Abstract

Graded-refractive-index-rod lenses (GRIN-rod lenses) have a number of features that make them particularly suitable for use in optical devices for manipulating and processing the optical signals in fiber communication systems. Such lenses can be cemented directly to the other elements of a device, thus giving a structure that is compact, solid, stable, and rugged. They also have significantly smaller aberrations than equivalent simple homogeneous lenses, and this results in lower insertion losses. Designs for various GRIN-rod lens devices, including connectors, attenuators, directional couplers, switches, isolators and wavelength-division multiplexers are reviewed. A consistent set of loss estimates is provided for all the device designs considered.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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  1. An abbreviated version of this paper may be found in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Gradient Index Optical Imaging Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper WC6.
  2. For an earlier review of parts of this subject, see K. Kobayashi, R. Ishikawa, K. Minemura, S. Sugimoto, Fiber Integrated Opt. 2, 1 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. counterexample to this statement is provided by the access port, devised by R. E. Wagner [see Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), p. 80], in which facets are polished on the fiber ends so that the fibers fit together. The access port can be used as a directional coupler or an attenuator, but it does not provide any collimation and is thus not suitable for use with angularly sensitive elements.
  4. See, for example, F. P. Kapron, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1433 (1970) and the references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. J. Tomlinson, Appl. Opt. 19, 1117 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Kobayashi, M. Seki, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), p. 54.
  7. GRIN-rod lenses are manufactured by the Nippon Sheet Glass Company under their trademark Selfoc.
  8. F. A. Jenkins, H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1957), pp. 133–140.
  9. M. Shimizu, Y. Ueno, in CLEOS, 25–27 May 1976, Digest of Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1978), pp. 38–39.
  10. D. Gloge, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 905 (1976).
  11. K. Doi, S. Nonaka, T. Yuuki, M. Takahashi, NEC Res. Dev. 50, 17 (1978).
  12. “OD-8501 Step Optical Attenuator,” Nippon Electric Co., Ltd., Data Sheet DPR-050E (1978).
  13. K. Takahashi, S. Nonaka, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmission II (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1977), paper WA5.
  14. “OD-8601-8604 Optical Directional Coupler,” Nippon Electric Co., Ltd., Data Sheet DPR-047E (1978).
  15. R. Ishikawa, K. Kobayashi, K. Minemura, S. Sugimoto, in 1977 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1977), paper 916 (in Japanese).
  16. R. Ishikawa, K. Kaede, S. Matsushita, in 1979 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1979), paper S3-5 (in Japanese).
  17. W. J. Tomlinson, Appl. Opt. 16, 2180 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. Sugimoto, K. Minemura, K. Kobayashi, M. Shikada, H. Nomura, K. Kaede, A. Ueki, S. Matsushita, Electron. Lett. 14, 15 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Shikata, K. Kobayashi, in 1979 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1979), paper 811 (in Japanese).
  20. K. Nosu, H. Ishio, K. Hashimoto, Electron. Lett. 15, 414 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Shimizu, T. Mori, in CLEOS, 25-27 May 1976, Digest of Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1978), pp. 54–55.
  22. M. Nunoshita, Y. Nomura, T. Matsui, T. Nakayama, Opt. Lett. 4, 27 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. “OD-8750-8751 Optical Switch,” Nippon Electric Co., Ltd., Data Sheet DPR-046E (1978).
  24. Y. Fujii, J. Minowa, T. Aoyama, K. Doi, Electron. Lett. 15, 427 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  25. K. Kaede, I. Mito, A. Ishikawa, in 1979 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1979), paper S3-6 (in Japanese).
  26. I. Mito, S. Matsushita, in 1978 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1979), paper 860 (in Japanese).
  27. W. J. Tomlinson, R. E. Wagner, A. R. Strand, F. A. Dunn, Electron. Lett. 15, 192 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  28. W. J. Tomlinson, G. D. Aumiller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 169 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  29. W. J. Tomlinson, Chinlon Lin, Electron. Lett. 14, 345 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  30. M. Seki, A. Ueki, K. Kobayashi, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), p. 56.
  31. M. Seki, K. Kobayashi, A. Ueki, in 1979 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1979), paper S3-3 (in Japanese).
  32. C. M. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 917 (1976).
  33. R. Ishikawa, K. Kaede, M. Shikata, K. Kobayashi, K. Nishizawa, in 1979 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1979), paper S3-2 (in Japanese).
  34. L. F. Mollenauer, D. M. Bloom, Opt. Lett. 4, 247 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. The grating replication was done by Bausch & Lomb, Inc.
  36. C. M. Schroeder, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmission II (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1977), paper WA6.

1980 (1)

1979 (6)

For an earlier review of parts of this subject, see K. Kobayashi, R. Ishikawa, K. Minemura, S. Sugimoto, Fiber Integrated Opt. 2, 1 (1979).
[CrossRef]

K. Nosu, H. Ishio, K. Hashimoto, Electron. Lett. 15, 414 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. Nunoshita, Y. Nomura, T. Matsui, T. Nakayama, Opt. Lett. 4, 27 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fujii, J. Minowa, T. Aoyama, K. Doi, Electron. Lett. 15, 427 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Tomlinson, R. E. Wagner, A. R. Strand, F. A. Dunn, Electron. Lett. 15, 192 (1979).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Mollenauer, D. M. Bloom, Opt. Lett. 4, 247 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (3)

S. Sugimoto, K. Minemura, K. Kobayashi, M. Shikada, H. Nomura, K. Kaede, A. Ueki, S. Matsushita, Electron. Lett. 14, 15 (1978).
[CrossRef]

K. Doi, S. Nonaka, T. Yuuki, M. Takahashi, NEC Res. Dev. 50, 17 (1978).

W. J. Tomlinson, Chinlon Lin, Electron. Lett. 14, 345 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

W. J. Tomlinson, Appl. Opt. 16, 2180 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Tomlinson, G. D. Aumiller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 169 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

D. Gloge, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 905 (1976).

C. M. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 917 (1976).

1970 (1)

Aoyama, T.

Y. Fujii, J. Minowa, T. Aoyama, K. Doi, Electron. Lett. 15, 427 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Aumiller, G. D.

W. J. Tomlinson, G. D. Aumiller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 169 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bloom, D. M.

Doi, K.

Y. Fujii, J. Minowa, T. Aoyama, K. Doi, Electron. Lett. 15, 427 (1979).
[CrossRef]

K. Doi, S. Nonaka, T. Yuuki, M. Takahashi, NEC Res. Dev. 50, 17 (1978).

Dunn, F. A.

W. J. Tomlinson, R. E. Wagner, A. R. Strand, F. A. Dunn, Electron. Lett. 15, 192 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, Y.

Y. Fujii, J. Minowa, T. Aoyama, K. Doi, Electron. Lett. 15, 427 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Gloge, D.

D. Gloge, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 905 (1976).

Hashimoto, K.

K. Nosu, H. Ishio, K. Hashimoto, Electron. Lett. 15, 414 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, A.

K. Kaede, I. Mito, A. Ishikawa, in 1979 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1979), paper S3-6 (in Japanese).

Ishikawa, R.

For an earlier review of parts of this subject, see K. Kobayashi, R. Ishikawa, K. Minemura, S. Sugimoto, Fiber Integrated Opt. 2, 1 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. Ishikawa, K. Kobayashi, K. Minemura, S. Sugimoto, in 1977 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1977), paper 916 (in Japanese).

R. Ishikawa, K. Kaede, S. Matsushita, in 1979 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1979), paper S3-5 (in Japanese).

R. Ishikawa, K. Kaede, M. Shikata, K. Kobayashi, K. Nishizawa, in 1979 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1979), paper S3-2 (in Japanese).

Ishio, H.

K. Nosu, H. Ishio, K. Hashimoto, Electron. Lett. 15, 414 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, F. A.

F. A. Jenkins, H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1957), pp. 133–140.

Kaede, K.

S. Sugimoto, K. Minemura, K. Kobayashi, M. Shikada, H. Nomura, K. Kaede, A. Ueki, S. Matsushita, Electron. Lett. 14, 15 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. Ishikawa, K. Kaede, S. Matsushita, in 1979 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1979), paper S3-5 (in Japanese).

K. Kaede, I. Mito, A. Ishikawa, in 1979 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1979), paper S3-6 (in Japanese).

R. Ishikawa, K. Kaede, M. Shikata, K. Kobayashi, K. Nishizawa, in 1979 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1979), paper S3-2 (in Japanese).

Kapron, F. P.

Kobayashi, K.

For an earlier review of parts of this subject, see K. Kobayashi, R. Ishikawa, K. Minemura, S. Sugimoto, Fiber Integrated Opt. 2, 1 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. Sugimoto, K. Minemura, K. Kobayashi, M. Shikada, H. Nomura, K. Kaede, A. Ueki, S. Matsushita, Electron. Lett. 14, 15 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. Ishikawa, K. Kobayashi, K. Minemura, S. Sugimoto, in 1977 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1977), paper 916 (in Japanese).

K. Kobayashi, M. Seki, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), p. 54.

M. Shikata, K. Kobayashi, in 1979 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1979), paper 811 (in Japanese).

M. Seki, A. Ueki, K. Kobayashi, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), p. 56.

M. Seki, K. Kobayashi, A. Ueki, in 1979 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1979), paper S3-3 (in Japanese).

R. Ishikawa, K. Kaede, M. Shikata, K. Kobayashi, K. Nishizawa, in 1979 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1979), paper S3-2 (in Japanese).

Lin, Chinlon

W. J. Tomlinson, Chinlon Lin, Electron. Lett. 14, 345 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, T.

Matsushita, S.

S. Sugimoto, K. Minemura, K. Kobayashi, M. Shikada, H. Nomura, K. Kaede, A. Ueki, S. Matsushita, Electron. Lett. 14, 15 (1978).
[CrossRef]

I. Mito, S. Matsushita, in 1978 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1979), paper 860 (in Japanese).

R. Ishikawa, K. Kaede, S. Matsushita, in 1979 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1979), paper S3-5 (in Japanese).

Miller, C. M.

C. M. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 917 (1976).

Minemura, K.

For an earlier review of parts of this subject, see K. Kobayashi, R. Ishikawa, K. Minemura, S. Sugimoto, Fiber Integrated Opt. 2, 1 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. Sugimoto, K. Minemura, K. Kobayashi, M. Shikada, H. Nomura, K. Kaede, A. Ueki, S. Matsushita, Electron. Lett. 14, 15 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. Ishikawa, K. Kobayashi, K. Minemura, S. Sugimoto, in 1977 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1977), paper 916 (in Japanese).

Minowa, J.

Y. Fujii, J. Minowa, T. Aoyama, K. Doi, Electron. Lett. 15, 427 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Mito, I.

I. Mito, S. Matsushita, in 1978 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1979), paper 860 (in Japanese).

K. Kaede, I. Mito, A. Ishikawa, in 1979 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1979), paper S3-6 (in Japanese).

Mollenauer, L. F.

Mori, T.

M. Shimizu, T. Mori, in CLEOS, 25-27 May 1976, Digest of Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1978), pp. 54–55.

Nakayama, T.

Nishizawa, K.

R. Ishikawa, K. Kaede, M. Shikata, K. Kobayashi, K. Nishizawa, in 1979 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1979), paper S3-2 (in Japanese).

Nomura, H.

S. Sugimoto, K. Minemura, K. Kobayashi, M. Shikada, H. Nomura, K. Kaede, A. Ueki, S. Matsushita, Electron. Lett. 14, 15 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Nomura, Y.

Nonaka, S.

K. Doi, S. Nonaka, T. Yuuki, M. Takahashi, NEC Res. Dev. 50, 17 (1978).

K. Takahashi, S. Nonaka, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmission II (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1977), paper WA5.

Nosu, K.

K. Nosu, H. Ishio, K. Hashimoto, Electron. Lett. 15, 414 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Nunoshita, M.

Schroeder, C. M.

C. M. Schroeder, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmission II (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1977), paper WA6.

Seki, M.

M. Seki, A. Ueki, K. Kobayashi, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), p. 56.

M. Seki, K. Kobayashi, A. Ueki, in 1979 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1979), paper S3-3 (in Japanese).

K. Kobayashi, M. Seki, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), p. 54.

Shikada, M.

S. Sugimoto, K. Minemura, K. Kobayashi, M. Shikada, H. Nomura, K. Kaede, A. Ueki, S. Matsushita, Electron. Lett. 14, 15 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Shikata, M.

M. Shikata, K. Kobayashi, in 1979 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1979), paper 811 (in Japanese).

R. Ishikawa, K. Kaede, M. Shikata, K. Kobayashi, K. Nishizawa, in 1979 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1979), paper S3-2 (in Japanese).

Shimizu, M.

M. Shimizu, T. Mori, in CLEOS, 25-27 May 1976, Digest of Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1978), pp. 54–55.

M. Shimizu, Y. Ueno, in CLEOS, 25–27 May 1976, Digest of Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1978), pp. 38–39.

Strand, A. R.

W. J. Tomlinson, R. E. Wagner, A. R. Strand, F. A. Dunn, Electron. Lett. 15, 192 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, S.

For an earlier review of parts of this subject, see K. Kobayashi, R. Ishikawa, K. Minemura, S. Sugimoto, Fiber Integrated Opt. 2, 1 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. Sugimoto, K. Minemura, K. Kobayashi, M. Shikada, H. Nomura, K. Kaede, A. Ueki, S. Matsushita, Electron. Lett. 14, 15 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. Ishikawa, K. Kobayashi, K. Minemura, S. Sugimoto, in 1977 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1977), paper 916 (in Japanese).

Takahashi, K.

K. Takahashi, S. Nonaka, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmission II (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1977), paper WA5.

Takahashi, M.

K. Doi, S. Nonaka, T. Yuuki, M. Takahashi, NEC Res. Dev. 50, 17 (1978).

Tomlinson, W. J.

W. J. Tomlinson, Appl. Opt. 19, 1117 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Tomlinson, R. E. Wagner, A. R. Strand, F. A. Dunn, Electron. Lett. 15, 192 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Tomlinson, Chinlon Lin, Electron. Lett. 14, 345 (1978).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Tomlinson, G. D. Aumiller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 169 (1977).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Tomlinson, Appl. Opt. 16, 2180 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ueki, A.

S. Sugimoto, K. Minemura, K. Kobayashi, M. Shikada, H. Nomura, K. Kaede, A. Ueki, S. Matsushita, Electron. Lett. 14, 15 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. Seki, A. Ueki, K. Kobayashi, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), p. 56.

M. Seki, K. Kobayashi, A. Ueki, in 1979 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1979), paper S3-3 (in Japanese).

Ueno, Y.

M. Shimizu, Y. Ueno, in CLEOS, 25–27 May 1976, Digest of Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1978), pp. 38–39.

Wagner, R. E.

W. J. Tomlinson, R. E. Wagner, A. R. Strand, F. A. Dunn, Electron. Lett. 15, 192 (1979).
[CrossRef]

White, H. E.

F. A. Jenkins, H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1957), pp. 133–140.

Yuuki, T.

K. Doi, S. Nonaka, T. Yuuki, M. Takahashi, NEC Res. Dev. 50, 17 (1978).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. J. Tomlinson, G. D. Aumiller, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 169 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (2)

C. M. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 917 (1976).

D. Gloge, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 55, 905 (1976).

Electron. Lett. (5)

S. Sugimoto, K. Minemura, K. Kobayashi, M. Shikada, H. Nomura, K. Kaede, A. Ueki, S. Matsushita, Electron. Lett. 14, 15 (1978).
[CrossRef]

K. Nosu, H. Ishio, K. Hashimoto, Electron. Lett. 15, 414 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Tomlinson, R. E. Wagner, A. R. Strand, F. A. Dunn, Electron. Lett. 15, 192 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Tomlinson, Chinlon Lin, Electron. Lett. 14, 345 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fujii, J. Minowa, T. Aoyama, K. Doi, Electron. Lett. 15, 427 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Fiber Integrated Opt. (1)

For an earlier review of parts of this subject, see K. Kobayashi, R. Ishikawa, K. Minemura, S. Sugimoto, Fiber Integrated Opt. 2, 1 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

NEC Res. Dev. (1)

K. Doi, S. Nonaka, T. Yuuki, M. Takahashi, NEC Res. Dev. 50, 17 (1978).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (21)

The grating replication was done by Bausch & Lomb, Inc.

C. M. Schroeder, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmission II (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1977), paper WA6.

R. Ishikawa, K. Kaede, M. Shikata, K. Kobayashi, K. Nishizawa, in 1979 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1979), paper S3-2 (in Japanese).

“OD-8750-8751 Optical Switch,” Nippon Electric Co., Ltd., Data Sheet DPR-046E (1978).

K. Kaede, I. Mito, A. Ishikawa, in 1979 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1979), paper S3-6 (in Japanese).

I. Mito, S. Matsushita, in 1978 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1979), paper 860 (in Japanese).

M. Seki, A. Ueki, K. Kobayashi, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), p. 56.

M. Seki, K. Kobayashi, A. Ueki, in 1979 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1979), paper S3-3 (in Japanese).

“OD-8501 Step Optical Attenuator,” Nippon Electric Co., Ltd., Data Sheet DPR-050E (1978).

K. Takahashi, S. Nonaka, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Transmission II (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1977), paper WA5.

“OD-8601-8604 Optical Directional Coupler,” Nippon Electric Co., Ltd., Data Sheet DPR-047E (1978).

R. Ishikawa, K. Kobayashi, K. Minemura, S. Sugimoto, in 1977 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1977), paper 916 (in Japanese).

R. Ishikawa, K. Kaede, S. Matsushita, in 1979 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1979), paper S3-5 (in Japanese).

M. Shimizu, T. Mori, in CLEOS, 25-27 May 1976, Digest of Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1978), pp. 54–55.

M. Shikata, K. Kobayashi, in 1979 National Convention Record (Institute of Electronics and Communications Engineers, Japan, 1979), paper 811 (in Japanese).

An abbreviated version of this paper may be found in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Gradient Index Optical Imaging Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper WC6.

A. counterexample to this statement is provided by the access port, devised by R. E. Wagner [see Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), p. 80], in which facets are polished on the fiber ends so that the fibers fit together. The access port can be used as a directional coupler or an attenuator, but it does not provide any collimation and is thus not suitable for use with angularly sensitive elements.

K. Kobayashi, M. Seki, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), p. 54.

GRIN-rod lenses are manufactured by the Nippon Sheet Glass Company under their trademark Selfoc.

F. A. Jenkins, H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1957), pp. 133–140.

M. Shimizu, Y. Ueno, in CLEOS, 25–27 May 1976, Digest of Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1978), pp. 38–39.

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic showing a cross section of a typical multimode optical fiber, illustrating the spreading of an output beam (in air) for an 0.2-N.A. fiber. (b) Schematic illustrating the problem of dividing the beam from a fiber into two beams and coupling those beams to two output fibers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross sections of GRIN rods, showing ray paths for an object point (a) on-axis and (b) off-axis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross section of a quarter-pitch GRIN-rod lens. The distance marked f is the focal length of the lens.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of the ray paths (a) in a half-pitch GRIN-rod lens and (b) in a single-element homogeneous lens. The two figures are to the same scale, and the numerical apertures of the beams, the distances of the off-axis points, and the diameters of the collimated beams are all equal for the two lenses. (However, to have the indicated focal length, a homogeneous lens with the indicated surface radii would need to be made from a material with a refractive index of ∼4.5.)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic cross section of a fiber connector using GRIN-rod lenses. The dashed line indicates the path of the center of the optical beam.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic cross section of an attenuator with multiple attenuator elements.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic cross section of a four-port directional coupler using four GRIN-rod lenses.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Schematic cross section of a four-port directional coupler using two GRIN-rod lenses.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic cross section of a wavelength-division multiplexer using interference filters.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Schematic cross section of an alternate wavelength-division multiplexer using interference filters.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Schematic cross section of a two-position switch using a sliding prism. See text for a discussion of alternative designs for two-position switches.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Schematic cross section of a multiposition switch.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Experimental model of a six-position switch of the type illustrated in Fig. 12. Note that the switch has been built into the detent mechanism from a standard electrical rotary switch.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Schematic cross section of a wavelength-division multiplexer using a plane reflection grating.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Experimental model of a multiplexer of the type illustrated in Fig. 14. See the Appendix for further details. (Paper clip shows relative size of multiplexer.)

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Schematic cross section of an isolator.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Experimental curves of relative transmission as a function of wavelength for the multiplexer shown in Fig. 15. See the Appendix for further details.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Experimental results from Fig. 17 with a superimposed (dashed) curve showing the expected response for a third output fiber located between the other two. See the Appendix for further details.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Estimated and Measured Losses for Two Fiber Devices a

Tables Icon

Table II Estimated Device Losses a

Metrics