Abstract

The optical levitation technique has been extended to the study of light scattering from several basic types of nonspherical particles such as spheroids; spherical doublets, triplets, and quadruplets; and spheres within spheres. Individual particles were assembled in air using two independently maneuverable laser beams and then held at rest in the beam in fixed orientation. Observations were made of the light scattering in the near and far field with high resolution. Other applications of the technique are envisaged.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 283 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 586 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Science 187, 1073 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 333 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 202 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 267 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phyg. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Chylek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, Phys. Rev. A. 18, 2229 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Asano, G. Yamamoto, Appl. Opt. 14, 29 (1975); S. Asano, Appl. Opt. 18, 712 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. L. Aden, M. Kerker, J. Appl. Phys. 22, 1242 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. A. Meyer, Appl. Opt. 18, 585 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. Tuerke et al., Appl. Opt. 17, 2754 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969), p. 250; also J. H. Bruning, Y. T. Lo, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. AP-19, 378 (1971).
  15. J. H. Bruning, Y. T. Lo, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. AP-19, 391 (1971); also J. R. Bottinger, E. S. Fry, R. C. Thompson, in Proceedings of the Workshop on Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D. W. Schuerman, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980).
  16. R. S. Bradley, Philos. Mag. 13, 853 (1932).
  17. K. L. Johnson, K. Kendall, A. D. Roberts, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A: 324, 301 (1971).
    [CrossRef]

1979

1978

B. Tuerke et al., Appl. Opt. 17, 2754 (1978).
[CrossRef]

P. Chylek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, Phys. Rev. A. 18, 2229 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 202 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phyg. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 333 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 267 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975

1974

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 586 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1971

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 283 (1971).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Johnson, K. Kendall, A. D. Roberts, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A: 324, 301 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Bruning, Y. T. Lo, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. AP-19, 391 (1971); also J. R. Bottinger, E. S. Fry, R. C. Thompson, in Proceedings of the Workshop on Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D. W. Schuerman, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980).

1970

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1951

A. L. Aden, M. Kerker, J. Appl. Phys. 22, 1242 (1951).
[CrossRef]

1932

R. S. Bradley, Philos. Mag. 13, 853 (1932).

Aden, A. L.

A. L. Aden, M. Kerker, J. Appl. Phys. 22, 1242 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Asano, S.

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 202 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phyg. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 267 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 333 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Science 187, 1073 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 586 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 283 (1971).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, R. S.

R. S. Bradley, Philos. Mag. 13, 853 (1932).

Bruning, J. H.

J. H. Bruning, Y. T. Lo, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. AP-19, 391 (1971); also J. R. Bottinger, E. S. Fry, R. C. Thompson, in Proceedings of the Workshop on Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D. W. Schuerman, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980).

Chylek, P.

P. Chylek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, Phys. Rev. A. 18, 2229 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Dziedzic, J. M.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phyg. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 202 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 267 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 333 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Science 187, 1073 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 586 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 283 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, K. L.

K. L. Johnson, K. Kendall, A. D. Roberts, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A: 324, 301 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Kendall, K.

K. L. Johnson, K. Kendall, A. D. Roberts, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A: 324, 301 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Kerker, M.

A. L. Aden, M. Kerker, J. Appl. Phys. 22, 1242 (1951).
[CrossRef]

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969), p. 250; also J. H. Bruning, Y. T. Lo, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. AP-19, 378 (1971).

Kiehl, J. T.

P. Chylek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, Phys. Rev. A. 18, 2229 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ko, M. K. W.

P. Chylek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, Phys. Rev. A. 18, 2229 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Lo, Y. T.

J. H. Bruning, Y. T. Lo, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. AP-19, 391 (1971); also J. R. Bottinger, E. S. Fry, R. C. Thompson, in Proceedings of the Workshop on Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D. W. Schuerman, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980).

Meyer, R. A.

Roberts, A. D.

K. L. Johnson, K. Kendall, A. D. Roberts, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A: 324, 301 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Tuerke, B.

Yamamoto, G.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 283 (1971).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 586 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 333 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 202 (1977).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Aerosp.

J. H. Bruning, Y. T. Lo, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. AP-19, 391 (1971); also J. R. Bottinger, E. S. Fry, R. C. Thompson, in Proceedings of the Workshop on Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D. W. Schuerman, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980).

J. Appl. Phys.

A. L. Aden, M. Kerker, J. Appl. Phys. 22, 1242 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Mag.

R. S. Bradley, Philos. Mag. 13, 853 (1932).

Phyg. Rev. Lett.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phyg. Rev. Lett. 38, 1351 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A.

P. Chylek, J. T. Kiehl, M. K. W. Ko, Phys. Rev. A. 18, 2229 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 267 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A

K. L. Johnson, K. Kendall, A. D. Roberts, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A: 324, 301 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Science

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, Science 187, 1073 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light and Other Electromagnetic Radiation (Academic, New York, 1969), p. 250; also J. H. Bruning, Y. T. Lo, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. AP-19, 378 (1971).

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Levitation apparatus.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Some of the particles assembled in air with the levitation apparatus.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Beam manipulations used to collide sphere 1 of beam B1 with sphere 2 of beam B2 to form a spherical doublet.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Beam geometry used to shift a particle from beam B1 to beam B2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Forward far-field Mie scattering from a 15.4-μm silicone oil drop levitated in an argon laser beam.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Top view of a spherical doublet at rest in the levitating beam. (b) Side view of the doublet illuminated by a weak side beam 3 with less magnification. Both views are projected on the same viewing screen.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Nearly forward far-field scattering of the spherical doublet particle of Fig. 6 as seen in the direction of the levitating beam on screen A.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Views (a) and (b) are, respectively, the top and side views of a triplet particle consisting of three fused silica spheres.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Nearly forward far-field scattering of the spherical triplet particle of Fig. 8 as seen in the direction of the levitating beam on screen A.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Views (a) and (b) are, respectively, the top and side views of a quadruplet particle consisting of four fused silica spheres.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Far-field scattering of the spherical quadruplet particle of Fig. 10 as seen in the direction of the levitating beam on screen A.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Shape of the triplet particle shown in top and side views (a) and (b), respectively, are altered to shapes (c) and (d) by shaking the particle in the levitating beam.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Forward far-field scattering pattern on screen A from a 10.8-μm diam silica sphere incorporated inside a 24.3-μm diam silicone oil drop illuminated by the levitating beam.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Forward far-field scattering from particle of Fig. 13, seen on screen B, illuminated by horizontal beam 3.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Far-field scattering from a particle with constituents similar to Fig. 13, as seen on screen B, illuminated by horizontal beam 3.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Far-field scattering from particle of Fig. 15, seen on screen A, illuminated by the vertical levitating beam.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

(a) Near-field side view of a levitated spheroid with an internal spherical doublet of higher index of refraction, taken with microscope M1, illuminated by side beam 3. (b) Forward far-field scattering from spheroid of (a), seen on screen B illuminated by horizontal beam 3.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

(a) Near-field side view of an essentially homogeneous spheroid, seen with microscope M1, illuminated by side beam 3. (b) Forward far-field scattering from homogeneous spheroid of (a), seen on screen B, illuminated by horizontal beam 3.

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