Abstract

A summary of existing passive solar-heat conversion panels provides the basis for a definition of an ideal passive solar-heat converter. Evidence for the existence of a biological greenhouse effect in certain homopolar homeothermic species is reviewed. The thermal and optical properties of homeothermic pelts, in particular those of the polar bear, are described, and a qualitative optical model of the polar bear pelt is proposed. The effectiveness of polar bear and seal pelts as solar-heat converters is discussed, and comparison is made with the ideal converter.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. A. Øritsland, “Energetic Significance of Absorption of Solar Radiation in Polar Homeotherms,” in Antarctic Ecology, Vol. 1, M. W. Holgate, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1970).
  2. N. A. Øritsland, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 40, 359 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. A. Øritsland, K. Roland, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 44, 519 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. A. Øritsland, J. Theor. Biol. 47, 413 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Krog, Physiol. Plant. 8, 836 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. M. Lavigne, Polar Rec. 18, No. 114, 269 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. M. Lavigne, N. A. Øritsland, Nature 251, 218 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. M. Lavigne, N. A. Øritsland, Can. J. Zool. 52, 939 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. Kawalski, Ph.D. Thesis, U. Wisconsin (1978).
  10. J. T. Hammel, Am. J. Physiol. 182, 369 (1955).
    [PubMed]
  11. R. T. Tregear, J. Appl. Physiol. 20, 796 (1965).
    [PubMed]
  12. Rayleigh, Philos. Mag. 36, 365 (1918).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. R. Wait, Can. J. Phys. 33, 189 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. A. Lewin, P. T. Robinson, Nature278, in press (29March1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. E. Grojean, J. A. Sousa, M. C. Henry, “The Efficacy of Solar Conversion in a Polar Environment,” to be published.

1976

D. M. Lavigne, Polar Rec. 18, No. 114, 269 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974

D. M. Lavigne, N. A. Øritsland, Nature 251, 218 (1974).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Lavigne, N. A. Øritsland, Can. J. Zool. 52, 939 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Øritsland, J. Theor. Biol. 47, 413 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973

N. A. Øritsland, K. Roland, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 44, 519 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971

N. A. Øritsland, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 40, 359 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1965

R. T. Tregear, J. Appl. Physiol. 20, 796 (1965).
[PubMed]

1955

J. R. Wait, Can. J. Phys. 33, 189 (1955).
[CrossRef]

J. Krog, Physiol. Plant. 8, 836 (1955).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Hammel, Am. J. Physiol. 182, 369 (1955).
[PubMed]

1918

Rayleigh, Philos. Mag. 36, 365 (1918).
[CrossRef]

Grojean, R. E.

R. E. Grojean, J. A. Sousa, M. C. Henry, “The Efficacy of Solar Conversion in a Polar Environment,” to be published.

Hammel, J. T.

J. T. Hammel, Am. J. Physiol. 182, 369 (1955).
[PubMed]

Henry, M. C.

R. E. Grojean, J. A. Sousa, M. C. Henry, “The Efficacy of Solar Conversion in a Polar Environment,” to be published.

Kawalski, G.

G. Kawalski, Ph.D. Thesis, U. Wisconsin (1978).

Krog, J.

J. Krog, Physiol. Plant. 8, 836 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Lavigne, D. M.

D. M. Lavigne, Polar Rec. 18, No. 114, 269 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Lavigne, N. A. Øritsland, Can. J. Zool. 52, 939 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Lavigne, N. A. Øritsland, Nature 251, 218 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Lewin, R. A.

R. A. Lewin, P. T. Robinson, Nature278, in press (29March1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Øritsland, N. A.

D. M. Lavigne, N. A. Øritsland, Can. J. Zool. 52, 939 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Lavigne, N. A. Øritsland, Nature 251, 218 (1974).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Øritsland, J. Theor. Biol. 47, 413 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Øritsland, K. Roland, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 44, 519 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Øritsland, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 40, 359 (1971).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Øritsland, “Energetic Significance of Absorption of Solar Radiation in Polar Homeotherms,” in Antarctic Ecology, Vol. 1, M. W. Holgate, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1970).

Rayleigh,

Rayleigh, Philos. Mag. 36, 365 (1918).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, P. T.

R. A. Lewin, P. T. Robinson, Nature278, in press (29March1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roland, K.

N. A. Øritsland, K. Roland, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 44, 519 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sousa, J. A.

R. E. Grojean, J. A. Sousa, M. C. Henry, “The Efficacy of Solar Conversion in a Polar Environment,” to be published.

Tregear, R. T.

R. T. Tregear, J. Appl. Physiol. 20, 796 (1965).
[PubMed]

Wait, J. R.

J. R. Wait, Can. J. Phys. 33, 189 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Physiol.

J. T. Hammel, Am. J. Physiol. 182, 369 (1955).
[PubMed]

Can. J. Phys.

J. R. Wait, Can. J. Phys. 33, 189 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Zool.

D. M. Lavigne, N. A. Øritsland, Can. J. Zool. 52, 939 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A

N. A. Øritsland, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 40, 359 (1971).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Øritsland, K. Roland, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 44, 519 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Physiol.

R. T. Tregear, J. Appl. Physiol. 20, 796 (1965).
[PubMed]

J. Theor. Biol.

N. A. Øritsland, J. Theor. Biol. 47, 413 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

D. M. Lavigne, N. A. Øritsland, Nature 251, 218 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Mag.

Rayleigh, Philos. Mag. 36, 365 (1918).
[CrossRef]

Physiol. Plant.

J. Krog, Physiol. Plant. 8, 836 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Polar Rec.

D. M. Lavigne, Polar Rec. 18, No. 114, 269 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other

N. A. Øritsland, “Energetic Significance of Absorption of Solar Radiation in Polar Homeotherms,” in Antarctic Ecology, Vol. 1, M. W. Holgate, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1970).

G. Kawalski, Ph.D. Thesis, U. Wisconsin (1978).

R. A. Lewin, P. T. Robinson, Nature278, in press (29March1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Grojean, J. A. Sousa, M. C. Henry, “The Efficacy of Solar Conversion in a Polar Environment,” to be published.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reflectance of polar bear and light seal pelts.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorbance of polar bear hair from 2.5 μm to 25 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Detailed structure of polar bear hair.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Light micrographs of polar bear hair showing increasing size of core from tip (a) toward base (b), (c), and (d).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scanning electron micrograph of polar bear hair—longitudinal section.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Scanning electron micrograph of polar bear hair surface structure (723×).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Scanning electron micrographs of polar bear hair—transverse sections [increasing magnification from (a) to (e)].

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Light micrograph of polar bear hair (A) and quartz fiber (B). Magnification 100×.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Scattering geometry for dielectric cylinders—oblique incidence.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Internal diffuse scattering geometry.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Scattering vs reflection and refraction in polar bear hair—normal incidence.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Light micrograph of scattering reflection and refraction in polar bear hair: (a) illumination normal to the axis; (b) illumination parallel to the axis.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Beckman DU—reflectance attachment geometry.

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