Abstract

A study has been performed to determine the correlation among the microstructure, metallurgical processing, and optical surface finish of commercially available types of molybdenum (Mo) bar and plate and 0.5-mm thick Mo sheet. Specimens of bar and plate stock produced from low-carbon vacuum-arc-cast Mo or powder-metallurgy-processed Mo, as well as TZM (Ti-Zr-Mo) Mo alloy, were in the form of 3.86-cm diam disks. In addition, typical cross-rolled sheet specimens were produced from powder-metallurgy-processed Mo that had a very fine grain structure and a high degree of texture. Specimens were extensively characterized both optically and metallurgically. It was found that well-polished surfaces have surface topographies directly related to the microstructure and hence to the processing of the material. In sheet material having a well-developed texture, the polishability appeared to be independent of texture, and the grain size did not result in a lower scatter surface. It was concluded that the optimum type of Mo to use for smooth low-scatter mirrors is low-carbon vacuum-arc-cast plate or sheet material.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. B. Arnold, T. O. Morris, R. E. Sladky, P. J. Steger, Opt. Eng. 16, 324 (1977).
  2. D. L. Decker, J. M. Bennett, M. J. Soileau, J. O. Porteus, H. E. Bennett, Opt. Eng. 17, 160 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. E. Bennett et al., “Surface Finishing, Molybdenum,” in Ultraviolet Components for High Energy Applications, Annual Report 1, NWC TP 6015, Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, Calif. (Mar.1978), p. 26.
  4. P. A. Temple, D. K. Burge, E. J. Ashley, “Optical Properties of Metal Films Prepared by Ultraclean dc Sputter Deposition,” in High Energy Laser Mirrors and Windows, Annual Report 9, NWC TP 5988, Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, Calif. (Nov.1977), pp. 10–24.
  5. G. E. Carver, B. O. Seraphin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 279 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  6. G. E. Carver, B. O. Seraphin, “C V D Molybdenum Thin Films for High Power Laser Mirrors,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1979, H. E. Bennett et al., Eds., Natl. Bur. Std. U.S. Spec. Publ. 568 (July1980), pp. 287–292.
  7. A. Klugman, J. Bennett, “Polishing of Molybdenum Substrates,” in Proceedings, High Power Laser Optical Components and Component Materials Meeting, 3–4 Oct. 1977, Boulder, Colo. (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Arlington, Va., Dec.1977), pp. 163–175.
  8. S. M. Wong, G. Krauss, J. M. Bennett, “Optical and Metallurgical Characterization of Molybdenum Laser Mirrors,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1978, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 541 (Dec.1978), pp. 132–163.
  9. The Plastmet and microcloth were obtained from Buehler Ltd., 2120 Greenwood St., Evanston, Ill. 60204.
  10. Manufactured by Lapping Polishing Co., Homer City, Pa. 15748.
  11. Manufactured by Scan-Dai-Poliersystem, Hans P. Tempelmann, Metallographischer Bedarf/D/, 5800 Hagen, Denmark.
  12. S4-10 Stereoscan scanning electron microscope manufactured by Cambridge Instrument Co., Inc., Cambridge, England.
  13. Manufactured by American Chain and Cable Co., Inc., Wilson Instrument Division, 929 Connecticut Ave., Bridgeport, Conn. 06602.
  14. Manufactured by the Siemens Corp., 186 Wood Avenue South, Iselin, N.J. 08830.
  15. H. E. Bennett, W. F. Koehler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1 (1960); H. E. Bennett, J. L. Stanford, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sect. A: 80, 643 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  16. P. C. Archibald, H. E. Bennett, Opt. Eng. 17, 647 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  17. H. E. Bennett, J. O. Porteus, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 123 (1961); H. E. Bennett, Opt. Eng. 17, 480 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. M. Bennett, J. M. Elson, “Surface Statistics of Selected Optical Materials,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1977, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 509 (Dec.1977), pp. 142–155.
  19. J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 31 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. M. Bennett, J. H. Dancy, “Surface Profiling Instrument for Measuring Statistical Properties of Smooth Optical Surfaces,” submitted to Appl. Opt.
  21. J. H. Dancy, J. M. Bennett, “Study of Diamond Styluses for a Talystep Profilometer,” in High Energy Laser Mirrors and Windows, Annual Report 9, NWC TP 5988, Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, Calif. (Nov.1977), pp. 133–144.
  22. Manufactured by Physical Electronics Industries, Inc., 6509 Flying Cloud Drive, Eden Prairie, Minn. 55343.
  23. P. W. Palmberg, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 160 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  24. R. E. Weber, J. Cryst. Growth 17, 342 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  25. C. S. Barrett, T. B. Massalski, Structure of Metals (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966), pp. 30–50, 558–561.
  26. Metals Handbook, Vol. 8, Metallography, Structures and Phase Diagrams, T. Lyman, Ed. (American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1973), pp. 229–232.
  27. Molybdenum Metal (AMAX Specialty Metals Corp., 21801 Tungsten Road, Cleveland, Ohio 44117), pp. 55–56.

1979 (2)

G. E. Carver, B. O. Seraphin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 279 (1979).
[Crossref]

J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 31 (1979).
[Crossref]

1978 (2)

P. C. Archibald, H. E. Bennett, Opt. Eng. 17, 647 (1978).
[Crossref]

D. L. Decker, J. M. Bennett, M. J. Soileau, J. O. Porteus, H. E. Bennett, Opt. Eng. 17, 160 (1978).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

J. B. Arnold, T. O. Morris, R. E. Sladky, P. J. Steger, Opt. Eng. 16, 324 (1977).

1972 (2)

P. W. Palmberg, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 160 (1972).
[Crossref]

R. E. Weber, J. Cryst. Growth 17, 342 (1972).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

1960 (1)

Archibald, P. C.

P. C. Archibald, H. E. Bennett, Opt. Eng. 17, 647 (1978).
[Crossref]

Arnold, J. B.

J. B. Arnold, T. O. Morris, R. E. Sladky, P. J. Steger, Opt. Eng. 16, 324 (1977).

Ashley, E. J.

P. A. Temple, D. K. Burge, E. J. Ashley, “Optical Properties of Metal Films Prepared by Ultraclean dc Sputter Deposition,” in High Energy Laser Mirrors and Windows, Annual Report 9, NWC TP 5988, Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, Calif. (Nov.1977), pp. 10–24.

Barrett, C. S.

C. S. Barrett, T. B. Massalski, Structure of Metals (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966), pp. 30–50, 558–561.

Bennett, H. E.

P. C. Archibald, H. E. Bennett, Opt. Eng. 17, 647 (1978).
[Crossref]

D. L. Decker, J. M. Bennett, M. J. Soileau, J. O. Porteus, H. E. Bennett, Opt. Eng. 17, 160 (1978).
[Crossref]

H. E. Bennett, J. O. Porteus, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 123 (1961); H. E. Bennett, Opt. Eng. 17, 480 (1978).
[Crossref]

H. E. Bennett, W. F. Koehler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 1 (1960); H. E. Bennett, J. L. Stanford, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sect. A: 80, 643 (1976).
[Crossref]

H. E. Bennett et al., “Surface Finishing, Molybdenum,” in Ultraviolet Components for High Energy Applications, Annual Report 1, NWC TP 6015, Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, Calif. (Mar.1978), p. 26.

Bennett, J.

A. Klugman, J. Bennett, “Polishing of Molybdenum Substrates,” in Proceedings, High Power Laser Optical Components and Component Materials Meeting, 3–4 Oct. 1977, Boulder, Colo. (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Arlington, Va., Dec.1977), pp. 163–175.

Bennett, J. M.

J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 31 (1979).
[Crossref]

D. L. Decker, J. M. Bennett, M. J. Soileau, J. O. Porteus, H. E. Bennett, Opt. Eng. 17, 160 (1978).
[Crossref]

S. M. Wong, G. Krauss, J. M. Bennett, “Optical and Metallurgical Characterization of Molybdenum Laser Mirrors,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1978, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 541 (Dec.1978), pp. 132–163.

J. M. Bennett, J. M. Elson, “Surface Statistics of Selected Optical Materials,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1977, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 509 (Dec.1977), pp. 142–155.

J. M. Bennett, J. H. Dancy, “Surface Profiling Instrument for Measuring Statistical Properties of Smooth Optical Surfaces,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

J. H. Dancy, J. M. Bennett, “Study of Diamond Styluses for a Talystep Profilometer,” in High Energy Laser Mirrors and Windows, Annual Report 9, NWC TP 5988, Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, Calif. (Nov.1977), pp. 133–144.

Burge, D. K.

P. A. Temple, D. K. Burge, E. J. Ashley, “Optical Properties of Metal Films Prepared by Ultraclean dc Sputter Deposition,” in High Energy Laser Mirrors and Windows, Annual Report 9, NWC TP 5988, Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, Calif. (Nov.1977), pp. 10–24.

Carver, G. E.

G. E. Carver, B. O. Seraphin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 279 (1979).
[Crossref]

G. E. Carver, B. O. Seraphin, “C V D Molybdenum Thin Films for High Power Laser Mirrors,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1979, H. E. Bennett et al., Eds., Natl. Bur. Std. U.S. Spec. Publ. 568 (July1980), pp. 287–292.

Dancy, J. H.

J. M. Bennett, J. H. Dancy, “Surface Profiling Instrument for Measuring Statistical Properties of Smooth Optical Surfaces,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

J. H. Dancy, J. M. Bennett, “Study of Diamond Styluses for a Talystep Profilometer,” in High Energy Laser Mirrors and Windows, Annual Report 9, NWC TP 5988, Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, Calif. (Nov.1977), pp. 133–144.

Decker, D. L.

D. L. Decker, J. M. Bennett, M. J. Soileau, J. O. Porteus, H. E. Bennett, Opt. Eng. 17, 160 (1978).
[Crossref]

Elson, J. M.

J. M. Elson, J. M. Bennett, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 31 (1979).
[Crossref]

J. M. Bennett, J. M. Elson, “Surface Statistics of Selected Optical Materials,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1977, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 509 (Dec.1977), pp. 142–155.

Klugman, A.

A. Klugman, J. Bennett, “Polishing of Molybdenum Substrates,” in Proceedings, High Power Laser Optical Components and Component Materials Meeting, 3–4 Oct. 1977, Boulder, Colo. (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Arlington, Va., Dec.1977), pp. 163–175.

Koehler, W. F.

Krauss, G.

S. M. Wong, G. Krauss, J. M. Bennett, “Optical and Metallurgical Characterization of Molybdenum Laser Mirrors,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1978, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 541 (Dec.1978), pp. 132–163.

Massalski, T. B.

C. S. Barrett, T. B. Massalski, Structure of Metals (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966), pp. 30–50, 558–561.

Morris, T. O.

J. B. Arnold, T. O. Morris, R. E. Sladky, P. J. Steger, Opt. Eng. 16, 324 (1977).

Palmberg, P. W.

P. W. Palmberg, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 160 (1972).
[Crossref]

Porteus, J. O.

D. L. Decker, J. M. Bennett, M. J. Soileau, J. O. Porteus, H. E. Bennett, Opt. Eng. 17, 160 (1978).
[Crossref]

H. E. Bennett, J. O. Porteus, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 123 (1961); H. E. Bennett, Opt. Eng. 17, 480 (1978).
[Crossref]

Seraphin, B. O.

G. E. Carver, B. O. Seraphin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 279 (1979).
[Crossref]

G. E. Carver, B. O. Seraphin, “C V D Molybdenum Thin Films for High Power Laser Mirrors,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1979, H. E. Bennett et al., Eds., Natl. Bur. Std. U.S. Spec. Publ. 568 (July1980), pp. 287–292.

Sladky, R. E.

J. B. Arnold, T. O. Morris, R. E. Sladky, P. J. Steger, Opt. Eng. 16, 324 (1977).

Soileau, M. J.

D. L. Decker, J. M. Bennett, M. J. Soileau, J. O. Porteus, H. E. Bennett, Opt. Eng. 17, 160 (1978).
[Crossref]

Steger, P. J.

J. B. Arnold, T. O. Morris, R. E. Sladky, P. J. Steger, Opt. Eng. 16, 324 (1977).

Temple, P. A.

P. A. Temple, D. K. Burge, E. J. Ashley, “Optical Properties of Metal Films Prepared by Ultraclean dc Sputter Deposition,” in High Energy Laser Mirrors and Windows, Annual Report 9, NWC TP 5988, Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, Calif. (Nov.1977), pp. 10–24.

Weber, R. E.

R. E. Weber, J. Cryst. Growth 17, 342 (1972).
[Crossref]

Wong, S. M.

S. M. Wong, G. Krauss, J. M. Bennett, “Optical and Metallurgical Characterization of Molybdenum Laser Mirrors,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1978, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 541 (Dec.1978), pp. 132–163.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. E. Carver, B. O. Seraphin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 279 (1979).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

R. E. Weber, J. Cryst. Growth 17, 342 (1972).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

P. W. Palmberg, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 160 (1972).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (3)

P. C. Archibald, H. E. Bennett, Opt. Eng. 17, 647 (1978).
[Crossref]

J. B. Arnold, T. O. Morris, R. E. Sladky, P. J. Steger, Opt. Eng. 16, 324 (1977).

D. L. Decker, J. M. Bennett, M. J. Soileau, J. O. Porteus, H. E. Bennett, Opt. Eng. 17, 160 (1978).
[Crossref]

Other (18)

H. E. Bennett et al., “Surface Finishing, Molybdenum,” in Ultraviolet Components for High Energy Applications, Annual Report 1, NWC TP 6015, Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, Calif. (Mar.1978), p. 26.

P. A. Temple, D. K. Burge, E. J. Ashley, “Optical Properties of Metal Films Prepared by Ultraclean dc Sputter Deposition,” in High Energy Laser Mirrors and Windows, Annual Report 9, NWC TP 5988, Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, Calif. (Nov.1977), pp. 10–24.

J. M. Bennett, J. M. Elson, “Surface Statistics of Selected Optical Materials,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1977, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 509 (Dec.1977), pp. 142–155.

G. E. Carver, B. O. Seraphin, “C V D Molybdenum Thin Films for High Power Laser Mirrors,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1979, H. E. Bennett et al., Eds., Natl. Bur. Std. U.S. Spec. Publ. 568 (July1980), pp. 287–292.

A. Klugman, J. Bennett, “Polishing of Molybdenum Substrates,” in Proceedings, High Power Laser Optical Components and Component Materials Meeting, 3–4 Oct. 1977, Boulder, Colo. (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Arlington, Va., Dec.1977), pp. 163–175.

S. M. Wong, G. Krauss, J. M. Bennett, “Optical and Metallurgical Characterization of Molybdenum Laser Mirrors,” in Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1978, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 541 (Dec.1978), pp. 132–163.

The Plastmet and microcloth were obtained from Buehler Ltd., 2120 Greenwood St., Evanston, Ill. 60204.

Manufactured by Lapping Polishing Co., Homer City, Pa. 15748.

Manufactured by Scan-Dai-Poliersystem, Hans P. Tempelmann, Metallographischer Bedarf/D/, 5800 Hagen, Denmark.

S4-10 Stereoscan scanning electron microscope manufactured by Cambridge Instrument Co., Inc., Cambridge, England.

Manufactured by American Chain and Cable Co., Inc., Wilson Instrument Division, 929 Connecticut Ave., Bridgeport, Conn. 06602.

Manufactured by the Siemens Corp., 186 Wood Avenue South, Iselin, N.J. 08830.

J. M. Bennett, J. H. Dancy, “Surface Profiling Instrument for Measuring Statistical Properties of Smooth Optical Surfaces,” submitted to Appl. Opt.

J. H. Dancy, J. M. Bennett, “Study of Diamond Styluses for a Talystep Profilometer,” in High Energy Laser Mirrors and Windows, Annual Report 9, NWC TP 5988, Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, Calif. (Nov.1977), pp. 133–144.

Manufactured by Physical Electronics Industries, Inc., 6509 Flying Cloud Drive, Eden Prairie, Minn. 55343.

C. S. Barrett, T. B. Massalski, Structure of Metals (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966), pp. 30–50, 558–561.

Metals Handbook, Vol. 8, Metallography, Structures and Phase Diagrams, T. Lyman, Ed. (American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1973), pp. 229–232.

Molybdenum Metal (AMAX Specialty Metals Corp., 21801 Tungsten Road, Cleveland, Ohio 44117), pp. 55–56.

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Figures (26)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sections used for metallurgical characterization.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Section of a hardness traverse showing Knoop hardness indentations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Microstructures of metallurgically polished and etched normal surfaces of (a) vacuum-arc-cast Mo plate, specimen NC7720, and (b) vacuum-arc-cast Mo bar, specimen AP041. Mirror surface is at the top of the photos.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Microstructure of the mirror surface of vacuum-arc-cast Mo plate, specimen NC7720: (a) micrograph of metallurgically polished and etched surface with emphasis on substructure; (b) DIC micrograph of optically polished surface.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Surface profiles of vacuum-arc-cast Mo plate, specimen NC7720.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Microstructure of mirror surfaces of vacuum-arc-cast Mo bar stock: (a) micrograph of metallurgically polished and etched surface of specimen AP041; (b) DIC micrograph of optically polished surface of specimen NC10280.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Surface profiles of vacuum-arc-cast Mo bar, specimen NC10280.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

DIC micrograph of imperfectly polished surface of vacuum-arc-cast Mo bar, specimen AP041.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Surface profiles of imperfectly polished vacuum-arc-cast Mo bar, specimen AP041.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Microstructures of metallurgically polished and etched normal surfaces of (a) vacuum-arc-cast Mo bar, specimen NC10280; (b) vacuum-arc-cast TZM alloy bar, specimen NTZM10395; and (c) powder-metallurgy Mo bar, specimen NSC9152. Carbide particles in (b) and porosity in (c) are indicated by arrows. Mirror surface is at the top of the photos.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Surface profiles of vacuum-arc-cast TZM alloy bar, specimen NTZM10395.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Scanning electron micrograph showing microstructure of metallurgically polished and etched normal surface of powder-metallurgy Mo bar, specimen NSC9152. Elongated pores are shown, some of which intersect the mirror surface (top).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

DIC micrograph of polished mirror surface of powder metallurgy Mo bar, specimen NSC9152.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Surface profiles of powder-metallurgy Mo bar, specimen NSC9152, made with (a) 8-μm and (b) 1-μm radius styluses.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Microstructures of metallurgically polished and etched normal surfaces of (a) powder-metallurgy Mo sheet, specimen A8011, and (b) vacuum-arc-cast Mo sheet, specimen A50211.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Microstructures of metallurgically polished and etched mirror surfaces of (a) powder-metallurgy Mo sheet, specimen A8011, and (b) vacuum-arc-cast Mo sheet, specimen A50211.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

DIC micrographs of polished mirror surfaces of (a) powder-metallurgy Mo sheet, specimen A8011, and (b) vacuum-arc-cast Mo sheet, specimen A50211. Rolling direction is parallel to the figure caption.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Surface profiles of powder-metallurgy Mo sheet, specimen A8011.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Surface profiles of vacuum-arc-cast Mo sheet, specimen A50211.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

(200) Pole figures for (a) powder-metallurgy Mo sheet, specimen A8011, and (b) vacuum-arc-cast Mo sheet, specimen A50211.

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

(110) Pole figures for (a) powder-metallurgy Mo sheet, specimen A8011, and (b) vacuum-arc-cast Mo sheet, specimen A50211.

Fig. 22
Fig. 22

Height distribution functions for vacuum-arc-cast Mo bar, specimen NC10280, and vacuum-arc-cast TZM alloy bar, specimen NTZM10395.

Fig. 23
Fig. 23

Autocovariance function for vacuum-arc-cast Mo bar, specimen NC10280.

Fig. 24
Fig. 24

Autocovariance function for vacuum-arc-cast TZM alloy bar, specimen NTZM10395.

Fig. 25
Fig. 25

Auger electron spectroscopy scans of the surface of vacuum-arc-cast Mo plate, specimen NC7720, before and after a 3-min sputter etch with argon.

Fig. 26
Fig. 26

Auger depth profile of the surface of the same Mo specimen as in Fig. 25.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table I Processing and Composition of Molybdenum Bar and Plate Stock

Tables Icon

Table II Processing and Composition of Molybdenum Sheet Stock

Tables Icon

Table III Hardness and Microstructural Characterization of Polished Molybdenum Mirrors

Tables Icon

Table IV Impurities in Grinding and Polishing Compounds Obtained from Spark Source Mass Spectroscopy (Numbers are Parts per Million by Weight)

Tables Icon

Table V Normal Incidence Reflectances of Polished Molybdenum Mirrors

Tables Icon

Table VI Surface Statistics of Polished Molybdenum Mirrors

Equations (2)

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TIS = ( 4 π δ / λ ) 2 ,
G ( τ ) = 1 N n = 1 N m z ( n ) z ( n + m ) ,

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