Abstract

By spectroscopic and chemical tests (conversion of heme to a porphyrin), we have identified the presence of blood in the alleged blood areas of the Shroud of Turin.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. J. Culliton, Science 201, 235 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. A. Morris, L. A. Schwalbe, J. R. London, Los Alamos; in press.
  3. We wish to express our indebtedness to Joseph Gall at Yale for access to his instrumentation and his assistance in these measurements.
  4. M. Gouterman, in The Porphyrins, Vol. 3, Part A, D. Dolphin, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1979), pp. 1–165.
  5. F. Adar, in Ref. 4, pp. 167–207.
  6. R. Lemberg, J. W. Legge, Hematin Compounds and Bile Pigments (Interscience, New York, 1949), pp. 207–229.
  7. B. F. Cameron, P. George, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 194, 16 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Kortum, Reflectance Spectroscopy (Springer, New York, 1969), pp. 103–126.
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Gilbert, M. M. Gilbert, Oriel Corp;and S. F. Pellicori, Santa Barbara Research Institute; personal communications; to be published elsewhere.
  10. P. L. Kirk, Crime Investigation (Wiley, New York, 1974), pp. 182–195.
  11. P. George, Adv. Catal. 4, 367 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. E. Falk, Porphyrins and Metalloporphyrins (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1964), pp. 129–132.

1978 (1)

B. J. Culliton, Science 201, 235 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

B. F. Cameron, P. George, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 194, 16 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1952 (1)

P. George, Adv. Catal. 4, 367 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Adar, F.

F. Adar, in Ref. 4, pp. 167–207.

Cameron, B. F.

B. F. Cameron, P. George, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 194, 16 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Culliton, B. J.

B. J. Culliton, Science 201, 235 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falk, J. E.

J. E. Falk, Porphyrins and Metalloporphyrins (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1964), pp. 129–132.

George, P.

B. F. Cameron, P. George, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 194, 16 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. George, Adv. Catal. 4, 367 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, M. M.

R. Gilbert, M. M. Gilbert, Oriel Corp;and S. F. Pellicori, Santa Barbara Research Institute; personal communications; to be published elsewhere.

Gilbert, R.

R. Gilbert, M. M. Gilbert, Oriel Corp;and S. F. Pellicori, Santa Barbara Research Institute; personal communications; to be published elsewhere.

Gouterman, M.

M. Gouterman, in The Porphyrins, Vol. 3, Part A, D. Dolphin, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1979), pp. 1–165.

Kirk, P. L.

P. L. Kirk, Crime Investigation (Wiley, New York, 1974), pp. 182–195.

Kortum, G.

G. Kortum, Reflectance Spectroscopy (Springer, New York, 1969), pp. 103–126.
[CrossRef]

Legge, J. W.

R. Lemberg, J. W. Legge, Hematin Compounds and Bile Pigments (Interscience, New York, 1949), pp. 207–229.

Lemberg, R.

R. Lemberg, J. W. Legge, Hematin Compounds and Bile Pigments (Interscience, New York, 1949), pp. 207–229.

London, J. R.

R. A. Morris, L. A. Schwalbe, J. R. London, Los Alamos; in press.

Morris, R. A.

R. A. Morris, L. A. Schwalbe, J. R. London, Los Alamos; in press.

Schwalbe, L. A.

R. A. Morris, L. A. Schwalbe, J. R. London, Los Alamos; in press.

Adv. Catal. (1)

P. George, Adv. Catal. 4, 367 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1)

B. F. Cameron, P. George, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 194, 16 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

B. J. Culliton, Science 201, 235 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (9)

R. A. Morris, L. A. Schwalbe, J. R. London, Los Alamos; in press.

We wish to express our indebtedness to Joseph Gall at Yale for access to his instrumentation and his assistance in these measurements.

M. Gouterman, in The Porphyrins, Vol. 3, Part A, D. Dolphin, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1979), pp. 1–165.

F. Adar, in Ref. 4, pp. 167–207.

R. Lemberg, J. W. Legge, Hematin Compounds and Bile Pigments (Interscience, New York, 1949), pp. 207–229.

G. Kortum, Reflectance Spectroscopy (Springer, New York, 1969), pp. 103–126.
[CrossRef]

R. Gilbert, M. M. Gilbert, Oriel Corp;and S. F. Pellicori, Santa Barbara Research Institute; personal communications; to be published elsewhere.

P. L. Kirk, Crime Investigation (Wiley, New York, 1974), pp. 182–195.

J. E. Falk, Porphyrins and Metalloporphyrins (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1964), pp. 129–132.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Image of the Shroud of Turin with the alleged blood areas indicated. © V. Miller 1978.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A, transmission spectrum obtained by microspectrophotometry of a brownish red stained fibril from one of the blood areas of the Shroud; B, transmission spectrum obtained by transformation of the reflection spectrum of the blood areas of the Shroud.

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