Abstract

A unique polar nephelometer was designed and constructed for the measurement of atmospheric particulate characteristics. The nephelometer produces visible light from a self-contained laser to irradiate an air sample drawn into the instrument. The light scattered from the particulates and molecules in the sample is detected as a function of scattering angle for each of four different incident light polarizations. These measurements are used to determine the particulate scattering matrix which is a function of the size, shape, and index of refraction of the particles. The region of sensitivity for the measurements corresponds to the size range of particles that strongly affects visible radiative transfer in the atmosphere, which is the primary application for the derived information.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Twomey, Atmos. Environ. 8, 1251 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Twomey, J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1073 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Optical array spectrometer OAP-2D-GL, Particle Measuring Systems, Inc., Boulder, Colo. 80301.
  4. B. Y. H. Liu, K. T. Whitby, D. Y. H. Pui, J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 24, 1067 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. E. Shaw, J. A. Reagan, B. M. Herman, J. Appl. Meteorol. 12, 374 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. D. Cooke, M. Kerker, Appl. Opt. 14, 734 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, A. P. Waggoner, N. C. Ahlquist, Tellus 26, 245 (1974).
  8. B. S. Pritchard, W. G. Elliott, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 191 (1960).
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  9. A. C. Holland, J. S. Draper, Appl. Opt. 6, 511 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. G. Quiney, A. I. Carswell, Appl. Opt. 11, 1611 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. R. G. Pinnick, D. E. Carroll, D. J. Hofmann, Appl. Opt. 15, 384 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. J. Perry, A. J. Hunt, D. R. Huffman, Appl. Opt. 17, 2700 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. I. Kirmaci, G. Ward, Appl. Opt. 18, 3328 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).
  17. M. Z. Hansen, Ph.D. Dissertation, U. Arizona (1977).
  18. R. B. Penndorf, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 176 (1957).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Mie, Ann. Phys. 25, 377 (1908).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. C. Holland, G. Gagne, Appl. Opt. 9, 1113 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

1978 (1)

1976 (2)

1975 (1)

1974 (4)

R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, A. P. Waggoner, N. C. Ahlquist, Tellus 26, 245 (1974).

B. Y. H. Liu, K. T. Whitby, D. Y. H. Pui, J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 24, 1067 (1974).
[CrossRef]

S. Twomey, Atmos. Environ. 8, 1251 (1974).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Grams, I. H. Blifford, D. A. Gillete, P. B. Russell, J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 459 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

G. E. Shaw, J. A. Reagan, B. M. Herman, J. Appl. Meteorol. 12, 374 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

1971 (1)

B. M. Herman, S. R. Browning, J. A. Reagan, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 763 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

1967 (1)

1960 (1)

1957 (1)

1908 (1)

G. Mie, Ann. Phys. 25, 377 (1908).
[CrossRef]

Ahlquist, N. C.

R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, A. P. Waggoner, N. C. Ahlquist, Tellus 26, 245 (1974).

Blifford, I. H.

G. W. Grams, I. H. Blifford, D. A. Gillete, P. B. Russell, J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 459 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Browning, S. R.

B. M. Herman, S. R. Browning, J. A. Reagan, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 763 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Carroll, D. E.

Carswell, A. I.

Charlson, R. J.

R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, A. P. Waggoner, N. C. Ahlquist, Tellus 26, 245 (1974).

Cooke, D. D.

Draper, J. S.

Elliott, W. G.

Gagne, G.

Gillete, D. A.

G. W. Grams, I. H. Blifford, D. A. Gillete, P. B. Russell, J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 459 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Grams, G. W.

G. W. Grams, I. H. Blifford, D. A. Gillete, P. B. Russell, J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 459 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, M. Z.

M. Z. Hansen, Ph.D. Dissertation, U. Arizona (1977).

Herman, B. M.

G. E. Shaw, J. A. Reagan, B. M. Herman, J. Appl. Meteorol. 12, 374 (1973).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Herman, S. R. Browning, J. A. Reagan, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 763 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, D. J.

Holland, A. C.

Huffman, D. R.

Hunt, A. J.

Kerker, M.

Kirmaci, I.

Liu, B. Y. H.

B. Y. H. Liu, K. T. Whitby, D. Y. H. Pui, J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 24, 1067 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Mie, G.

G. Mie, Ann. Phys. 25, 377 (1908).
[CrossRef]

Penndorf, R. B.

Perry, R. J.

Pinnick, R. G.

Porch, W. M.

R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, A. P. Waggoner, N. C. Ahlquist, Tellus 26, 245 (1974).

Pritchard, B. S.

Pui, D. Y. H.

B. Y. H. Liu, K. T. Whitby, D. Y. H. Pui, J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 24, 1067 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Quiney, R. G.

Reagan, J. A.

G. E. Shaw, J. A. Reagan, B. M. Herman, J. Appl. Meteorol. 12, 374 (1973).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Herman, S. R. Browning, J. A. Reagan, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 763 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. B.

G. W. Grams, I. H. Blifford, D. A. Gillete, P. B. Russell, J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 459 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, G. E.

G. E. Shaw, J. A. Reagan, B. M. Herman, J. Appl. Meteorol. 12, 374 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Twomey, S.

S. Twomey, J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1073 (1976).
[CrossRef]

S. Twomey, Atmos. Environ. 8, 1251 (1974).
[CrossRef]

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

Waggoner, A. P.

R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, A. P. Waggoner, N. C. Ahlquist, Tellus 26, 245 (1974).

Ward, G.

Whitby, K. T.

B. Y. H. Liu, K. T. Whitby, D. Y. H. Pui, J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 24, 1067 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. (1)

G. Mie, Ann. Phys. 25, 377 (1908).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

Atmos. Environ. (1)

S. Twomey, Atmos. Environ. 8, 1251 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. (1)

B. Y. H. Liu, K. T. Whitby, D. Y. H. Pui, J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 24, 1067 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (2)

G. E. Shaw, J. A. Reagan, B. M. Herman, J. Appl. Meteorol. 12, 374 (1973).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Grams, I. H. Blifford, D. A. Gillete, P. B. Russell, J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 459 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (2)

S. Twomey, J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 1073 (1976).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Herman, S. R. Browning, J. A. Reagan, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 763 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Tellus (1)

R. J. Charlson, W. M. Porch, A. P. Waggoner, N. C. Ahlquist, Tellus 26, 245 (1974).

Other (3)

Optical array spectrometer OAP-2D-GL, Particle Measuring Systems, Inc., Boulder, Colo. 80301.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

M. Z. Hansen, Ph.D. Dissertation, U. Arizona (1977).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scattering angles (where ϕ is the azimuth angle of the scattered vector projected onto the transverse plane of the incident light and is measured from an arbitrarily chosen axis in the transverse plane).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Total angular radiance scattering pattern for Mie particles for unpolarized incident light.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Nephelometer air flow diagram.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Light scattering and detection schematic.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Control panel on the front of the nephelometer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Molecular scatter for perpendicular polarization of incident light.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Molecular scatter for parallel polarization of incident light.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

M2 matrix element for the scattering volume.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

M1 matrix element for the scattering volume.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

D21 matrix element for the scattering volume.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

S21 matrix element for the scattering volume.

Equations (13)

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I s = F I i
( I l ˆ I r ˆ U V ) s = ( 2 π λ ) 4 1 r 2 ( ( 2 A + 3 B ) cos 2 θ + A B A B 0 0 A B ( 3 A + 2 B ) 0 0 0 ( 2 A + 3 B ) cos θ 0 0 0 5 B cos θ ) ( I l ˆ I r ˆ U V ) i ·
I s = ( 2 π λ ) 4 ( 4 A + B ) r 2 ( ( 1 ρ ) cos 2 θ + ρ 2 ρ 2 0 0 ρ 2 1 ρ 2 0 0 0 0 ( 1 ρ ) cos θ 0 0 0 0 ( 1 2 ρ ) cos θ ) ( I l ˆ I r ˆ U V ) i .
I s = 8 π 2 λ 4 r 2 N 2 3 ( m 1 ) 2 ( 6 7 ρ ) F I i ,
F Q = ( 1 2 ( ρ 1 ) sin 2 θ + 1 1 2 ( ρ 1 ) sin 2 θ 0 0 1 2 ( ρ 1 ) sin 2 θ 1 2 ( ρ 1 ) sin 2 θ + 1 ρ 0 0 0 0 ( 1 ρ ) cos θ 0 0 0 0 ( 1 2 ρ ) cos θ ) ,
I s υ = 8 π 2 ( m t 1 ) 2 3 N V λ 4 r 2 N t 2 ( 6 7 ρ ) F Q I i ,
I s υ = 24 π 2 ( m t 1 ) 2 V p T t λ 4 r 2 N t ( 6 7 ρ ) p t T F Q I i ·
F Q = ( 1 2 ( M 2 + M 1 ) 1 2 ( M 2 M 1 ) 0 0 1 2 ( M 2 M 1 ) 1 2 ( M 2 + M 1 ) 0 0 0 0 S 21 D 2 0 0 D 21 S 21 ) ,
F Q = λ 2 4 π 2 r 2 ( 1 2 ( S 1 S * 1 + S 2 S * 2 ) 1 2 ( S 2 S * 2 S 1 S * 1 ) 0 0 1 2 ( S 2 S * 2 S 1 S * 1 ) 1 2 ( S 1 S * 1 + S 2 S * 2 ) 0 0 0 0 1 2 ( S 1 S * 2 + S 2 S * 1 ) 1 2 ( S 1 S * 2 S 2 S * 1 ) 0 0 1 2 ( S 2 S * 1 S 1 S * 2 ) 1 2 ( S 1 S * 2 + S 2 S * 1 ) ) ·
I s υ = λ 2 N A V S A I i 4 π 2 r 2 ,
I s υ = ( 24 π 2 ( m t 1 ) 2 λ 4 N t ( 6 7 ρ ) p p t T t T F Q + λ 2 N A S A 4 π 2 ) V r 2 I i .
j υ j P ( θ j ) P ( θ ) j υ j 1
PMT = | G ( polarizer matrix ) [ β s A P A ( θ ) + β s m P M ( θ ) ] I i | ·

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