Abstract

The subject of gradient-index optics dates from the 1850s. However, only in the last 10 years has it been possible to design lenses, manufacture materials, measure the properties, and fabricate finished lens elements. The current status of gradient-index optics is reviewed.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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References

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  2. D. T. Moore, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1143 (1977).
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  3. E. G. Rawson, D. R. Herriott, J. McKenna, Appl. Opt. 9, 753 (1970).
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  4. R. W. Wood, Physical Optics (Macmillan, New York, 1905), pp. 86–91.
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  6. J. C. Maxwell, The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell, W. D. Niven, Ed. (Dover, New York, 1965).
  7. R. K. Luneburg, Mathematical Theory of Optics (U. California Press, Berkeley, 1966).
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    [CrossRef]
  9. S. D. Fantone, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Gradient–Index Optical Imaging Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper WB2.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. B. Keck, R. Olshansky, “Optical Waveguide Having Optimal Index Gradient,” U.S. Patent3,904,268 (9Sept.1975).
  20. R. S. Moore, “Plastic Optical Element Having Refractive Index Gradient,” U.S. Patent3,718,383 (Feb.1973).
  21. W. K. Swainson, “Method, Medium and Apparatus for Producing Three-Dimensional Figure Product,” U.S. Patent4,041,476 (9Aug.1977).
  22. D. P. Hamblen, “Gradient Refractive Index Optical Lenses,” U.S. Patent3,486,808 (Dec.1969).
  23. J. R. Hensler, “Method of Producing a Refractive Index Gradient in Glass,” U.S. Patent3,873,408 (25Mar.1975).
  24. R. K. Mohr, J. A. Wilder, P. B. Macedo, P. K. Gupta, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Gradient–Index Optical Imaging Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper WA1.
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    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Miler, V. Malisek, Opt. Spectrosc. 25, 70 (1968).
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    [CrossRef]
  28. L. Gregorka, “Measurement of the Chromatic Dispersion of Gradient Refractive Index Glass Using a Schlieren Technique,” M.S. Thesis, U. Rochester (1978).
  29. D. T. Moore, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Gradient–Index Optical Imaging Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper TuAl.

1978 (1)

1977 (2)

1976 (2)

1975 (1)

1973 (1)

L. Montagnino, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1667 (1973).

1972 (1)

1971 (1)

1970 (3)

1968 (1)

M. Miler, V. Malisek, Opt. Spectrosc. 25, 70 (1968).

1964 (1)

Fantone, S. D.

S. D. Fantone, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Gradient–Index Optical Imaging Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper WB2.

Ghatak, A. K.

Goval, I. C.

Gregorka, L.

L. Gregorka, “Measurement of the Chromatic Dispersion of Gradient Refractive Index Glass Using a Schlieren Technique,” M.S. Thesis, U. Rochester (1978).

Gupta, A.

Gupta, P. K.

R. K. Mohr, J. A. Wilder, P. B. Macedo, P. K. Gupta, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Gradient–Index Optical Imaging Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper WA1.

Hamblen, D. P.

D. P. Hamblen, “Gradient Refractive Index Optical Lenses,” U.S. Patent3,486,808 (Dec.1969).

Hensler, J. R.

J. R. Hensler, “Method of Producing a Refractive Index Gradient in Glass,” U.S. Patent3,873,408 (25Mar.1975).

Herriott, D. R.

Keck, D. B.

D. B. Keck, R. Olshansky, “Optical Waveguide Having Optimal Index Gradient,” U.S. Patent3,904,268 (9Sept.1975).

Luneburg, R. K.

R. K. Luneburg, Mathematical Theory of Optics (U. California Press, Berkeley, 1966).

Macedo, P. B.

R. K. Mohr, J. A. Wilder, P. B. Macedo, P. K. Gupta, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Gradient–Index Optical Imaging Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper WA1.

Malisek, V.

M. Miler, V. Malisek, Opt. Spectrosc. 25, 70 (1968).

Marchand, E. W.

Maxwell, J. C.

J. C. Maxwell, The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell, W. D. Niven, Ed. (Dover, New York, 1965).

McKenna, J.

McLaughlin, P. O.

P. O. McLaughlin, J. J. Miceli, D. T. Moore, D. P. Ryan, R. T. Salvage, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Gradient–Index Optical Imaging Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper TuC4.

Miceli, J. J.

P. O. McLaughlin, J. J. Miceli, D. T. Moore, D. P. Ryan, R. T. Salvage, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Gradient–Index Optical Imaging Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper TuC4.

Miler, M.

M. Miler, V. Malisek, Opt. Spectrosc. 25, 70 (1968).

Mino, M.

M. Mino, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Gradient–Index Optical Imaging Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper WC3.

Mohr, R. K.

R. K. Mohr, J. A. Wilder, P. B. Macedo, P. K. Gupta, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Gradient–Index Optical Imaging Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper WA1.

Montagnino, L.

L. Montagnino, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1667 (1973).

Moore, D. T.

D. T. Moore, D. P. Ryan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1157 (1978).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Moore, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1137 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Moore, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1143 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Moore, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 451 (1975).
[CrossRef]

P. O. McLaughlin, J. J. Miceli, D. T. Moore, D. P. Ryan, R. T. Salvage, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Gradient–Index Optical Imaging Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper TuC4.

D. T. Moore, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Gradient–Index Optical Imaging Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper TuAl.

Moore, R. S.

R. S. Moore, “Plastic Optical Element Having Refractive Index Gradient,” U.S. Patent3,718,383 (Feb.1973).

Muchel, F.

F. Muchel, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Gradient–Index Optical Imaging Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper TuC2.

Nishijima, Y.

Olshansky, R.

D. B. Keck, R. Olshansky, “Optical Waveguide Having Optimal Index Gradient,” U.S. Patent3,904,268 (9Sept.1975).

Oster, G.

Rawson, E. G.

Ryan, D. P.

D. T. Moore, D. P. Ryan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1157 (1978).
[CrossRef]

P. O. McLaughlin, J. J. Miceli, D. T. Moore, D. P. Ryan, R. T. Salvage, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Gradient–Index Optical Imaging Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper TuC4.

Salvage, R. T.

P. O. McLaughlin, J. J. Miceli, D. T. Moore, D. P. Ryan, R. T. Salvage, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Gradient–Index Optical Imaging Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper TuC4.

Sands, P. J.

Sinai, P.

Swainson, W. K.

W. K. Swainson, “Method, Medium and Apparatus for Producing Three-Dimensional Figure Product,” U.S. Patent4,041,476 (9Aug.1977).

Thyagarajan, K.

Wilder, J. A.

R. K. Mohr, J. A. Wilder, P. B. Macedo, P. K. Gupta, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Gradient–Index Optical Imaging Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper WA1.

Wood, R. W.

R. W. Wood, Physical Optics (Macmillan, New York, 1905), pp. 86–91.

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (10)

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

M. Miler, V. Malisek, Opt. Spectrosc. 25, 70 (1968).

Other (15)

L. Gregorka, “Measurement of the Chromatic Dispersion of Gradient Refractive Index Glass Using a Schlieren Technique,” M.S. Thesis, U. Rochester (1978).

D. T. Moore, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Gradient–Index Optical Imaging Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper TuAl.

R. W. Wood, Physical Optics (Macmillan, New York, 1905), pp. 86–91.

J. C. Maxwell, The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell, W. D. Niven, Ed. (Dover, New York, 1965).

R. K. Luneburg, Mathematical Theory of Optics (U. California Press, Berkeley, 1966).

S. D. Fantone, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Gradient–Index Optical Imaging Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper WB2.

F. Muchel, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Gradient–Index Optical Imaging Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper TuC2.

P. O. McLaughlin, J. J. Miceli, D. T. Moore, D. P. Ryan, R. T. Salvage, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Gradient–Index Optical Imaging Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper TuC4.

M. Mino, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Gradient–Index Optical Imaging Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper WC3.

D. B. Keck, R. Olshansky, “Optical Waveguide Having Optimal Index Gradient,” U.S. Patent3,904,268 (9Sept.1975).

R. S. Moore, “Plastic Optical Element Having Refractive Index Gradient,” U.S. Patent3,718,383 (Feb.1973).

W. K. Swainson, “Method, Medium and Apparatus for Producing Three-Dimensional Figure Product,” U.S. Patent4,041,476 (9Aug.1977).

D. P. Hamblen, “Gradient Refractive Index Optical Lenses,” U.S. Patent3,486,808 (Dec.1969).

J. R. Hensler, “Method of Producing a Refractive Index Gradient in Glass,” U.S. Patent3,873,408 (25Mar.1975).

R. K. Mohr, J. A. Wilder, P. B. Macedo, P. K. Gupta, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Gradient–Index Optical Imaging Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper WA1.

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Tables (2)

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Table I Techniques for Manufacturing Gradient-Index Materials a

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Table II Synopsis of Single-Element Collimator Mode with Axial Gradient Materiala

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