Abstract

Measurement of optical absorption loss and photorefractive sensitivity (optically induced index changes) in Ti-diffused waveguides and bulk Ti-doped single crystals are reported. The absorption loss of strip guides is found to be 0.3 dB/cm at 0.633 μm, and this is expected to decrease at longer wavelengths. The results demonstrate that Ti impurities do not contribute to the absorption loss or to the photorefractive-index changes directly, rather these parameters are determined by impurities in the substrate crystal. A simple pyroelectric method for electrical adjustment of the optical input coupling is also reported.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. P. Kaminow, J. R. Carruthers, E. H. Turner, L. W. Stulz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 540 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. V. Schmidt, I. P. Kaminow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 458 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. L. Holman, P. J. Cressman, J. F. Revelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 280 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. M. Glass, Opt. Eng. 17, 470 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. E. Lines, A. M. Glass, Principles and Applications of Ferroelectrics and Related Materials (Oxford U. P., New York, 1977).
  7. F. S. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3389 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. E. Peterson, A. M. Glass, T. J. Negran, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 130 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. L. Staebler, W. Phillips, Appl. Opt. 13. 788 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. W. Vahey, C. M. Verber, V. E. Wood, to be published in Proceedings, Symposium on the Application of Ferroelectrics, Minneapolis, June 1979.
  11. C. J. Ballhausen, Introduction to Ligand Field Theory, (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1962).
  12. M. Minakata, S. Saito, M. Shibata, S. Miyazawa, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4677 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. DiDomenico, S. H. Wemple, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 720 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. M. Glass, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4699 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  15. I. P. Kaminow, L. W. Stulz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 62 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. H. Haegele, R. Ulrich, Opt. Lett. 4, 60 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. V. E. Wood, N. F. Hartman, P. M. Verber, R. P. Kenan, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1214 (1975); C. M. Verber, N. F. Hartman, A. M. Glass, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 272 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
  19. D. Sarid, P. J. Cressman, R. L. Holman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 514 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. V. Schmidt, P. S. Cross, A. M. Glass, to be published in J. Appl. Phys.
  21. T. M. Searle, A. M. Glass, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 29, 609 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. Phillips, J. J. Amodei, D. L. Staebler, RCA Rev. 33, 94 (1972).
  23. M. L. Shah, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 653 (1975); J. L. Jackel, to be published.
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Noda, M. Fukuma, S. Saito, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3151 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  25. W. K. Burns, P. H. Klein, E. J. West, L. E. Pleau, to be published.
  26. M. Fukuma, J. Noda, H. Iwasaki, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3693 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Miyazawa, H. Iwasaki, presented at the Second Meeting on Ferroelectric Materials and their Applications, Kyoto, 24–26 May 1979, Y. Onishi, ibid.

1979

1978

I. P. Kaminow, L. W. Stulz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 62 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Holman, P. J. Cressman, J. F. Revelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 280 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Glass, Opt. Eng. 17, 470 (1978).
[CrossRef]

D. Sarid, P. J. Cressman, R. L. Holman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 514 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Noda, M. Fukuma, S. Saito, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3151 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. Fukuma, J. Noda, H. Iwasaki, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3693 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. Minakata, S. Saito, M. Shibata, S. Miyazawa, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4677 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975

M. L. Shah, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 653 (1975); J. L. Jackel, to be published.
[CrossRef]

V. E. Wood, N. F. Hartman, P. M. Verber, R. P. Kenan, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1214 (1975); C. M. Verber, N. F. Hartman, A. M. Glass, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 272 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974

R. V. Schmidt, I. P. Kaminow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 458 (1974).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Staebler, W. Phillips, Appl. Opt. 13. 788 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973

I. P. Kaminow, J. R. Carruthers, E. H. Turner, L. W. Stulz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 540 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972

W. Phillips, J. J. Amodei, D. L. Staebler, RCA Rev. 33, 94 (1972).

1971

G. E. Peterson, A. M. Glass, T. J. Negran, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 130 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

F. S. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3389 (1969).
[CrossRef]

M. DiDomenico, S. H. Wemple, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 720 (1969).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Glass, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4699 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968

T. M. Searle, A. M. Glass, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 29, 609 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1966

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Amodei, J. J.

W. Phillips, J. J. Amodei, D. L. Staebler, RCA Rev. 33, 94 (1972).

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Ballhausen, C. J.

C. J. Ballhausen, Introduction to Ligand Field Theory, (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1962).

Ballman, A. A.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, G. D.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Burns, W. K.

W. K. Burns, P. H. Klein, E. J. West, L. E. Pleau, to be published.

Carruthers, J. R.

I. P. Kaminow, J. R. Carruthers, E. H. Turner, L. W. Stulz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 540 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F. S.

F. S. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3389 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Cressman, P. J.

D. Sarid, P. J. Cressman, R. L. Holman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 514 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Holman, P. J. Cressman, J. F. Revelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 280 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Cross, P. S.

R. V. Schmidt, P. S. Cross, A. M. Glass, to be published in J. Appl. Phys.

DiDomenico, M.

M. DiDomenico, S. H. Wemple, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 720 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Dziedzic, J. M.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Fukuma, M.

J. Noda, M. Fukuma, S. Saito, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3151 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. Fukuma, J. Noda, H. Iwasaki, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3693 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Glass, A. M.

A. M. Glass, Opt. Eng. 17, 470 (1978).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Peterson, A. M. Glass, T. J. Negran, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 130 (1971).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Glass, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4699 (1969).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Searle, A. M. Glass, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 29, 609 (1968).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Schmidt, P. S. Cross, A. M. Glass, to be published in J. Appl. Phys.

M. E. Lines, A. M. Glass, Principles and Applications of Ferroelectrics and Related Materials (Oxford U. P., New York, 1977).

Haegele, K. H.

Hartman, N. F.

V. E. Wood, N. F. Hartman, P. M. Verber, R. P. Kenan, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1214 (1975); C. M. Verber, N. F. Hartman, A. M. Glass, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 272 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Holman, R. L.

R. L. Holman, P. J. Cressman, J. F. Revelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 280 (1978).
[CrossRef]

D. Sarid, P. J. Cressman, R. L. Holman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 514 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Iwasaki, H.

M. Fukuma, J. Noda, H. Iwasaki, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3693 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. Miyazawa, H. Iwasaki, presented at the Second Meeting on Ferroelectric Materials and their Applications, Kyoto, 24–26 May 1979, Y. Onishi, ibid.

Kaminow, I. P.

I. P. Kaminow, L. W. Stulz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 62 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Schmidt, I. P. Kaminow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 458 (1974).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow, J. R. Carruthers, E. H. Turner, L. W. Stulz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 540 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kenan, R. P.

V. E. Wood, N. F. Hartman, P. M. Verber, R. P. Kenan, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1214 (1975); C. M. Verber, N. F. Hartman, A. M. Glass, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 272 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Klein, P. H.

W. K. Burns, P. H. Klein, E. J. West, L. E. Pleau, to be published.

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

Lines, M. E.

M. E. Lines, A. M. Glass, Principles and Applications of Ferroelectrics and Related Materials (Oxford U. P., New York, 1977).

Minakata, M.

M. Minakata, S. Saito, M. Shibata, S. Miyazawa, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4677 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Miyazawa, M.

M. Miyazawa, H. Iwasaki, presented at the Second Meeting on Ferroelectric Materials and their Applications, Kyoto, 24–26 May 1979, Y. Onishi, ibid.

Miyazawa, S.

M. Minakata, S. Saito, M. Shibata, S. Miyazawa, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4677 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Nassau, K.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Negran, T. J.

G. E. Peterson, A. M. Glass, T. J. Negran, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 130 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Noda, J.

J. Noda, M. Fukuma, S. Saito, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3151 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. Fukuma, J. Noda, H. Iwasaki, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3693 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, G. E.

G. E. Peterson, A. M. Glass, T. J. Negran, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 130 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, W.

D. L. Staebler, W. Phillips, Appl. Opt. 13. 788 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Phillips, J. J. Amodei, D. L. Staebler, RCA Rev. 33, 94 (1972).

Pleau, L. E.

W. K. Burns, P. H. Klein, E. J. West, L. E. Pleau, to be published.

Revelli, J. F.

R. L. Holman, P. J. Cressman, J. F. Revelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 280 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Saito, S.

M. Minakata, S. Saito, M. Shibata, S. Miyazawa, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4677 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Noda, M. Fukuma, S. Saito, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3151 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sarid, D.

D. Sarid, P. J. Cressman, R. L. Holman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 514 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, R. V.

R. V. Schmidt, I. P. Kaminow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 458 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Schmidt, P. S. Cross, A. M. Glass, to be published in J. Appl. Phys.

Searle, T. M.

T. M. Searle, A. M. Glass, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 29, 609 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Shah, M. L.

M. L. Shah, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 653 (1975); J. L. Jackel, to be published.
[CrossRef]

Shibata, M.

M. Minakata, S. Saito, M. Shibata, S. Miyazawa, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4677 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. G.

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Staebler, D. L.

D. L. Staebler, W. Phillips, Appl. Opt. 13. 788 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Phillips, J. J. Amodei, D. L. Staebler, RCA Rev. 33, 94 (1972).

Stulz, L. W.

I. P. Kaminow, L. W. Stulz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 62 (1978).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow, J. R. Carruthers, E. H. Turner, L. W. Stulz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 540 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Turner, E. H.

I. P. Kaminow, J. R. Carruthers, E. H. Turner, L. W. Stulz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 540 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

Vahey, D. W.

D. W. Vahey, C. M. Verber, V. E. Wood, to be published in Proceedings, Symposium on the Application of Ferroelectrics, Minneapolis, June 1979.

Verber, C. M.

D. W. Vahey, C. M. Verber, V. E. Wood, to be published in Proceedings, Symposium on the Application of Ferroelectrics, Minneapolis, June 1979.

Verber, P. M.

V. E. Wood, N. F. Hartman, P. M. Verber, R. P. Kenan, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1214 (1975); C. M. Verber, N. F. Hartman, A. M. Glass, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 272 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Wemple, S. H.

M. DiDomenico, S. H. Wemple, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 720 (1969).
[CrossRef]

West, E. J.

W. K. Burns, P. H. Klein, E. J. West, L. E. Pleau, to be published.

Wood, V. E.

V. E. Wood, N. F. Hartman, P. M. Verber, R. P. Kenan, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1214 (1975); C. M. Verber, N. F. Hartman, A. M. Glass, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 272 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Vahey, C. M. Verber, V. E. Wood, to be published in Proceedings, Symposium on the Application of Ferroelectrics, Minneapolis, June 1979.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

I. P. Kaminow, L. W. Stulz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 62 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Shah, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 653 (1975); J. L. Jackel, to be published.
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow, J. R. Carruthers, E. H. Turner, L. W. Stulz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 540 (1973).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Schmidt, I. P. Kaminow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 458 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, G. D. Boyd, J. M. Dziedzic, R. G. Smith, A. A. Ballman, K. Nassau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 72 (1966).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Holman, P. J. Cressman, J. F. Revelli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 280 (1978).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Peterson, A. M. Glass, T. J. Negran, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 130 (1971).
[CrossRef]

D. Sarid, P. J. Cressman, R. L. Holman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 514 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

J. Appl. Phys.

F. S. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3389 (1969).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Wood, N. F. Hartman, P. M. Verber, R. P. Kenan, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1214 (1975); C. M. Verber, N. F. Hartman, A. M. Glass, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 272 (1977).
[CrossRef]

M. Fukuma, J. Noda, H. Iwasaki, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3693 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Noda, M. Fukuma, S. Saito, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3151 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. Minakata, S. Saito, M. Shibata, S. Miyazawa, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4677 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. DiDomenico, S. H. Wemple, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 720 (1969).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Glass, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4699 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids

T. M. Searle, A. M. Glass, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 29, 609 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

A. M. Glass, Opt. Eng. 17, 470 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

RCA Rev.

W. Phillips, J. J. Amodei, D. L. Staebler, RCA Rev. 33, 94 (1972).

Other

R. V. Schmidt, P. S. Cross, A. M. Glass, to be published in J. Appl. Phys.

M. Miyazawa, H. Iwasaki, presented at the Second Meeting on Ferroelectric Materials and their Applications, Kyoto, 24–26 May 1979, Y. Onishi, ibid.

D. W. Vahey, C. M. Verber, V. E. Wood, to be published in Proceedings, Symposium on the Application of Ferroelectrics, Minneapolis, June 1979.

C. J. Ballhausen, Introduction to Ligand Field Theory, (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1962).

M. E. Lines, A. M. Glass, Principles and Applications of Ferroelectrics and Related Materials (Oxford U. P., New York, 1977).

W. K. Burns, P. H. Klein, E. J. West, L. E. Pleau, to be published.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical absorption spectra of Ti-doped LiNbO3 crystals.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental arrangement for pyroelectric measurement of absorption loss in LiNbO3 strip guides. The polar o-axis is in the plane of the waveguide at 32.75°. from the cleaved ends.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental arrangement for measuring photorefractive sensitivity of planar Ti-diffused LiNbO3 waveguides. The polar axis is in the plane of the waveguide parallel to the prism apex.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relaxation (at 300 K) of the induced refractive-index change in planar LiNbO3 waveguides. The points are calculated assuming a bimolecular decay Δn α 1/t.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Optical Absorption Coefficient α, Measured Pyroelectrically, and Photorefractive Sensitivity of LiNbO3 Crystals at 0.458 μm

Tables Icon

Table II Absorption Loss α Measurements on Ti-Diffused Strip Guide a

Tables Icon

Table III Diffraction Efficiency η and Photorefractive Sensitivity αS of Planar Ti-Diffused Waveguides at 0.458 μm

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E g c ~ 6 eV / mole fraction TiO 2
n o c ~ 0.9 / mole fraction ,             n e c ~ 0.6 / mole fraction TiO 2 .
Δ n ~ ¼ Δ E g ( eV ) ,
n o c ~ n e c = 1.5 / mole fraction TiO 2 .
S = Δ n α E cm 3 / J .
i W = f p c p a × 1 ( 1 + ω - 2 τ - 2 ) 1 / 2 ,
f ( 1 - R ) [ 1 - exp ( - α d ) ] / [ 1 - R exp ( - α d ) ] ,
η = sin 2 π Δ n l λ cos θ ,
( Δ n ) / E = 0.3 × 10 - 6 cm 3 / J .
S = ( Δ n ) / ( α E ) = 0.16 × 10 - 5 .

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