Abstract

Initial base-line field test performance results of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s airborne oceanographic lidar (AOL) in the bathymetry mode are presented. Flight tests over the Atlantic Ocean yielded water depth measurements to 10 m. Water depths to 4.6 m were measured in the more turbid Chesapeake Bay. Water-truth measurements of depth and beam attenuation coefficients by boat were taken at the same time as the aircraft over flights to aid in determining the system’s operational performance. Beam attenuation coefficient α and depth d product αd was established early in the program as the performance criterion index. A performance product of 6 was determined to be the goal. This performance goal was successfully met or exceeded in the large number of field tests executed. Included are selected data from nadir-angle tests conducted at 0°, 5°, 10°, and 15°. Field-of-view data chosen from the 2-, 5-, 10-, and 20-mrad tests are also presented. Depth measurements obtained to altitudes of 456 m are given for additional comparison. This laser bathymetry system represents a significant improvement over prior models in that (1) the complete surface-to-bottom pulse waveform is digitally recorded on magnetic tape at a rate of 400 pulse waveforms/sec, and (2) wide-swath mapping data may be routinely acquired using the 30° full-angle conical scanner. Space does not allow all the 5,000,000 laser soundings to be included. Qualified interested users may obtain complete data sets for their own in-depth analysis.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. D. Hickman, J. E. Hogg, in Remote Sensing of Environment (Elsevier, New York, 1969), Vol. 1, pp. 47–58.
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Bright, in The Use of Laser for Hydrographic Studies, NASA Report SP-375 (1975), pp. 9, 10.
  3. A. H. Ghovanlou, G. D. Hickman, J. E. Hogg, “Laser Transmission Studies of East Coast Waters,” Technical Report 2, contract N000-14-71C-0202 sponsored jointly by Office of Naval Research, NOAA, and U.S. Geological Survey (Mar.1973).
  4. G. D. Hickman, A. H. Ghovanlou, “Preliminary Design Criteria, Performance and Limitations of an Airborne Laser Bathymetric System,” Technical Report 3 of Ref. 3.
  5. G. D. Hickman, C. S. Gault, A. D. Ghovanlou, E. J. Friedman, J. E. Hogg, “Airborne Laser Shallow Water Bathymetric System,” Technical Report No. 4 of Ref. 3.
  6. H. H. Kim, P. O. Cervenka, C. B. Lankford, “Development of An Airborne Laser Bathymeter,” NASA Technical Note TND-8079 (Oct.1975).
  7. H. H. Kim, P. T. Ryan, Eds., The Use of Lasers for Hydrographic Studies, Special Report SP-375 (Sept.1975).
  8. L. R. Goodman, Ed., Laser Hydrography User Requirements Workshop Minutes, NASA Report TMX-73274 by NOAA for NASA Wallops Flight Center (Jan.1975).
  9. H. H. Kim, Appl. Opt. 16, 46 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. E. Clegg, M. F. Penny, J. Navigation 31, 52 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System, Final Report, NASA Contractor Report CR-141407, contract NAS6-2653 by Avco-Everett Research Laboratory, Everett, Mass. (Oct.1975).
  12. C. Bressel, I. Itzkan, J. E. Nunes, F. E. Hoge, in Proceedings, Eleventh International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1977), Vol. 2, pp. 1259–1268.
  13. R. N. Swift, L. R. Goodman, in Digest of Conference on Laser and Electrooptical System 1978 (CLEOS) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1978), paper THCC5, pp. 84–85.
  14. N. G. Jerlov, Optical Oceanography (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1969).
  15. K. J. Petri, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. GE-15, No. 2, 87 (1977).
    [CrossRef]

1978

J. E. Clegg, M. F. Penny, J. Navigation 31, 52 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

K. J. Petri, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. GE-15, No. 2, 87 (1977).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Kim, Appl. Opt. 16, 46 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bressel, C.

C. Bressel, I. Itzkan, J. E. Nunes, F. E. Hoge, in Proceedings, Eleventh International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1977), Vol. 2, pp. 1259–1268.

Bright, D.

D. Bright, in The Use of Laser for Hydrographic Studies, NASA Report SP-375 (1975), pp. 9, 10.

Cervenka, P. O.

H. H. Kim, P. O. Cervenka, C. B. Lankford, “Development of An Airborne Laser Bathymeter,” NASA Technical Note TND-8079 (Oct.1975).

Clegg, J. E.

J. E. Clegg, M. F. Penny, J. Navigation 31, 52 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, E. J.

G. D. Hickman, C. S. Gault, A. D. Ghovanlou, E. J. Friedman, J. E. Hogg, “Airborne Laser Shallow Water Bathymetric System,” Technical Report No. 4 of Ref. 3.

Gault, C. S.

G. D. Hickman, C. S. Gault, A. D. Ghovanlou, E. J. Friedman, J. E. Hogg, “Airborne Laser Shallow Water Bathymetric System,” Technical Report No. 4 of Ref. 3.

Ghovanlou, A. D.

G. D. Hickman, C. S. Gault, A. D. Ghovanlou, E. J. Friedman, J. E. Hogg, “Airborne Laser Shallow Water Bathymetric System,” Technical Report No. 4 of Ref. 3.

Ghovanlou, A. H.

A. H. Ghovanlou, G. D. Hickman, J. E. Hogg, “Laser Transmission Studies of East Coast Waters,” Technical Report 2, contract N000-14-71C-0202 sponsored jointly by Office of Naval Research, NOAA, and U.S. Geological Survey (Mar.1973).

G. D. Hickman, A. H. Ghovanlou, “Preliminary Design Criteria, Performance and Limitations of an Airborne Laser Bathymetric System,” Technical Report 3 of Ref. 3.

Goodman, L. R.

R. N. Swift, L. R. Goodman, in Digest of Conference on Laser and Electrooptical System 1978 (CLEOS) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1978), paper THCC5, pp. 84–85.

Hickman, G. D.

A. H. Ghovanlou, G. D. Hickman, J. E. Hogg, “Laser Transmission Studies of East Coast Waters,” Technical Report 2, contract N000-14-71C-0202 sponsored jointly by Office of Naval Research, NOAA, and U.S. Geological Survey (Mar.1973).

G. D. Hickman, C. S. Gault, A. D. Ghovanlou, E. J. Friedman, J. E. Hogg, “Airborne Laser Shallow Water Bathymetric System,” Technical Report No. 4 of Ref. 3.

G. D. Hickman, A. H. Ghovanlou, “Preliminary Design Criteria, Performance and Limitations of an Airborne Laser Bathymetric System,” Technical Report 3 of Ref. 3.

G. D. Hickman, J. E. Hogg, in Remote Sensing of Environment (Elsevier, New York, 1969), Vol. 1, pp. 47–58.
[CrossRef]

Hoge, F. E.

C. Bressel, I. Itzkan, J. E. Nunes, F. E. Hoge, in Proceedings, Eleventh International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1977), Vol. 2, pp. 1259–1268.

Hogg, J. E.

G. D. Hickman, J. E. Hogg, in Remote Sensing of Environment (Elsevier, New York, 1969), Vol. 1, pp. 47–58.
[CrossRef]

A. H. Ghovanlou, G. D. Hickman, J. E. Hogg, “Laser Transmission Studies of East Coast Waters,” Technical Report 2, contract N000-14-71C-0202 sponsored jointly by Office of Naval Research, NOAA, and U.S. Geological Survey (Mar.1973).

G. D. Hickman, C. S. Gault, A. D. Ghovanlou, E. J. Friedman, J. E. Hogg, “Airborne Laser Shallow Water Bathymetric System,” Technical Report No. 4 of Ref. 3.

Itzkan, I.

C. Bressel, I. Itzkan, J. E. Nunes, F. E. Hoge, in Proceedings, Eleventh International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1977), Vol. 2, pp. 1259–1268.

Jerlov, N. G.

N. G. Jerlov, Optical Oceanography (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1969).

Kim, H. H.

H. H. Kim, Appl. Opt. 16, 46 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. H. Kim, P. O. Cervenka, C. B. Lankford, “Development of An Airborne Laser Bathymeter,” NASA Technical Note TND-8079 (Oct.1975).

Lankford, C. B.

H. H. Kim, P. O. Cervenka, C. B. Lankford, “Development of An Airborne Laser Bathymeter,” NASA Technical Note TND-8079 (Oct.1975).

Nunes, J. E.

C. Bressel, I. Itzkan, J. E. Nunes, F. E. Hoge, in Proceedings, Eleventh International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1977), Vol. 2, pp. 1259–1268.

Penny, M. F.

J. E. Clegg, M. F. Penny, J. Navigation 31, 52 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Petri, K. J.

K. J. Petri, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. GE-15, No. 2, 87 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Swift, R. N.

R. N. Swift, L. R. Goodman, in Digest of Conference on Laser and Electrooptical System 1978 (CLEOS) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1978), paper THCC5, pp. 84–85.

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron.

K. J. Petri, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. GE-15, No. 2, 87 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Navigation

J. E. Clegg, M. F. Penny, J. Navigation 31, 52 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Other

Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System, Final Report, NASA Contractor Report CR-141407, contract NAS6-2653 by Avco-Everett Research Laboratory, Everett, Mass. (Oct.1975).

C. Bressel, I. Itzkan, J. E. Nunes, F. E. Hoge, in Proceedings, Eleventh International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1977), Vol. 2, pp. 1259–1268.

R. N. Swift, L. R. Goodman, in Digest of Conference on Laser and Electrooptical System 1978 (CLEOS) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1978), paper THCC5, pp. 84–85.

N. G. Jerlov, Optical Oceanography (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1969).

G. D. Hickman, J. E. Hogg, in Remote Sensing of Environment (Elsevier, New York, 1969), Vol. 1, pp. 47–58.
[CrossRef]

D. Bright, in The Use of Laser for Hydrographic Studies, NASA Report SP-375 (1975), pp. 9, 10.

A. H. Ghovanlou, G. D. Hickman, J. E. Hogg, “Laser Transmission Studies of East Coast Waters,” Technical Report 2, contract N000-14-71C-0202 sponsored jointly by Office of Naval Research, NOAA, and U.S. Geological Survey (Mar.1973).

G. D. Hickman, A. H. Ghovanlou, “Preliminary Design Criteria, Performance and Limitations of an Airborne Laser Bathymetric System,” Technical Report 3 of Ref. 3.

G. D. Hickman, C. S. Gault, A. D. Ghovanlou, E. J. Friedman, J. E. Hogg, “Airborne Laser Shallow Water Bathymetric System,” Technical Report No. 4 of Ref. 3.

H. H. Kim, P. O. Cervenka, C. B. Lankford, “Development of An Airborne Laser Bathymeter,” NASA Technical Note TND-8079 (Oct.1975).

H. H. Kim, P. T. Ryan, Eds., The Use of Lasers for Hydrographic Studies, Special Report SP-375 (Sept.1975).

L. R. Goodman, Ed., Laser Hydrography User Requirements Workshop Minutes, NASA Report TMX-73274 by NOAA for NASA Wallops Flight Center (Jan.1975).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Elevation and plan views of the airborne oceanographic lidar showing three major tiers and selected optical components.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cutaway illustration of the AOL installed in the NASA Wallops Flight Center C-54 aircraft.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Bathymetry waveforms: (a) idealized surface- and bottom-pulse pair, (b) weak bottom pulse obscured by systematic noise, (c) equivalent-amplitude surface return found in very deep water having no bottom return falling within the 100-nsec AOL digitizer range, (d) bottom-return pulse extracted from waveform in (b) after subtraction of waveform in (c).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Location of the test sites used in the bathymetric tests.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Average monthly wind-speed analysis results for years 1964–1976. Considering only wind-speed effects, the optimum months for bathymetric testing are June to Oct. Plankton growth must also be considered, as discussed in text.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effect of nadir-pointing angle on (a) total surface-return pulse amplitude, (b) depth measurement capability, and (c) total bottom-return pulse signal strength.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Sample of AOL bathymetric data [such as Fig. 6(b)] after Kalman filtering.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Effect of receiver FOV on (a) total surface-return pulse power, (b) depth measurement capability, and (c) total bottom-return pulse power.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Cross-section comparison of NOAA launch data with AOL data.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Sample portion of actual AOL scan product produced from application demonstration test data.

Tables (1)

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Table I Test Parameters and Variables

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