Abstract

The recent drive for low-cost photovoltaic arrays has renewed the interest in growing silicon in ribbon form. Our approach is to use a pair of scanned focused CO2 laser beams to establish a molten zone in a preformed fine-grained polycrystalline ribbon. Large-grained macrocrystalline silicon is then drawn from the molten zone at high rates. The coupling of the 10.6-μm laser beam to the melt zone is very low due to the high reflectivity of molten silicon. However, the coupling can be greatly increased by using a spherical-section reflector to reimage the reflected beam onto the molten zone. Silicon ribbon has been grown at rates up to 13.3 cm/min by this method. The best solar cell fabricated so far on this material had a conversion efficiency of 12.7%.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Rothwarf, N. C. Wyeth, J. Phillips, in Proceedings of the 13th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Meeting, Washington, D.C. (1978), p. 399.
  2. S. S. Chu, T. L. Chu, H. T. Yang, in Ref. 1, p. 956.
  3. M. S. Bale, in Ref. 1, p. 1202.
  4. B. Chalmers, H. E. LaBelle, A. I. Mlavsky, J. Cryst. Growth 13/14, 84 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. L. Barret et al., J. Electrochem. Soc. 118(6), 953 (1971).
  6. A. Kachare, Jet Propulsion Laboratory; personal communication.
  7. R. W. Gurtler, A. Baghdadi, R. N. Legge, R. J. Ellis, 2nd European Communities Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference. Proceedings of the International Conference, West Berlin, 23–26 April 1979, 7 pp., 145–152.

1972 (1)

B. Chalmers, H. E. LaBelle, A. I. Mlavsky, J. Cryst. Growth 13/14, 84 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

D. L. Barret et al., J. Electrochem. Soc. 118(6), 953 (1971).

Baghdadi, A.

R. W. Gurtler, A. Baghdadi, R. N. Legge, R. J. Ellis, 2nd European Communities Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference. Proceedings of the International Conference, West Berlin, 23–26 April 1979, 7 pp., 145–152.

Bale, M. S.

M. S. Bale, in Ref. 1, p. 1202.

Barret, D. L.

D. L. Barret et al., J. Electrochem. Soc. 118(6), 953 (1971).

Chalmers, B.

B. Chalmers, H. E. LaBelle, A. I. Mlavsky, J. Cryst. Growth 13/14, 84 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. S.

S. S. Chu, T. L. Chu, H. T. Yang, in Ref. 1, p. 956.

Chu, T. L.

S. S. Chu, T. L. Chu, H. T. Yang, in Ref. 1, p. 956.

Ellis, R. J.

R. W. Gurtler, A. Baghdadi, R. N. Legge, R. J. Ellis, 2nd European Communities Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference. Proceedings of the International Conference, West Berlin, 23–26 April 1979, 7 pp., 145–152.

Gurtler, R. W.

R. W. Gurtler, A. Baghdadi, R. N. Legge, R. J. Ellis, 2nd European Communities Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference. Proceedings of the International Conference, West Berlin, 23–26 April 1979, 7 pp., 145–152.

Kachare, A.

A. Kachare, Jet Propulsion Laboratory; personal communication.

LaBelle, H. E.

B. Chalmers, H. E. LaBelle, A. I. Mlavsky, J. Cryst. Growth 13/14, 84 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Legge, R. N.

R. W. Gurtler, A. Baghdadi, R. N. Legge, R. J. Ellis, 2nd European Communities Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference. Proceedings of the International Conference, West Berlin, 23–26 April 1979, 7 pp., 145–152.

Mlavsky, A. I.

B. Chalmers, H. E. LaBelle, A. I. Mlavsky, J. Cryst. Growth 13/14, 84 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, J.

A. Rothwarf, N. C. Wyeth, J. Phillips, in Proceedings of the 13th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Meeting, Washington, D.C. (1978), p. 399.

Rothwarf, A.

A. Rothwarf, N. C. Wyeth, J. Phillips, in Proceedings of the 13th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Meeting, Washington, D.C. (1978), p. 399.

Wyeth, N. C.

A. Rothwarf, N. C. Wyeth, J. Phillips, in Proceedings of the 13th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Meeting, Washington, D.C. (1978), p. 399.

Yang, H. T.

S. S. Chu, T. L. Chu, H. T. Yang, in Ref. 1, p. 956.

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

B. Chalmers, H. E. LaBelle, A. I. Mlavsky, J. Cryst. Growth 13/14, 84 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

D. L. Barret et al., J. Electrochem. Soc. 118(6), 953 (1971).

Other (5)

A. Kachare, Jet Propulsion Laboratory; personal communication.

R. W. Gurtler, A. Baghdadi, R. N. Legge, R. J. Ellis, 2nd European Communities Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference. Proceedings of the International Conference, West Berlin, 23–26 April 1979, 7 pp., 145–152.

A. Rothwarf, N. C. Wyeth, J. Phillips, in Proceedings of the 13th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Meeting, Washington, D.C. (1978), p. 399.

S. S. Chu, T. L. Chu, H. T. Yang, in Ref. 1, p. 956.

M. S. Bale, in Ref. 1, p. 1202.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross section of ribbon growth apparatus, showing purgeable furnaces, protective quartz jacket, and platinum heater elements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Laser beam path depicting the position of the ZnSe lenses and the oscillating mirrors.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental comparison of the laser power required to maintain a given growth rate. The ratio of the slopes is proportional to the coupling efficiency of the respective laser beams.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Laser power transmitted through a 250-μm thick silicon ribbon.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic showing the use of a spherical-section reflector for increased power absorption into the melt.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

A comparison of growth rates achieved with and without the spherical-section reflectors.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

A crystallized silicon ribbon showing the grain boundaries, twin planes, and stacking faults typical of these high growth rates.

Tables (1)

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Table I RTR Cells Fabricated on Pre-etched CVD Feedstock

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P = 100 w t ( 20 + 6.1 v ) ,

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