Abstract

Temperature coefficients are reported for photomultiplier tube types used in astronomy. For 1% stability of gain and color response, temperature regulation of 1°C or better is generally required. This is nearly an order of magnitude better than what is usually achieved at the telescope, but careful use of a well-designed cold box should make 1°C temperature stability possible. For maximum stability and reproducibility, ordinary blue-sensitive tubes should be avoided at wavelengths longer than 5000 Å, and trialkali cathodes should not be used beyond 6500 Å.

© 1963 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Lontie-Bailliez, A. Meessen, Ann. soc. sci. Bruxelles 73, 390 (1959).
  2. G. E. Kron, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 70, 285 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. L. Johnson, Astronomical Techniques, ed. W. A. Hiltner (Univ. of Chicago Press, 1962), Chap. 7.
  4. A. R. Hogg, private communication.
  5. R. W. Engstrom, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 37, 420 (1947).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Serkowski, Lowell Obs. Bull. No. 116.
  7. N. Schaetti, W. Baumgartner, Helv. Phys. Acta 24, 614 (1951).
  8. F. E. Kinard, Nucleonics 15, 92 (1957).
  9. W. E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. 112, 114 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Frischmuth-Hoffmann, P. Görlich, H. Hora, Z. Naturforsch. 15a, 1014 (1960).
  11. W. E. Mott, R. B. Sutton, Handbuch der Physik, S. Flülgge, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1958), Vol. 45, p. 93.
  12. W. J. Harper, W. J. Choyke, J. Appl. Phys. 27, 1358 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. L. Johnson, Sky and Telescope 17, 558 (1958).
  14. W. J. Harper, W. J. Choyke, Rev. Sci. Instr. 27, 966 (1956). (The Sb-Cs curve labeled −175°C in this paper actually corresponds to a temperature of only about −110°C.)
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. H. Mikesell, Astron. J. 54, 191 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Weaver, Astrophys. J. 116, 638 (1952).
  17. R. Hardie, Astrophys. J. 130, 663 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. L. Johnson, W. Morgan, Astrophys. J. 114, 522 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. L. Johnson, W. Morgan, Astrophys. J. 117, 313 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. D. Code, Stellar Atmospheres, J. L. Greenstein, ed. (Univ. of Chicago Press, 1960), Chap. 2.
  21. J. Borgman, Bull. Astron. Inst. Netherlands 15, 255 (1960); ibid.16, 99 (1961).

1960 (2)

G. Frischmuth-Hoffmann, P. Görlich, H. Hora, Z. Naturforsch. 15a, 1014 (1960).

J. Borgman, Bull. Astron. Inst. Netherlands 15, 255 (1960); ibid.16, 99 (1961).

1959 (2)

R. Hardie, Astrophys. J. 130, 663 (1959).
[CrossRef]

M. Lontie-Bailliez, A. Meessen, Ann. soc. sci. Bruxelles 73, 390 (1959).

1958 (3)

G. E. Kron, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 70, 285 (1958).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Johnson, Sky and Telescope 17, 558 (1958).

W. E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. 112, 114 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

F. E. Kinard, Nucleonics 15, 92 (1957).

1956 (2)

W. J. Harper, W. J. Choyke, Rev. Sci. Instr. 27, 966 (1956). (The Sb-Cs curve labeled −175°C in this paper actually corresponds to a temperature of only about −110°C.)
[CrossRef]

W. J. Harper, W. J. Choyke, J. Appl. Phys. 27, 1358 (1956).
[CrossRef]

1952 (2)

H. Weaver, Astrophys. J. 116, 638 (1952).

H. L. Johnson, W. Morgan, Astrophys. J. 117, 313 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1951 (2)

H. L. Johnson, W. Morgan, Astrophys. J. 114, 522 (1951).
[CrossRef]

N. Schaetti, W. Baumgartner, Helv. Phys. Acta 24, 614 (1951).

1949 (1)

A. H. Mikesell, Astron. J. 54, 191 (1949).
[CrossRef]

1947 (1)

Baumgartner, W.

N. Schaetti, W. Baumgartner, Helv. Phys. Acta 24, 614 (1951).

Borgman, J.

J. Borgman, Bull. Astron. Inst. Netherlands 15, 255 (1960); ibid.16, 99 (1961).

Choyke, W. J.

W. J. Harper, W. J. Choyke, Rev. Sci. Instr. 27, 966 (1956). (The Sb-Cs curve labeled −175°C in this paper actually corresponds to a temperature of only about −110°C.)
[CrossRef]

W. J. Harper, W. J. Choyke, J. Appl. Phys. 27, 1358 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Code, A. D.

A. D. Code, Stellar Atmospheres, J. L. Greenstein, ed. (Univ. of Chicago Press, 1960), Chap. 2.

Engstrom, R. W.

Frischmuth-Hoffmann, G.

G. Frischmuth-Hoffmann, P. Görlich, H. Hora, Z. Naturforsch. 15a, 1014 (1960).

Görlich, P.

G. Frischmuth-Hoffmann, P. Görlich, H. Hora, Z. Naturforsch. 15a, 1014 (1960).

Hardie, R.

R. Hardie, Astrophys. J. 130, 663 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Harper, W. J.

W. J. Harper, W. J. Choyke, J. Appl. Phys. 27, 1358 (1956).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Harper, W. J. Choyke, Rev. Sci. Instr. 27, 966 (1956). (The Sb-Cs curve labeled −175°C in this paper actually corresponds to a temperature of only about −110°C.)
[CrossRef]

Hogg, A. R.

A. R. Hogg, private communication.

Hora, H.

G. Frischmuth-Hoffmann, P. Görlich, H. Hora, Z. Naturforsch. 15a, 1014 (1960).

Johnson, H. L.

H. L. Johnson, Sky and Telescope 17, 558 (1958).

H. L. Johnson, W. Morgan, Astrophys. J. 117, 313 (1952).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Johnson, W. Morgan, Astrophys. J. 114, 522 (1951).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Johnson, Astronomical Techniques, ed. W. A. Hiltner (Univ. of Chicago Press, 1962), Chap. 7.

Kinard, F. E.

F. E. Kinard, Nucleonics 15, 92 (1957).

Kron, G. E.

G. E. Kron, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 70, 285 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Lontie-Bailliez, M.

M. Lontie-Bailliez, A. Meessen, Ann. soc. sci. Bruxelles 73, 390 (1959).

Meessen, A.

M. Lontie-Bailliez, A. Meessen, Ann. soc. sci. Bruxelles 73, 390 (1959).

Mikesell, A. H.

A. H. Mikesell, Astron. J. 54, 191 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, W.

H. L. Johnson, W. Morgan, Astrophys. J. 117, 313 (1952).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Johnson, W. Morgan, Astrophys. J. 114, 522 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Mott, W. E.

W. E. Mott, R. B. Sutton, Handbuch der Physik, S. Flülgge, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1958), Vol. 45, p. 93.

Schaetti, N.

N. Schaetti, W. Baumgartner, Helv. Phys. Acta 24, 614 (1951).

Serkowski, K.

K. Serkowski, Lowell Obs. Bull. No. 116.

Spicer, W. E.

W. E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. 112, 114 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Sutton, R. B.

W. E. Mott, R. B. Sutton, Handbuch der Physik, S. Flülgge, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1958), Vol. 45, p. 93.

Weaver, H.

H. Weaver, Astrophys. J. 116, 638 (1952).

Ann. soc. sci. Bruxelles (1)

M. Lontie-Bailliez, A. Meessen, Ann. soc. sci. Bruxelles 73, 390 (1959).

Astron. J. (1)

A. H. Mikesell, Astron. J. 54, 191 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (4)

H. Weaver, Astrophys. J. 116, 638 (1952).

R. Hardie, Astrophys. J. 130, 663 (1959).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Johnson, W. Morgan, Astrophys. J. 114, 522 (1951).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Johnson, W. Morgan, Astrophys. J. 117, 313 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Astron. Inst. Netherlands (1)

J. Borgman, Bull. Astron. Inst. Netherlands 15, 255 (1960); ibid.16, 99 (1961).

Helv. Phys. Acta (1)

N. Schaetti, W. Baumgartner, Helv. Phys. Acta 24, 614 (1951).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. J. Harper, W. J. Choyke, J. Appl. Phys. 27, 1358 (1956).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Nucleonics (1)

F. E. Kinard, Nucleonics 15, 92 (1957).

Phys. Rev. (1)

W. E. Spicer, Phys. Rev. 112, 114 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific (1)

G. E. Kron, Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific 70, 285 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instr. (1)

W. J. Harper, W. J. Choyke, Rev. Sci. Instr. 27, 966 (1956). (The Sb-Cs curve labeled −175°C in this paper actually corresponds to a temperature of only about −110°C.)
[CrossRef]

Sky and Telescope (1)

H. L. Johnson, Sky and Telescope 17, 558 (1958).

Z. Naturforsch. (1)

G. Frischmuth-Hoffmann, P. Görlich, H. Hora, Z. Naturforsch. 15a, 1014 (1960).

Other (5)

W. E. Mott, R. B. Sutton, Handbuch der Physik, S. Flülgge, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1958), Vol. 45, p. 93.

H. L. Johnson, Astronomical Techniques, ed. W. A. Hiltner (Univ. of Chicago Press, 1962), Chap. 7.

A. R. Hogg, private communication.

K. Serkowski, Lowell Obs. Bull. No. 116.

A. D. Code, Stellar Atmospheres, J. L. Greenstein, ed. (Univ. of Chicago Press, 1960), Chap. 2.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Temperature coefficient of Sb-Cs cathodes as a function of wavelength (after Lontie-Bailliez and Meessen1). Solid curve: T = +20°C. Dashed curve: T = −80°C.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ratio of cooled to room-temperature anode sensitivity as a function of wavelength for EMI 6256 (crosses) and RCA 1P21 (dots) photomultipliers. The solid curve is the predicted ratio for a cathode temperature of −40°C and a dynode temperature of −70°C. The 1P21 points are anomalously lowered by condensation on the window. Cold box temperature = −78°C (dry ice).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ratio of cooled to room-temperature anode sensitivity for two EMI 9558 photomultipliers and various cold box temperatures. Cf. Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ratio of cooled to room-temperature anode sensitivity for two Farnsworth FW-118 photomultipliers cooled with dry ice and with liquid nitrogen.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Ratios of responses of two tubes of the same type, as a function of wavelength. For the EMI 9558’s, the ratio is in the sense (tube No. 5647)/(tube No. 5099); cf. Fig. 3. The curve marked EMI/RCA is the ratio of the mean of the 6256’s to the mean of the 1P21’s.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Response curves for V band of U,B,V photometry, using a cooled (dashed curve) or uncooled (solid line) photomultiplier. The refrigerated cathode is assumed to be cooled 60°C below room temperature (cf. Fig. 2).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated red-leak corrections to ultraviolet deflections for Johnson’s U,B,V photometer. Solid line: 1P21 refrigeratted with dry ice. Dashed line: 1P21 not refrigerated.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Listing of Tubes Subjected to Measurement

Tables Icon

Table II Characteristics of Filters Used in Experimentation

Equations (3)

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( log 6 ) ( log 10 7 ) × ( room temperature - dry ice temperature ) ,
T d - T CO 2 T w - T CO 2 = 1.5.
T d - T CO 2 = 45 ° C and T w - T CO 2 = 30 ° C .

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