Abstract

A study has been made of optical aspects of airport control towers as part of a planned general optimization of control towers by Transport Canada. Problems found were reflections, glare, visual obstructions, identification of distant objects, and excessive solar heat. The study makes recommendations on cab shape, tower height, glazing, shades, sunglasses, binoculars, and internal lighting. Proper choice of cab shape (e.g., 30° window inclination and 12–28 sides) provided effective control of reflections. Some plastic shades were found to increase the risk of eye damage. Two tower cabs incorporating the recommendations have been built and were found to be satisfactory.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. R. Blackwell, Highw. Res. Board Bull. 89, 43 (1954).
  2. H. R. Blackwell, Illum. Eng. N.Y. 47, 602 (1952).
  3. H. R. Blackwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 624 (1946).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. A. J. Clark, Aust. J. Optom. 52, 167 (1969).

1969

B. A. J. Clark, Aust. J. Optom. 52, 167 (1969).

1954

H. R. Blackwell, Highw. Res. Board Bull. 89, 43 (1954).

1952

H. R. Blackwell, Illum. Eng. N.Y. 47, 602 (1952).

1946

Blackwell, H. R.

H. R. Blackwell, Highw. Res. Board Bull. 89, 43 (1954).

H. R. Blackwell, Illum. Eng. N.Y. 47, 602 (1952).

H. R. Blackwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 624 (1946).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, B. A. J.

B. A. J. Clark, Aust. J. Optom. 52, 167 (1969).

Aust. J. Optom.

B. A. J. Clark, Aust. J. Optom. 52, 167 (1969).

Highw. Res. Board Bull.

H. R. Blackwell, Highw. Res. Board Bull. 89, 43 (1954).

Illum. Eng. N.Y.

H. R. Blackwell, Illum. Eng. N.Y. 47, 602 (1952).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Image of cab ceiling by reflection in one window.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Corner reflections seen from various positions and area free of corner reflections for vertical windows.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Boundaries of areas free of corner reflections for window inclined as indicated, in cabs with (a) six sides, (b) eight sides, and (c) twelve sides.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Percent of cab radius free of corner reflections vs number of sides for various window inclinations (and distance eye must be back from window as percentage of radius to window, DE/R).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Input variables for computational study.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Numbers of sides needed for reflection control vs cab size for 30° window inclination and 96-in. ceiling height.

Tables (5)

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Table I Angular Elevations of Highest Reflections (Degrees)

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Table II Variation of Extreme Viewing Angles with Cab Parameters

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Table III Optical Requirements for Glazing for Use with Binoculars

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Table IV Properties of Sun Shade Materials

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Table V Transmittance of Sunglasses

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