Abstract

The possibility of interpolating the internal quantum efficiency of silicon photodiodes using a model with three adjustable parameters is investigated. The three parameters are determined from self-calibration measurements at 351, 476, and 800 nm. The internal quantum efficiency is then interpolated to 407 and 677 nm using the model. The calculated results are compared with direct measurements referenced to an electrical substitution radiometer. A difference of 0.6% was observed at 407 nm. This is probably significant, arising from inadequacies in the internal quantum efficiency model and possibly from volume recombination that is not accounted for by the self-calibration procedure. An insignificant (<0.1%) difference was observed at 677 nm.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Geist, Appl. Opt. 18, 760 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. F. Zalewski, J. Geist, Appl. Opt. 19, 1214 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. An exceedingly accurate cryogenic cavity, electrical substitution radiometer has been developed for temperature scale studies at England’s National Physical Laboratory. Appropriately modified for detector spectral response calibration, it may be able to produce substantially smaller uncertainties but only at the cost of considerable inconvenience.
  4. J. Geist, E. F. Zalewski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 503 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Geist, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3993 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  6. This statement assumes that the nominal thickness of the oxide is known from the conditions under which it was grown.
  7. T. Huen, Appl. Opt. 18, 1927 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. S. Grove, Physics and Technology of Semiconductor Devices, (Wiley, New York, 1967), pp. 153–161.
  9. A. S. Grove, Physics and Technology of Semiconductor Devices, (Wiley, New York, 1967), pp. 161–163.
  10. A. S. Grove, Physics and Technology of Semiconductor Devices, (Wiley, New York, 1967), pp. 334–345.
  11. J. Geist, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 196, 75 (1979).
  12. O. Christensen, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 689 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Antončík, N. K. S. Gaur, J. Phys. C: 11, 735 (1978).
    [CrossRef]

1980 (2)

1979 (4)

J. Geist, Appl. Opt. 18, 760 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Huen, Appl. Opt. 18, 1927 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Geist, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 196, 75 (1979).

J. Geist, E. F. Zalewski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 503 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

E. Antončík, N. K. S. Gaur, J. Phys. C: 11, 735 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

O. Christensen, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 689 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Antoncík, E.

E. Antončík, N. K. S. Gaur, J. Phys. C: 11, 735 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, O.

O. Christensen, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 689 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Gaur, N. K. S.

E. Antončík, N. K. S. Gaur, J. Phys. C: 11, 735 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Geist, J.

E. F. Zalewski, J. Geist, Appl. Opt. 19, 1214 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Geist, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3993 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Geist, Appl. Opt. 18, 760 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Geist, E. F. Zalewski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 503 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Geist, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 196, 75 (1979).

Grove, A. S.

A. S. Grove, Physics and Technology of Semiconductor Devices, (Wiley, New York, 1967), pp. 161–163.

A. S. Grove, Physics and Technology of Semiconductor Devices, (Wiley, New York, 1967), pp. 334–345.

A. S. Grove, Physics and Technology of Semiconductor Devices, (Wiley, New York, 1967), pp. 153–161.

Huen, T.

Zalewski, E. F.

E. F. Zalewski, J. Geist, Appl. Opt. 19, 1214 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Geist, E. F. Zalewski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 503 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Geist, E. F. Zalewski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 503 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. Geist, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3993 (1980).
[CrossRef]

O. Christensen, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 689 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. C (1)

E. Antončík, N. K. S. Gaur, J. Phys. C: 11, 735 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

J. Geist, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 196, 75 (1979).

Other (5)

An exceedingly accurate cryogenic cavity, electrical substitution radiometer has been developed for temperature scale studies at England’s National Physical Laboratory. Appropriately modified for detector spectral response calibration, it may be able to produce substantially smaller uncertainties but only at the cost of considerable inconvenience.

This statement assumes that the nominal thickness of the oxide is known from the conditions under which it was grown.

A. S. Grove, Physics and Technology of Semiconductor Devices, (Wiley, New York, 1967), pp. 153–161.

A. S. Grove, Physics and Technology of Semiconductor Devices, (Wiley, New York, 1967), pp. 161–163.

A. S. Grove, Physics and Technology of Semiconductor Devices, (Wiley, New York, 1967), pp. 334–345.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of typical silicon p+-n photodiode showing the depletion region and its growth into the n-type region with reverse bias.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of the effect on electron and hole concentrations of trapped positive charge in the thermally grown silicon dioxide antireflection coating. The application of a negative voltage to the electrolyte results in the accumulation of negative charge at the electrolyte–silicon dioxide interface. When the negative charge stored on the surface of the oxide is equal to the positive charge in the oxide, the electrons and holes experience no field due to the planar geometry and their concentrations are the same as if the oxide were locally electrically neutral. The application of more negative charge on the oxide surface (increased bias) will cause the electron population to go to zero at the oxide–silicon interface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical photodiode collection efficiency for minority carriers without bias (lower curve) and with bias (upper curve). Because the collection efficiency is unity in the depletion region (see Fig. 1), the collection efficiencies in the p+ and n regions can be independently increased by application of oxide and reverse bias, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical photodiode internal quantum efficiency without bias (lower curve) and with bias (upper curve). Reverse bias has negligible effect on UV and blue radiation, and oxide bias has a very small effect on long wavelength radiation. In the red end of the visible both effects are significant.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Wavelength dependence of the absorption coefficient of single crystal silicon.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Increase of response of a typical photodiode at two wavelengths as a function of bias voltage applied to the silicon dioxide antireflection coating. Air rather than vacuum wavelengths are shown.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Increase in internal quantum efficiency of a typical photodiode at 800 nm as a function of reverse bias.

Tables (3)

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Table I Spectral Dependence of the Internal Quantum Efficiency Parameters

Tables Icon

Table II Absolute Spectral Response

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Table III Intercomparison with the Electrical Substitution Radiometer

Equations (4)

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R ( λ ) = [ 1 ρ ( λ ) ] · ( λ ) · λ / K ,
( α ) = P + ( 1 P ) α T ( 1 e α T ) h e α H α L 2 ,
0 = P + ( 1 P ) ( 1 e α T ) / α T h e α H / α L 2 1 h e α H / α L 2 ,
R = P + ( 1 P ) ( 1 e α T ) / α T h e α H / α L 2 P + ( 1 P ) ( 1 e α T ) / α T .

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