Abstract

Expressions are derived for the radiant energy emanating directly from a hemispherical source, the energy per unit area reflected from an infinite Lambert plane, and the energy received by a surface due to reflections from the plane. Numerically derived values for these energies are presented as fractions of E/2πR2 for the direct energy and aE/2πR2 for the reflected energies, where E is total emitted energy, R is the distance between receiver and center of hemisphere, and a is the albedo of the plane. Self-shadowing by the hemisphere is shown to be a significant factor even at very long ranges.

© 1963 Optical Society of America

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