Abstract

A coaxial dual-channel laser system has been developed for the measurement of extinction coefficients of highly absorbing liquids. An empty wedge-shaped sample cell is first translated laterally through a He–Ne laser beam to measure the differential thickness using interference fringes in reflection. The wedge cell is carefully filled with the oil sample and translated through the coaxially positioned dye laser beam for the differential attenuation or extinction measurement. Optional use of the instrumentation as a single-channel extinction measurement system and also as a refractometer is detailed. The system and calibration techniques were applied to the measurement of two crude oils whose extinction values were required to complete the analysis of airborne laser data gathered over four controlled spills.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. T. V. Kung, I. Itzkan, Appl. Opt. 15, 409 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. Visser, Appl. Opt. 18, 1746 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Horvath, W. L. Morgan, R. Spellicy, Measurements Program for Oil-Slick Characteristics (Final Report), Report 2766-7-F (Willow Run Laboratories of the Institute of Science and Technology, U. Michigan, Ann Arbor, February1970.)
  4. M. Kasha, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 929 (1948).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Leonard, B. Caputo, F. E. Hoge, Appl. Opt. 18, 1732 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R.W. Burke, E.R. Deardorff, O. Menis, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sect. A: 76, 469 (1972).
  7. R.W. Burke, R. Mavrodineanu, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sect. A: 80, 631 (1976).

1979 (2)

1976 (2)

R.W. Burke, R. Mavrodineanu, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sect. A: 80, 631 (1976).

R. T. V. Kung, I. Itzkan, Appl. Opt. 15, 409 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

R.W. Burke, E.R. Deardorff, O. Menis, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sect. A: 76, 469 (1972).

1948 (1)

Burke, R.W.

R.W. Burke, R. Mavrodineanu, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sect. A: 80, 631 (1976).

R.W. Burke, E.R. Deardorff, O. Menis, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sect. A: 76, 469 (1972).

Caputo, B.

Deardorff, E.R.

R.W. Burke, E.R. Deardorff, O. Menis, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sect. A: 76, 469 (1972).

Hoge, F. E.

Horvath, R.

R. Horvath, W. L. Morgan, R. Spellicy, Measurements Program for Oil-Slick Characteristics (Final Report), Report 2766-7-F (Willow Run Laboratories of the Institute of Science and Technology, U. Michigan, Ann Arbor, February1970.)

Itzkan, I.

Kasha, M.

Kung, R. T. V.

Leonard, D.

Mavrodineanu, R.

R.W. Burke, R. Mavrodineanu, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sect. A: 80, 631 (1976).

Menis, O.

R.W. Burke, E.R. Deardorff, O. Menis, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sect. A: 76, 469 (1972).

Morgan, W. L.

R. Horvath, W. L. Morgan, R. Spellicy, Measurements Program for Oil-Slick Characteristics (Final Report), Report 2766-7-F (Willow Run Laboratories of the Institute of Science and Technology, U. Michigan, Ann Arbor, February1970.)

Spellicy, R.

R. Horvath, W. L. Morgan, R. Spellicy, Measurements Program for Oil-Slick Characteristics (Final Report), Report 2766-7-F (Willow Run Laboratories of the Institute of Science and Technology, U. Michigan, Ann Arbor, February1970.)

Visser, H.

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sect. A: (2)

R.W. Burke, E.R. Deardorff, O. Menis, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sect. A: 76, 469 (1972).

R.W. Burke, R. Mavrodineanu, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sect. A: 80, 631 (1976).

Other (1)

R. Horvath, W. L. Morgan, R. Spellicy, Measurements Program for Oil-Slick Characteristics (Final Report), Report 2766-7-F (Willow Run Laboratories of the Institute of Science and Technology, U. Michigan, Ann Arbor, February1970.)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the oil sample holder wedge configuration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Oil extinction measurement system, configured for 337.1-nm transmission. Fringes observed in reflection are recorded using the 632.8-nm channel shown by the dotted line ray path.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical data for LaRosa-type crude oil from the single transmissometry channel operated at 337.1 nm: (a) a scan of the transmission channel with LaRosa oil in the wedge sample space; (b) 337.1-nm fringe pattern in transmission taken with only air in the sample holder wedge. This fringe pattern was taken just prior to filling the wedge space with oil.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Typical data for Murban-type crude oil from the single transmissometry channel operated at 337.1 nm. (b) Reflective channel fringe data taken with air in the sample holder wedge immediately prior to filling with Murban crude. (c) Reflective channel fringe data taken simultaneously with the transmissometry data in (a).

Equations (8)

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d = 1 κ e + κ R ln ( R in R out ) ,
2 dn = m λ m = 0 , 1 , 2 . . . .
I m = I o exp ( κ d ) ,
I m = I o exp ( κ m λ / 2 n ) m = 0 , 1 , 2 , . . . .
κ = 2 n m λ ln ( I m I 0 ) m = 0 , 1 , 2 , . . . .
n oil = ( j m ) n air ,
α = 1 bc log 10 ( I o I ) ,
2 HCrO 4 Cr 2 O 7 = + H 2 O .

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