoring systems. Reference wavelength λ0 = 510 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Calculated performance of batch coatings, of design of Fig. 7, when batch temperature rises and hence so does high index. Either quartz-crystal monitoring or level optical monitoring with constant monitor-glass temperature is assumed. See text for explanation of different curves.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Calculated performance of the design of Fig. 7 when level monitoring is used and the temperature of the substrates rises so that the high index increases.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Calculated performance when conditions of Fig. 9 are assumed except that the batch substrates are kept at constant temperature and only the monitor-glass temperature rises.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Calculated performance when a wideband monitoring system is used instead of the level-monitoring system of Fig. 9. Other conditions are the same as for Fig. 9 and for comparison the curve of Fig. 9 is shown dashed.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Calculated level (L) and wideband (WB) monitoring results using the design of Fig. 7, but where layer six has an index of 2.46.

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