Abstract

The hydroxyl radical (OH) is a key species in the chemistry of the atmosphere participating in such processes as catalytic destruction of ozone and aerosol formation. Despite its importance it has been measured only a handful of times at distinct geographical locations and local times. The measurement of the latitudinal and diurnal variation of OH would provide some excellent tests for the current picture of stratospheric and mesospheric chemistry. Such a measurement is possible using a lidar system on board the Space Shuttle. Two lidar systems are described. The first using excitation via the X2Π → A2∑ (0,1) transition at 282 nm and broadband detection gives the best signal to noise ratio for nighttime measurements at altitudes above 40 km. Its performance is degraded at lower altitudes by ozone absorption at 282 nm and during daytime operation by its sensitivity to backscattered solar UV flux. The second system uses (0,0) excitation at 308 nm with detection of a single line at 309 nm of the (0,0) fluorescence band. This system gives better performance during the day and at lower altitudes.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. F. M. Luther, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory; private communication.
  19. E. V. P. Smith, D. M. Gottlieb, Space Sci. Rev. 16, 771 (1974).

1979

1977

1976

T. Aruga, T. Igarashi, Appl. Opt. 15, 261 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Perner, D. H. Ehhalt, H. W. Patz, U. Platt, E. P. Roth, A. Volz, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 466 (1976).
[CrossRef]

K. R. German, J. Chem. Phys. 64, 4065 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Anderson, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 165 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, W. Heaps, T. McGee, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 331 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975

C. C. Wang, L. I. Davis, C. H. Wu, S. Japar, H. Niki, B. Winstock, Science 189, 797 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Lengel, D. R. Crosley, Chem. Phys. Lett. 32, 261 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974

E. V. P. Smith, D. M. Gottlieb, Space Sci. Rev. 16, 771 (1974).

1973

K. H. Becker, D. Haaks, Z. Naturforsch. Teil A: 28, 249 (1973).

1971

J. G. Anderson, J. Geophys. Res. 76, 7820 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1950

A. B. Meinel, Astrophys. J. 112, 120 (1950).
[CrossRef]

1928

E. L. Hill, J. H. Van Vleck, Phys. Rev. 32, 250 (1928).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Mulliken, Phys. Rev. 32, 388 (1928).
[CrossRef]

1912

L. Grebe, O. Holtz, Ann. Phys. 39, 1243 (1912).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, J. G.

J. G. Anderson, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 165 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Anderson, J. Geophys. Res. 76, 7820 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Aruga, T.

Becker, K. H.

K. H. Becker, D. Haaks, Z. Naturforsch. Teil A: 28, 249 (1973).

Crosley, D. R.

R. K. Lengel, D. R. Crosley, Chem. Phys. Lett. 32, 261 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Davis, D. D.

D. D. Davis, W. Heaps, T. McGee, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 331 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Davis, L. I.

C. C. Wang, L. I. Davis, C. H. Wu, S. Japar, H. Niki, B. Winstock, Science 189, 797 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ehhalt, D. H.

D. Perner, D. H. Ehhalt, H. W. Patz, U. Platt, E. P. Roth, A. Volz, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 466 (1976).
[CrossRef]

German, K. R.

K. R. German, J. Chem. Phys. 64, 4065 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Gottlieb, D. M.

E. V. P. Smith, D. M. Gottlieb, Space Sci. Rev. 16, 771 (1974).

Grebe, L.

L. Grebe, O. Holtz, Ann. Phys. 39, 1243 (1912).
[CrossRef]

Haaks, D.

K. H. Becker, D. Haaks, Z. Naturforsch. Teil A: 28, 249 (1973).

Heaps, W.

D. D. Davis, W. Heaps, T. McGee, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 331 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Herman, J. R.

J. R. Herman, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 3701 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hill, E. L.

E. L. Hill, J. H. Van Vleck, Phys. Rev. 32, 250 (1928).
[CrossRef]

Holtz, O.

L. Grebe, O. Holtz, Ann. Phys. 39, 1243 (1912).
[CrossRef]

Igarashi, T.

Japar, S.

C. C. Wang, L. I. Davis, C. H. Wu, S. Japar, H. Niki, B. Winstock, Science 189, 797 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lengel, R. K.

R. K. Lengel, D. R. Crosley, Chem. Phys. Lett. 32, 261 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Luther, F. M.

F. M. Luther, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory; private communication.

McGee, T.

D. D. Davis, W. Heaps, T. McGee, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 331 (1976).
[CrossRef]

McGee, T. J.

McIlrath, T. J.

Measures, R. M.

Meinel, A. B.

A. B. Meinel, Astrophys. J. 112, 120 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Mulliken, R. S.

R. S. Mulliken, Phys. Rev. 32, 388 (1928).
[CrossRef]

Niki, H.

C. C. Wang, L. I. Davis, C. H. Wu, S. Japar, H. Niki, B. Winstock, Science 189, 797 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patz, H. W.

D. Perner, D. H. Ehhalt, H. W. Patz, U. Platt, E. P. Roth, A. Volz, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 466 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Perner, D.

D. Perner, D. H. Ehhalt, H. W. Patz, U. Platt, E. P. Roth, A. Volz, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 466 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Platt, U.

D. Perner, D. H. Ehhalt, H. W. Patz, U. Platt, E. P. Roth, A. Volz, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 466 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Roth, E. P.

D. Perner, D. H. Ehhalt, H. W. Patz, U. Platt, E. P. Roth, A. Volz, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 466 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Smith, E. V. P.

E. V. P. Smith, D. M. Gottlieb, Space Sci. Rev. 16, 771 (1974).

Van Vleck, J. H.

E. L. Hill, J. H. Van Vleck, Phys. Rev. 32, 250 (1928).
[CrossRef]

Volz, A.

D. Perner, D. H. Ehhalt, H. W. Patz, U. Platt, E. P. Roth, A. Volz, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 466 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. C.

C. C. Wang, L. I. Davis, C. H. Wu, S. Japar, H. Niki, B. Winstock, Science 189, 797 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winstock, B.

C. C. Wang, L. I. Davis, C. H. Wu, S. Japar, H. Niki, B. Winstock, Science 189, 797 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, C. H.

C. C. Wang, L. I. Davis, C. H. Wu, S. Japar, H. Niki, B. Winstock, Science 189, 797 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Phys.

L. Grebe, O. Holtz, Ann. Phys. 39, 1243 (1912).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Astrophys. J.

A. B. Meinel, Astrophys. J. 112, 120 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

R. K. Lengel, D. R. Crosley, Chem. Phys. Lett. 32, 261 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

D. Perner, D. H. Ehhalt, H. W. Patz, U. Platt, E. P. Roth, A. Volz, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 466 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Anderson, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 165 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, W. Heaps, T. McGee, Geophys. Res. Lett. 3, 331 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

K. R. German, J. Chem. Phys. 64, 4065 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

J. R. Herman, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 3701 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Anderson, J. Geophys. Res. 76, 7820 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

E. L. Hill, J. H. Van Vleck, Phys. Rev. 32, 250 (1928).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Mulliken, Phys. Rev. 32, 388 (1928).
[CrossRef]

Science

C. C. Wang, L. I. Davis, C. H. Wu, S. Japar, H. Niki, B. Winstock, Science 189, 797 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Space Sci. Rev.

E. V. P. Smith, D. M. Gottlieb, Space Sci. Rev. 16, 771 (1974).

Z. Naturforsch. Teil A

K. H. Becker, D. Haaks, Z. Naturforsch. Teil A: 28, 249 (1973).

Other

F. M. Luther, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory; private communication.

U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 1976, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Publication S/T 76-1562.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diurnal variation of hydroxyl radical calculated by a 1-D model is shown for several stratospheric and mesospheric altitudes. The intimate connection between OH concentration and solar flux through the stratosphere and lower mesosphere is evident.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dominant production and loss reactions for OH at 40-km altitude and the local sunset.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dominant production and loss reactions for OH at 60-km altitude and the local sunset.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table I Lifetimes and Efficiencies for Hydroxyl (v′ = 1) Fluorescence in the Stratosphere and Mesosphere

Tables Icon

Table II Hydroxyl Concentration and Anticipated Photon Return Shot as a Function of Altitude for Four Local Times a

Tables Icon

Table III Hydroxyl Concentration and Anticipated Photon Return/Shot vs Altitude and Local Time a

Tables Icon

Table IV Hydroxyl Detection SNRs for Excitation at 282 and 308 nma

Equations (19)

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OH + O 3 HO 2 + O 2 ,
HO 2 + O OH + O 2 .
OH + NO 2 + M HNO 3 + M
OH + HCl + H 2 O + Cl
[ OH ] / [ HO 2 ] = k 6 / k 1
HO 2 + O 3 OH + 2 O 2 .
[ OH ] / [ HO 2 ] = k 2 / k 8
OH + O O 2 + H .
NO 2 + O 3 NO 2 + O 2
[ OH ] = k 11 [ HO 2 ] [ NO ] k 1 [ O 3 ] + k 12 [ CO ] + k 13 [ HO 2 ] .
HO 2 + NO OH + NO 2 ,
OH + CO CO 2 + H ,
HO 2 + OH H 2 O + O 2 .
N = I n σ T t T r Ω η ( Δ z ) ,
Δ z = ½ c Δ t .
B ¯ = 1 T 1 0 T 1 B d t ,
( L + B ¯ ) = 1 T 2 0 T 2 ( L + B ) d t ,
S = ( L + B ¯ ) - B ¯ .
N = [ 1 T 1 2 0 T 1 B d t + 1 T 2 2 0 T 2 ( L + B ) d t ] 1 / 2 .

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