Abstract

A concept for an all-waveguide fiber-optic rotation sensor is discussed, and the results of preliminary tests of key elements are described. A single channel waveguide coupler design provides the functions of an optical switch, a 3-dB beam splitter, a phase retarder, and a signal modulator, all of which may be formed on the same chip and interconnected by channel single-mode waveguides. Preliminary test results for the waveguide coupler and for a rotation sensor without the coupler are presented. Signal processing, polarization control, and interconnection of the waveguide components are discussed.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. V. Vali, R. W. Shorthill, Appl. Opt. 16, 290 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. Goss, R. Goldstein, Opt. Eng. 18, 9 (1979).
  3. S. C. Lin, T. G. Giallorenzi, Appl. Opt. 18, 915 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. B. Brown, NRL Memorandum Report 1871 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1968), p. 19.
  5. V. Ramaswamy, I. P. Kaminow, P. Kaiser, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 814 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Nagano, S. Kawakami, S. Nishida, Appl. Opt. 17, 2080 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Stolen, V. Ramaswamy, P. Kaiser, W. Pleibel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 699 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Lewin, Electron. Lett. 12, 465 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Goldstein, W. C. Goss, Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 18, 381 (1979).
  10. M. N. McLandrich, H. E. Rast, Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 157, 127 (1978).
  11. D. E. Thompson, D. B. Anderson, Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 157, 137 (1978).
  12. H. Arditty, H. J. Shaw, M. Chodorow, R. Kompfner, Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 157, 139 (1978).
  13. J. Davis, S. Ezekiel, Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 157, 131 (1978).
  14. R. V. Schmidt, H. Kogelnik, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 503 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Kogelnik, R. V. Schmidt, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 396 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  16. I. P. Kaminow, L. W. Stultz, E. H. Turner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 555 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. P. Hsu, A. F. Milton, W. K. Burns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 603 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. L. Bisbee, Appl. Opt. 15, 796 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. I. Hatakeyama, H. Tsuchiya, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 614 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. D. Nelson, H. T. Fearnehaugh, R. Goldstein, W. C. Goss, in Proceedings Electro-Optics/Laser 1979 Anaheim Conference. (Industrial & Scientific Conference Management, Inc., 1980).

1979 (3)

R. Goldstein, W. C. Goss, Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 18, 381 (1979).

W. Goss, R. Goldstein, Opt. Eng. 18, 9 (1979).

S. C. Lin, T. G. Giallorenzi, Appl. Opt. 18, 915 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (9)

V. Ramaswamy, I. P. Kaminow, P. Kaiser, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 814 (1978).
[CrossRef]

I. Hatakeyama, H. Tsuchiya, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 614 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. Stolen, V. Ramaswamy, P. Kaiser, W. Pleibel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 699 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Hsu, A. F. Milton, W. K. Burns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 603 (1978).
[CrossRef]

K. Nagano, S. Kawakami, S. Nishida, Appl. Opt. 17, 2080 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. McLandrich, H. E. Rast, Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 157, 127 (1978).

D. E. Thompson, D. B. Anderson, Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 157, 137 (1978).

H. Arditty, H. J. Shaw, M. Chodorow, R. Kompfner, Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 157, 139 (1978).

J. Davis, S. Ezekiel, Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 157, 131 (1978).

1977 (1)

1976 (5)

R. V. Schmidt, H. Kogelnik, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 503 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. Kogelnik, R. V. Schmidt, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 396 (1976).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow, L. W. Stultz, E. H. Turner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 555 (1976).
[CrossRef]

L. Lewin, Electron. Lett. 12, 465 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Bisbee, Appl. Opt. 15, 796 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, D. B.

D. E. Thompson, D. B. Anderson, Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 157, 137 (1978).

Arditty, H.

H. Arditty, H. J. Shaw, M. Chodorow, R. Kompfner, Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 157, 139 (1978).

Bisbee, D. L.

Brown, R. B.

R. B. Brown, NRL Memorandum Report 1871 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1968), p. 19.

Burns, W. K.

H. P. Hsu, A. F. Milton, W. K. Burns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 603 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Chodorow, M.

H. Arditty, H. J. Shaw, M. Chodorow, R. Kompfner, Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 157, 139 (1978).

Davis, J.

J. Davis, S. Ezekiel, Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 157, 131 (1978).

Ezekiel, S.

J. Davis, S. Ezekiel, Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 157, 131 (1978).

Fearnehaugh, H. T.

M. D. Nelson, H. T. Fearnehaugh, R. Goldstein, W. C. Goss, in Proceedings Electro-Optics/Laser 1979 Anaheim Conference. (Industrial & Scientific Conference Management, Inc., 1980).

Giallorenzi, T. G.

Goldstein, R.

W. Goss, R. Goldstein, Opt. Eng. 18, 9 (1979).

R. Goldstein, W. C. Goss, Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 18, 381 (1979).

M. D. Nelson, H. T. Fearnehaugh, R. Goldstein, W. C. Goss, in Proceedings Electro-Optics/Laser 1979 Anaheim Conference. (Industrial & Scientific Conference Management, Inc., 1980).

Goss, W.

W. Goss, R. Goldstein, Opt. Eng. 18, 9 (1979).

Goss, W. C.

R. Goldstein, W. C. Goss, Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 18, 381 (1979).

M. D. Nelson, H. T. Fearnehaugh, R. Goldstein, W. C. Goss, in Proceedings Electro-Optics/Laser 1979 Anaheim Conference. (Industrial & Scientific Conference Management, Inc., 1980).

Hatakeyama, I.

I. Hatakeyama, H. Tsuchiya, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 614 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, H. P.

H. P. Hsu, A. F. Milton, W. K. Burns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 603 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, P.

R. Stolen, V. Ramaswamy, P. Kaiser, W. Pleibel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 699 (1978).
[CrossRef]

V. Ramaswamy, I. P. Kaminow, P. Kaiser, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 814 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kaminow, I. P.

V. Ramaswamy, I. P. Kaminow, P. Kaiser, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 814 (1978).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow, L. W. Stultz, E. H. Turner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 555 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, S.

Kogelnik, H.

R. V. Schmidt, H. Kogelnik, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 503 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. Kogelnik, R. V. Schmidt, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 396 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kompfner, R.

H. Arditty, H. J. Shaw, M. Chodorow, R. Kompfner, Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 157, 139 (1978).

Lewin, L.

L. Lewin, Electron. Lett. 12, 465 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. C.

McLandrich, M. N.

M. N. McLandrich, H. E. Rast, Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 157, 127 (1978).

Milton, A. F.

H. P. Hsu, A. F. Milton, W. K. Burns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 603 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Nagano, K.

Nelson, M. D.

M. D. Nelson, H. T. Fearnehaugh, R. Goldstein, W. C. Goss, in Proceedings Electro-Optics/Laser 1979 Anaheim Conference. (Industrial & Scientific Conference Management, Inc., 1980).

Nishida, S.

Pleibel, W.

R. Stolen, V. Ramaswamy, P. Kaiser, W. Pleibel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 699 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ramaswamy, V.

R. Stolen, V. Ramaswamy, P. Kaiser, W. Pleibel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 699 (1978).
[CrossRef]

V. Ramaswamy, I. P. Kaminow, P. Kaiser, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 814 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Rast, H. E.

M. N. McLandrich, H. E. Rast, Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 157, 127 (1978).

Schmidt, R. V.

R. V. Schmidt, H. Kogelnik, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 503 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. Kogelnik, R. V. Schmidt, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 396 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, H. J.

H. Arditty, H. J. Shaw, M. Chodorow, R. Kompfner, Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 157, 139 (1978).

Shorthill, R. W.

Stolen, R.

R. Stolen, V. Ramaswamy, P. Kaiser, W. Pleibel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 699 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Stultz, L. W.

I. P. Kaminow, L. W. Stultz, E. H. Turner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 555 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, D. E.

D. E. Thompson, D. B. Anderson, Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 157, 137 (1978).

Tsuchiya, H.

I. Hatakeyama, H. Tsuchiya, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 614 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Turner, E. H.

I. P. Kaminow, L. W. Stultz, E. H. Turner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 555 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Vali, V.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

V. Ramaswamy, I. P. Kaminow, P. Kaiser, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 814 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Schmidt, H. Kogelnik, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 503 (1976).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow, L. W. Stultz, E. H. Turner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 555 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Hsu, A. F. Milton, W. K. Burns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 603 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. Stolen, V. Ramaswamy, P. Kaiser, W. Pleibel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 699 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Lewin, Electron. Lett. 12, 465 (1976).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

H. Kogelnik, R. V. Schmidt, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 396 (1976).
[CrossRef]

I. Hatakeyama, H. Tsuchiya, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 614 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

W. Goss, R. Goldstein, Opt. Eng. 18, 9 (1979).

Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. (5)

R. Goldstein, W. C. Goss, Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 18, 381 (1979).

M. N. McLandrich, H. E. Rast, Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 157, 127 (1978).

D. E. Thompson, D. B. Anderson, Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 157, 137 (1978).

H. Arditty, H. J. Shaw, M. Chodorow, R. Kompfner, Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 157, 139 (1978).

J. Davis, S. Ezekiel, Proc. Soc. Photo Opt. Instrum. Eng. 157, 131 (1978).

Other (2)

R. B. Brown, NRL Memorandum Report 1871 (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1968), p. 19.

M. D. Nelson, H. T. Fearnehaugh, R. Goldstein, W. C. Goss, in Proceedings Electro-Optics/Laser 1979 Anaheim Conference. (Industrial & Scientific Conference Management, Inc., 1980).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Integrated fiber-optic rotation sensor concept.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Low rotation rate signal processing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Extended range signal processing.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Breadboard fiber-optic rotation sensor.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Breadboard unit test data.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Hybrid integrated optic chip concept.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Reversal waveguide coupler.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Waveguide coupler cross and parallel state conditions. (A) Voltage application for Δβ reversal. (B) Voltage application for conventional Δβ switch. (C) Loci of crossed and parallel state conditions.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured waveguide coupler performance at 0.63 μm: (A) similar polarity potentials on switch elements; (B) alternate polarity potentials on switch elements.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Phase shifter test setup.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Phase shifter response: (A) applied signal, 10 V/div, 0.2 msec/div; (B) intensity variation at detector due to fringe movement.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Four-port optical coupler test module.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Histogram of welded joint transmission for ITT T-110 single-mode fiber.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S A = I 0 ( 1 + sin θ r ) , S B = I 0 ( 1 - sin θ r ) ,
θ r = 8 π A N ω λ c ,
S = S A - S B S A + A B = sin θ r , ω = k sin - 1 S ,
ω = k sin - 1 ( S - S 2 ) ,
ω = - k cos - 1 ( R - R 2 ) ,
[ R S ] = M ( v ) [ R 0 S 0 ] ,
M ( v ) = [ A 2 - j B 2 - j B 2 * A 2 * ] ,
( κ L ) 2 + ( δ L 2 ) 2 = ( 4 π ) 2 ,
δ = 2 π λ Δ n = [ ( 4 π ) 2 - ( κ L ) 2 L 2 ] 1 / 2 .

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