Abstract

A multiwavelength laser ranging system has been designed for measuring atmospheric path delay in satellite laser ranging systems. The instrument measures the difference between the propagation times of 532 and 355 nm pulses as a measure of integrated air density. The present design uses a frequency-tripled dye mode-locked Nd:YAG laser as a pulse source and subnanosecond response time photomultipliers as detectors. Studies indicate that recovery of the atmospheric path delay in satellite ranging to the 1-cm level will require the differential arrival time measurements with an accuracy of 3–7 ps. Initial horizontal path test results are presented.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Corrections

James B. Abshire, "Pulsed multiwavelength laser ranging system for measuring atmospheric delay: erratum," Appl. Opt. 20, 3821-3821 (1981)
https://www.osapublishing.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-20-22-3821

References

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  1. M. W. Fitzmaurice, “Ground-Based and Space-Based Laser Ranging System,” NASA Technical Paper 1149 (January1978).
  2. T. E. McGunigal, W J. Carrion, L. O. Caudill, C. R. Grant, T. S. Johnson, D. A. Premo, P. L. Spadin, G. C. Winston, “Satellite Laser Ranging Work at the Goddard Space Flight Center,” WESCON Technical Papers (1975), Vol. 19, Sec. 92.
  3. T. E. McGunical, J. B. Abshire, J. Bebris, J. L. Bufton, J. J. Degnan, M. W. Fitzmaurice, T. S. Johnson, S. C. Wardrip, T. W. Zagwodzki, “Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation—III GSFC Working Papers,” NASA Technical Memorandum 79643 (July1978).
  4. L. L. Haper, K. E. Logan, R. H. Williams, D. A. Stevens, “Nd:YAG Laser Development for Spaceborne Laser Ranging System,” Final Report for contract NAS5-22916, Report period January1976–February 1979.
  5. The results described in this paper were presented at the 1979 annual meeting of the Optical Society of America [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, A142 (1979)].
  6. J. Saastamoinen, Bull. Geodesique 105, 279; Bull. Geodesique 106, 383; Bull. Geodesique 107, 13 (1972).
  7. J. W. Marini, C. W. Murray, “Correction of Laser Range Tracking Data for Atmospheric Refraction at Elevations above 10 Degrees,” NASA X-Document 591-73-351 (November1973).
  8. C. S. Gardner, Appl. Opt. 16, 2427 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. S. Gardner, J. R. Rowlett, B. E. Hendrickson, Appl. Opt. 17, 3143 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. S. Gardner, B. E. Hendrickson, “Correction of Laser Ranging Data for the Effects of Horizontal Refractivity Gradients,” Radio Research Laboratory Report 478, U. Illinois, Urbana (December1976).
  11. S. Penn, G. J. Thompson, P. A. Giorgia, “Meteorological Conditions Associated with CAT Observations in Project Heaven Hop,” AFCRL Technical Report AFCRL-72-0043 (1972).
  12. P. L. Bender, J. C. Owens, J. Geophys. Res. 70, 2461 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. L. Bender, Proc. IEEE 55, 1039 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. B. Earnshaw, J. C. Owens, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 544 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. C. Thompson, J. Geophys. Res. 73, 3097 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. B. Johnson, S. Nevin, J. Bebris, J. B. Abshire, Appl. Opt. 19, 3491 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

The results described in this paper were presented at the 1979 annual meeting of the Optical Society of America [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, A142 (1979)].

1978 (1)

1977 (1)

1968 (1)

M. C. Thompson, J. Geophys. Res. 73, 3097 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (2)

P. L. Bender, Proc. IEEE 55, 1039 (1967).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Earnshaw, J. C. Owens, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 544 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

P. L. Bender, J. C. Owens, J. Geophys. Res. 70, 2461 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Abshire, J. B.

C. B. Johnson, S. Nevin, J. Bebris, J. B. Abshire, Appl. Opt. 19, 3491 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. E. McGunical, J. B. Abshire, J. Bebris, J. L. Bufton, J. J. Degnan, M. W. Fitzmaurice, T. S. Johnson, S. C. Wardrip, T. W. Zagwodzki, “Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation—III GSFC Working Papers,” NASA Technical Memorandum 79643 (July1978).

Bebris, J.

C. B. Johnson, S. Nevin, J. Bebris, J. B. Abshire, Appl. Opt. 19, 3491 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. E. McGunical, J. B. Abshire, J. Bebris, J. L. Bufton, J. J. Degnan, M. W. Fitzmaurice, T. S. Johnson, S. C. Wardrip, T. W. Zagwodzki, “Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation—III GSFC Working Papers,” NASA Technical Memorandum 79643 (July1978).

Bender, P. L.

P. L. Bender, Proc. IEEE 55, 1039 (1967).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Bender, J. C. Owens, J. Geophys. Res. 70, 2461 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Bufton, J. L.

T. E. McGunical, J. B. Abshire, J. Bebris, J. L. Bufton, J. J. Degnan, M. W. Fitzmaurice, T. S. Johnson, S. C. Wardrip, T. W. Zagwodzki, “Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation—III GSFC Working Papers,” NASA Technical Memorandum 79643 (July1978).

Carrion, W J.

T. E. McGunigal, W J. Carrion, L. O. Caudill, C. R. Grant, T. S. Johnson, D. A. Premo, P. L. Spadin, G. C. Winston, “Satellite Laser Ranging Work at the Goddard Space Flight Center,” WESCON Technical Papers (1975), Vol. 19, Sec. 92.

Caudill, L. O.

T. E. McGunigal, W J. Carrion, L. O. Caudill, C. R. Grant, T. S. Johnson, D. A. Premo, P. L. Spadin, G. C. Winston, “Satellite Laser Ranging Work at the Goddard Space Flight Center,” WESCON Technical Papers (1975), Vol. 19, Sec. 92.

Degnan, J. J.

T. E. McGunical, J. B. Abshire, J. Bebris, J. L. Bufton, J. J. Degnan, M. W. Fitzmaurice, T. S. Johnson, S. C. Wardrip, T. W. Zagwodzki, “Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation—III GSFC Working Papers,” NASA Technical Memorandum 79643 (July1978).

Earnshaw, K. B.

K. B. Earnshaw, J. C. Owens, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 544 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Fitzmaurice, M. W.

T. E. McGunical, J. B. Abshire, J. Bebris, J. L. Bufton, J. J. Degnan, M. W. Fitzmaurice, T. S. Johnson, S. C. Wardrip, T. W. Zagwodzki, “Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation—III GSFC Working Papers,” NASA Technical Memorandum 79643 (July1978).

M. W. Fitzmaurice, “Ground-Based and Space-Based Laser Ranging System,” NASA Technical Paper 1149 (January1978).

Gardner, C. S.

C. S. Gardner, J. R. Rowlett, B. E. Hendrickson, Appl. Opt. 17, 3143 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Gardner, Appl. Opt. 16, 2427 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Gardner, B. E. Hendrickson, “Correction of Laser Ranging Data for the Effects of Horizontal Refractivity Gradients,” Radio Research Laboratory Report 478, U. Illinois, Urbana (December1976).

Giorgia, P. A.

S. Penn, G. J. Thompson, P. A. Giorgia, “Meteorological Conditions Associated with CAT Observations in Project Heaven Hop,” AFCRL Technical Report AFCRL-72-0043 (1972).

Grant, C. R.

T. E. McGunigal, W J. Carrion, L. O. Caudill, C. R. Grant, T. S. Johnson, D. A. Premo, P. L. Spadin, G. C. Winston, “Satellite Laser Ranging Work at the Goddard Space Flight Center,” WESCON Technical Papers (1975), Vol. 19, Sec. 92.

Haper, L. L.

L. L. Haper, K. E. Logan, R. H. Williams, D. A. Stevens, “Nd:YAG Laser Development for Spaceborne Laser Ranging System,” Final Report for contract NAS5-22916, Report period January1976–February 1979.

Hendrickson, B. E.

C. S. Gardner, J. R. Rowlett, B. E. Hendrickson, Appl. Opt. 17, 3143 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Gardner, B. E. Hendrickson, “Correction of Laser Ranging Data for the Effects of Horizontal Refractivity Gradients,” Radio Research Laboratory Report 478, U. Illinois, Urbana (December1976).

Johnson, C. B.

Johnson, T. S.

T. E. McGunical, J. B. Abshire, J. Bebris, J. L. Bufton, J. J. Degnan, M. W. Fitzmaurice, T. S. Johnson, S. C. Wardrip, T. W. Zagwodzki, “Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation—III GSFC Working Papers,” NASA Technical Memorandum 79643 (July1978).

T. E. McGunigal, W J. Carrion, L. O. Caudill, C. R. Grant, T. S. Johnson, D. A. Premo, P. L. Spadin, G. C. Winston, “Satellite Laser Ranging Work at the Goddard Space Flight Center,” WESCON Technical Papers (1975), Vol. 19, Sec. 92.

Logan, K. E.

L. L. Haper, K. E. Logan, R. H. Williams, D. A. Stevens, “Nd:YAG Laser Development for Spaceborne Laser Ranging System,” Final Report for contract NAS5-22916, Report period January1976–February 1979.

Marini, J. W.

J. W. Marini, C. W. Murray, “Correction of Laser Range Tracking Data for Atmospheric Refraction at Elevations above 10 Degrees,” NASA X-Document 591-73-351 (November1973).

McGunical, T. E.

T. E. McGunical, J. B. Abshire, J. Bebris, J. L. Bufton, J. J. Degnan, M. W. Fitzmaurice, T. S. Johnson, S. C. Wardrip, T. W. Zagwodzki, “Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation—III GSFC Working Papers,” NASA Technical Memorandum 79643 (July1978).

McGunigal, T. E.

T. E. McGunigal, W J. Carrion, L. O. Caudill, C. R. Grant, T. S. Johnson, D. A. Premo, P. L. Spadin, G. C. Winston, “Satellite Laser Ranging Work at the Goddard Space Flight Center,” WESCON Technical Papers (1975), Vol. 19, Sec. 92.

Murray, C. W.

J. W. Marini, C. W. Murray, “Correction of Laser Range Tracking Data for Atmospheric Refraction at Elevations above 10 Degrees,” NASA X-Document 591-73-351 (November1973).

Nevin, S.

Owens, J. C.

K. B. Earnshaw, J. C. Owens, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 544 (1967).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Bender, J. C. Owens, J. Geophys. Res. 70, 2461 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Penn, S.

S. Penn, G. J. Thompson, P. A. Giorgia, “Meteorological Conditions Associated with CAT Observations in Project Heaven Hop,” AFCRL Technical Report AFCRL-72-0043 (1972).

Premo, D. A.

T. E. McGunigal, W J. Carrion, L. O. Caudill, C. R. Grant, T. S. Johnson, D. A. Premo, P. L. Spadin, G. C. Winston, “Satellite Laser Ranging Work at the Goddard Space Flight Center,” WESCON Technical Papers (1975), Vol. 19, Sec. 92.

Rowlett, J. R.

Saastamoinen, J.

J. Saastamoinen, Bull. Geodesique 105, 279; Bull. Geodesique 106, 383; Bull. Geodesique 107, 13 (1972).

Spadin, P. L.

T. E. McGunigal, W J. Carrion, L. O. Caudill, C. R. Grant, T. S. Johnson, D. A. Premo, P. L. Spadin, G. C. Winston, “Satellite Laser Ranging Work at the Goddard Space Flight Center,” WESCON Technical Papers (1975), Vol. 19, Sec. 92.

Stevens, D. A.

L. L. Haper, K. E. Logan, R. H. Williams, D. A. Stevens, “Nd:YAG Laser Development for Spaceborne Laser Ranging System,” Final Report for contract NAS5-22916, Report period January1976–February 1979.

Thompson, G. J.

S. Penn, G. J. Thompson, P. A. Giorgia, “Meteorological Conditions Associated with CAT Observations in Project Heaven Hop,” AFCRL Technical Report AFCRL-72-0043 (1972).

Thompson, M. C.

M. C. Thompson, J. Geophys. Res. 73, 3097 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Wardrip, S. C.

T. E. McGunical, J. B. Abshire, J. Bebris, J. L. Bufton, J. J. Degnan, M. W. Fitzmaurice, T. S. Johnson, S. C. Wardrip, T. W. Zagwodzki, “Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation—III GSFC Working Papers,” NASA Technical Memorandum 79643 (July1978).

Williams, R. H.

L. L. Haper, K. E. Logan, R. H. Williams, D. A. Stevens, “Nd:YAG Laser Development for Spaceborne Laser Ranging System,” Final Report for contract NAS5-22916, Report period January1976–February 1979.

Winston, G. C.

T. E. McGunigal, W J. Carrion, L. O. Caudill, C. R. Grant, T. S. Johnson, D. A. Premo, P. L. Spadin, G. C. Winston, “Satellite Laser Ranging Work at the Goddard Space Flight Center,” WESCON Technical Papers (1975), Vol. 19, Sec. 92.

Zagwodzki, T. W.

T. E. McGunical, J. B. Abshire, J. Bebris, J. L. Bufton, J. J. Degnan, M. W. Fitzmaurice, T. S. Johnson, S. C. Wardrip, T. W. Zagwodzki, “Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation—III GSFC Working Papers,” NASA Technical Memorandum 79643 (July1978).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Bull. Geodesique (1)

J. Saastamoinen, Bull. Geodesique 105, 279; Bull. Geodesique 106, 383; Bull. Geodesique 107, 13 (1972).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. B. Earnshaw, J. C. Owens, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 544 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

M. C. Thompson, J. Geophys. Res. 73, 3097 (1968).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Bender, J. C. Owens, J. Geophys. Res. 70, 2461 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

The results described in this paper were presented at the 1979 annual meeting of the Optical Society of America [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, A142 (1979)].

Proc. IEEE (1)

P. L. Bender, Proc. IEEE 55, 1039 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

J. W. Marini, C. W. Murray, “Correction of Laser Range Tracking Data for Atmospheric Refraction at Elevations above 10 Degrees,” NASA X-Document 591-73-351 (November1973).

C. S. Gardner, B. E. Hendrickson, “Correction of Laser Ranging Data for the Effects of Horizontal Refractivity Gradients,” Radio Research Laboratory Report 478, U. Illinois, Urbana (December1976).

S. Penn, G. J. Thompson, P. A. Giorgia, “Meteorological Conditions Associated with CAT Observations in Project Heaven Hop,” AFCRL Technical Report AFCRL-72-0043 (1972).

M. W. Fitzmaurice, “Ground-Based and Space-Based Laser Ranging System,” NASA Technical Paper 1149 (January1978).

T. E. McGunigal, W J. Carrion, L. O. Caudill, C. R. Grant, T. S. Johnson, D. A. Premo, P. L. Spadin, G. C. Winston, “Satellite Laser Ranging Work at the Goddard Space Flight Center,” WESCON Technical Papers (1975), Vol. 19, Sec. 92.

T. E. McGunical, J. B. Abshire, J. Bebris, J. L. Bufton, J. J. Degnan, M. W. Fitzmaurice, T. S. Johnson, S. C. Wardrip, T. W. Zagwodzki, “Workshop on Laser Ranging Instrumentation—III GSFC Working Papers,” NASA Technical Memorandum 79643 (July1978).

L. L. Haper, K. E. Logan, R. H. Williams, D. A. Stevens, “Nd:YAG Laser Development for Spaceborne Laser Ranging System,” Final Report for contract NAS5-22916, Report period January1976–February 1979.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Estimated atmospheric modeling errors at 20° elevation angle. RT1 is the range correction calculated assuming a spherically symmetric atmospheric profile, and RT3 is the mean range correction calculated by a 3-D atmospheric profile.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized group velocity retardation of light in standard air vs wavelength. Dashed lines represent the three wavelengths from a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Differential atmospheric delay time for a one-way traversal vs zenith angle for the three possible pulse pairs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Present configuration of the dual wavelength ranging system.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured waveform digitizer sweep speed vs beam position.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured waveform digitizer time shift vs pulse amplitude.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Histogram of typical reference or system delay measurement.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Histogram of 0.5-km atmospheric path measurement.

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