Abstract

Polymer optical waveguides for multimode optical fiber systems have been formed by the selective photopolymerization method, and their waveguiding properties have been investigated. It is shown that the polymer optical waveguides match multimode optical fiber systems, with respect to guide dimensions and index differences, and have a transmission loss sufficiently low for circuit designs in the infrared region (0.19 dB/cm at 0.83 μm). In addition, effective applications of polymer optical circuits to compact optical dividers and lower loss couplers are demonstrated.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Ozeki et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 528 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Ueno, N. Oogi, in CLEOS, 25–27 May 1976, Digest of Technical Papers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976), paper THE2.
  3. F. Auracher, Opt. Commun. 17, 129 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Sasaki et al., in International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (IOOC, Tokyo, 1977), paper B5-3, p. 251.
  5. T. Kurokawa, N. Takato, S. Oikawa, T. Okada, Appl. Opt. 17, 646 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Kurokawa, S. Oikawa, Appl. Opt. 16, 1033 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978

1977

1976

T. Ozeki et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 528 (1976).
[CrossRef]

F. Auracher, Opt. Commun. 17, 129 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Auracher, F.

F. Auracher, Opt. Commun. 17, 129 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kurokawa, T.

Oikawa, S.

Okada, T.

Oogi, N.

Y. Ueno, N. Oogi, in CLEOS, 25–27 May 1976, Digest of Technical Papers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976), paper THE2.

Ozeki, T.

T. Ozeki et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 528 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, M.

M. Sasaki et al., in International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (IOOC, Tokyo, 1977), paper B5-3, p. 251.

Takato, N.

Ueno, Y.

Y. Ueno, N. Oogi, in CLEOS, 25–27 May 1976, Digest of Technical Papers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976), paper THE2.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. Ozeki et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 528 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

F. Auracher, Opt. Commun. 17, 129 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Sasaki et al., in International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (IOOC, Tokyo, 1977), paper B5-3, p. 251.

Y. Ueno, N. Oogi, in CLEOS, 25–27 May 1976, Digest of Technical Papers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1976), paper THE2.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Formation process of polymer optical waveguides: (a) formation of monomer doped film; (b) UV light irradiation through a photomask; (c) evaporation of the unreacted monomer; (d) formation of the surface clad layers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sandwich structure of a polymer film with optical waveguides between two plastic plates.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission loss dependence on waveguide width, where the refractive-index difference of the waveguides was 1% and the wavelength of the guided light was 0.63 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission loss spectrum of a polymer optical waveguide 100 μm wide.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Coupling loss dependence on the ratio of the waveguide width (a) and the fiber diameter (D). Calculated total coupling loss L (—) was given by the sum of L1 and L2 (- -); measured values for step-index and graded-index fibers are shown by ○ and ●, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Proposed optical circuit with optical lead fibers embedded in a film.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Coupling section between a waveguide and a fiber embedded in a film. He–Ne laser light was guided in the bottom photograph.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Optical circuits with two and three branches in which He–Ne laser light was propagating.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Compact optical divider connected to optical fibers.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Ray analysis of guided light in two types of coupler circuits: (a) the main and branching guides have the same width; (b) the branches are half of the width of the main guide.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Output light intensity as a function of the waveguide length in two types of coupler circuit. Main guide width b is 100 μm.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Coupling of LDs with an optical fiber by two types of coupler circuits with three branches.

Tables (3)

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Table I Optical Characteristics of Polymer Optical Waveguides

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Table II Losses of Divider Circuitsa

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Table III Losses of Coupler Circuitsa

Equations (1)

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L 1 { = 10 log ( 4 p 2 / π ) = 10 log [ 1 4 / π ( sin 1 1 p 2 p 1 p 2 ) ] = 0 ( p < 1 / 2 ) ( 1 / 2 p < 1 ) ( p 1 ) , L 2 { = 0 = 10 log [ p 2 1 1 / 2 p 2 ( sin 1 1 p 2 sin 1 p ) ] = 10 log ( π / 4 p 2 ) ( p < 1 / 2 ) ( 1 / 2 p < 1 ) ( p 1 ) ,

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