Abstract

The ambient background concentration of N2O has been measured with a differential-absorption lidar using a DF laser in multiline operation. Return signals from topographic targets at distances up to 8 km were detected. An abundance level of 0.29-ppm N2O was observed, in good agreement with previous in situ measurements.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. Baumer, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Range Resolved Measurements of Atmospheric Pollutants,” in 9ILRC Ninth International Laser Radar Conference, 2–5 July 1979, Munich, Conference Abstracts (DFVLR, Oberpfaffenhofen, 1979), pp. 200–202.
  3. K. Asai, T. Itabe, T. Igarashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 60 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Henningsen, M. Garbuny, R. L. Byer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 242 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. A. Baumgartner, R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 2, 163 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. A. Baumgartner, R. L. Byer, Appl. Opt. 17, 3555 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. R. Murray, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Opt. 15, 3140 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Gürs, G. Schweizer, “Determination of Hydrocarbon Emissions of Refinery Flares using the Method of Comparative Absorption Measurements by Means of Laser,” BMI-BMFT-DGMK Project 135, Subproject 135-04 (DGMK, Hamburg, 1978).
  9. R. L. Byer, Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 147 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. J. Spencer, G. C. Denault, H. H. Takimoto, Appl. Opt. 13, 2855 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. E. Burch, D. A. Gryvnak, J. D. Pembrook, “Investigation of the Absorption of Infrared Radiation by Atmospheric Gases: Water, Nitrogen, Nitrous Oxide,” AFCRL-71-0124, Aeronutronics (January1971); the N2 continuum data used here are reproduced in Ref. 10.
  12. F. S. Mills, Dissertation, Ohio State U., Columbus (1975).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. W. R. Watkins, K. O. White, L. R. Bower, B. Z. Sojka, Appl. Opt. 18, 1149 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. W. Heath, Dissertation, Ohio State U., Columbus (1976).
  16. C. Junge, J. Hahn, J. Geophys. Res. 76, 8143 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Weitkamp, J. Harms, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 164, 109 (1979).
  18. J. Harms, W. Lahmann, C. Weitkamp, Appl. Opt. 17, 1131 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. Harms, Appl. Opt. 18, 1559 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. V. R. K. Murty, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52, 768 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Altmann, S. Köhler, W. Lahmann, submitted to J. Phys. E.
  22. P. M. Livingston, Appl. Opt. 17, 818 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russell, “Lidar Measurements of Particles and Gases by Elastic Backscattering and Differential Absorption,” in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1976), pp. 71–151.
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. H. Bair, F. Allario, Appl. Opt. 16, 97 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J. Altmann, P. Pokrowsky, Appl. Opt. 19, 3449 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

1979 (4)

K. Asai, T. Itabe, T. Igarashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 60 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Watkins, K. O. White, L. R. Bower, B. Z. Sojka, Appl. Opt. 18, 1149 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Weitkamp, J. Harms, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 164, 109 (1979).

J. Harms, Appl. Opt. 18, 1559 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (5)

1977 (1)

1976 (2)

E. R. Murray, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Opt. 15, 3140 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

R. L. Byer, Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 147 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

D. J. Spencer, G. C. Denault, H. H. Takimoto, Appl. Opt. 13, 2855 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Henningsen, M. Garbuny, R. L. Byer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 242 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

C. Junge, J. Hahn, J. Geophys. Res. 76, 8143 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

Allario, F.

Altmann, J.

J. Altmann, P. Pokrowsky, Appl. Opt. 19, 3449 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Altmann, S. Köhler, W. Lahmann, submitted to J. Phys. E.

Asai, K.

K. Asai, T. Itabe, T. Igarashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 60 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bair, C. H.

Baumer, W.

W. Baumer, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Range Resolved Measurements of Atmospheric Pollutants,” in 9ILRC Ninth International Laser Radar Conference, 2–5 July 1979, Munich, Conference Abstracts (DFVLR, Oberpfaffenhofen, 1979), pp. 200–202.

Baumgartner, R. A.

Bower, L. R.

Bruce, C. W.

Burch, D. E.

D. E. Burch, D. A. Gryvnak, J. D. Pembrook, “Investigation of the Absorption of Infrared Radiation by Atmospheric Gases: Water, Nitrogen, Nitrous Oxide,” AFCRL-71-0124, Aeronutronics (January1971); the N2 continuum data used here are reproduced in Ref. 10.

Byer, R. L.

R. A. Baumgartner, R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 2, 163 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Baumgartner, R. L. Byer, Appl. Opt. 17, 3555 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Byer, Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 147 (1975).
[CrossRef]

T. Henningsen, M. Garbuny, R. L. Byer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 242 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Collis, R. T. H.

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russell, “Lidar Measurements of Particles and Gases by Elastic Backscattering and Differential Absorption,” in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1976), pp. 71–151.
[CrossRef]

Denault, G. C.

Garbuny, M.

T. Henningsen, M. Garbuny, R. L. Byer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 242 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Gryvnak, D. A.

D. E. Burch, D. A. Gryvnak, J. D. Pembrook, “Investigation of the Absorption of Infrared Radiation by Atmospheric Gases: Water, Nitrogen, Nitrous Oxide,” AFCRL-71-0124, Aeronutronics (January1971); the N2 continuum data used here are reproduced in Ref. 10.

Gürs, K.

K. Gürs, G. Schweizer, “Determination of Hydrocarbon Emissions of Refinery Flares using the Method of Comparative Absorption Measurements by Means of Laser,” BMI-BMFT-DGMK Project 135, Subproject 135-04 (DGMK, Hamburg, 1978).

Hahn, J.

C. Junge, J. Hahn, J. Geophys. Res. 76, 8143 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Hake, R. D.

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Harms, J.

J. Harms, Appl. Opt. 18, 1559 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Weitkamp, J. Harms, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 164, 109 (1979).

J. Harms, W. Lahmann, C. Weitkamp, Appl. Opt. 17, 1131 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hawley, J. G.

E. R. Murray, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Opt. 15, 3140 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Heath, W.

W. Heath, Dissertation, Ohio State U., Columbus (1976).

Henningsen, T.

T. Henningsen, M. Garbuny, R. L. Byer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 242 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Igarashi, T.

K. Asai, T. Itabe, T. Igarashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 60 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Itabe, T.

K. Asai, T. Itabe, T. Igarashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 60 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Junge, C.

C. Junge, J. Hahn, J. Geophys. Res. 76, 8143 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, S.

J. Altmann, S. Köhler, W. Lahmann, submitted to J. Phys. E.

Lahmann, W.

C. Weitkamp, J. Harms, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 164, 109 (1979).

J. Harms, W. Lahmann, C. Weitkamp, Appl. Opt. 17, 1131 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Altmann, S. Köhler, W. Lahmann, submitted to J. Phys. E.

Livingston, P. M.

Meredith, R. E.

Michaelis, W.

C. Weitkamp, J. Harms, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 164, 109 (1979).

Mills, F. S.

F. S. Mills, Dissertation, Ohio State U., Columbus (1975).

Murray, E. R.

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Murray, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Opt. 15, 3140 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murty, M. V. R. K.

Pembrook, J. D.

D. E. Burch, D. A. Gryvnak, J. D. Pembrook, “Investigation of the Absorption of Infrared Radiation by Atmospheric Gases: Water, Nitrogen, Nitrous Oxide,” AFCRL-71-0124, Aeronutronics (January1971); the N2 continuum data used here are reproduced in Ref. 10.

Pokrowsky, P.

Rothe, K. W.

W. Baumer, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Range Resolved Measurements of Atmospheric Pollutants,” in 9ILRC Ninth International Laser Radar Conference, 2–5 July 1979, Munich, Conference Abstracts (DFVLR, Oberpfaffenhofen, 1979), pp. 200–202.

Russell, P. B.

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russell, “Lidar Measurements of Particles and Gases by Elastic Backscattering and Differential Absorption,” in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1976), pp. 71–151.
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, G.

K. Gürs, G. Schweizer, “Determination of Hydrocarbon Emissions of Refinery Flares using the Method of Comparative Absorption Measurements by Means of Laser,” BMI-BMFT-DGMK Project 135, Subproject 135-04 (DGMK, Hamburg, 1978).

Smith, F. G.

Sojka, B. Z.

Spencer, D. J.

Takimoto, H. H.

van der Laan, J. E.

E. R. Murray, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Opt. 15, 3140 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Walther, H.

W. Baumer, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Range Resolved Measurements of Atmospheric Pollutants,” in 9ILRC Ninth International Laser Radar Conference, 2–5 July 1979, Munich, Conference Abstracts (DFVLR, Oberpfaffenhofen, 1979), pp. 200–202.

Watkins, W. R.

Weitkamp, C.

C. Weitkamp, J. Harms, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 164, 109 (1979).

J. Harms, W. Lahmann, C. Weitkamp, Appl. Opt. 17, 1131 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, K. O.

Appl. Opt. (10)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

K. Asai, T. Itabe, T. Igarashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 60 (1979).
[CrossRef]

T. Henningsen, M. Garbuny, R. L. Byer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 242 (1974).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Laan, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

C. Junge, J. Hahn, J. Geophys. Res. 76, 8143 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. L. Byer, Opt. Quantum Electron. 7, 147 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

C. Weitkamp, J. Harms, W. Lahmann, W. Michaelis, Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 164, 109 (1979).

Other (7)

K. Gürs, G. Schweizer, “Determination of Hydrocarbon Emissions of Refinery Flares using the Method of Comparative Absorption Measurements by Means of Laser,” BMI-BMFT-DGMK Project 135, Subproject 135-04 (DGMK, Hamburg, 1978).

W. Baumer, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Range Resolved Measurements of Atmospheric Pollutants,” in 9ILRC Ninth International Laser Radar Conference, 2–5 July 1979, Munich, Conference Abstracts (DFVLR, Oberpfaffenhofen, 1979), pp. 200–202.

D. E. Burch, D. A. Gryvnak, J. D. Pembrook, “Investigation of the Absorption of Infrared Radiation by Atmospheric Gases: Water, Nitrogen, Nitrous Oxide,” AFCRL-71-0124, Aeronutronics (January1971); the N2 continuum data used here are reproduced in Ref. 10.

F. S. Mills, Dissertation, Ohio State U., Columbus (1975).

W. Heath, Dissertation, Ohio State U., Columbus (1976).

J. Altmann, S. Köhler, W. Lahmann, submitted to J. Phys. E.

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russell, “Lidar Measurements of Particles and Gases by Elastic Backscattering and Differential Absorption,” in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1976), pp. 71–151.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectrum of DF laser return signal from the topographic target at a 4-km distance with a fixed detector position.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

DF laser spectrum around the P3(7) line from a topographic target at 4 km with a fixed grating angle. Position of twenty-element detector for DAT measurement is also indicated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Return signal from topographic target at 0.3 (a), 4 (b), and 7.5 km (c); (c) is the average of ten pulses. The beginning of the traces shows heavy rf interference from laser firing.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Logarithm of the average ratio of the backscattered energy of the N2O signal line [P3(7), A] to the reference line [P3(6), B] vs the distance of the topographic target.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Specific Absorption of N2O and Water Under Atmospheric Conditions at Two DF Laser Wavelengths

Tables Icon

Table II Specifications of the Mobile DF Laser Lidar System

Equations (6)

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P ( z ) = P 0 ρ π · A z t 2 exp [ 2 0 z t α ( z ) d z ] ,
α ( λ i ) = α 0 + α * 1 ( λ i ) p 1 + α * 2 ( λ i ) p 2 , ( i = 0,1 ) ,
0 z t p 1 ( z ) d z = 1 α * 1 ( λ 1 ) α * 1 ( λ 0 ) × { 1 2 ln P ( z t , λ 0 ) P 0 ( λ 1 ) P ( z t , λ 1 ) P 0 ( λ 0 ) z t p 2 [ α * 2 ( λ 1 ) α * 2 ( λ 0 ) ] } ,
ln P ( z t , λ 1 ) P ( z t , λ 0 ) = 2 { p 1 [ α * 1 ( λ 1 ) α * 1 ( λ 0 ) ] + p 2 [ α * 2 ( λ 1 ) α * 2 ( λ 0 ) ] } z t + ln P 0 ( λ 1 ) P 0 ( λ 0 ) .
Δ α p 1 [ α * 1 ( λ 1 ) α * 1 ( λ 0 ) ] + p 2 [ α * 2 ( λ 1 ) α * 2 ( λ 0 ) ] ,
p 1 = 1 α * 1 ( λ 1 ) α * 1 ( λ 0 ) { Δ α p 2 [ α * 2 ( λ 1 ) α * 2 ( λ 0 ) ] } .

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