Abstract

Absorption cross-section data are reported for the toxic rocket fuels hydrazine, monomethylhydrazine, and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), as well as for their selected air oxidation products dimethylamine, trimethylamine, and methanol at up to seventy-eight CO2 laser wavelengths each. These data are important for the assessment of the capability of CO2 laser-based spectroscopic techniques for monitoring low levels of hydrazine-fuel vapors in the ambient air. Interference-free detection sensitivities of <30 ppb have been demonstrated for UDMH using a laboratory photoacoustic detection system.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, Vol. 2, (U.S. GPO,Washington, D.C., 1977).
  2. “NIOSH Recommendations for a Hydrazines Standard,” Occup. Safety Health Reporter, 8, 672 (19Oct.1978).
  3. G. L. Loper, “Gas Phase Kinetic Study of Air Oxidation of UDMH,” in Proceedings, Conference on Environmental Chemistry of Hydrazine Fuels, Tyndall AFB, 13 Sept. 1977, CEEDO-TR-78-14, pp. 129–159.
  4. G. L. Loper, A. R. Calloway, M. A. Stamps, J. A. Gelbwachs, “Expected Detectabilities of Hydrazine-Based Rocket Fuels and their Selected Oxidation Products by 12C16O2 Laser Spectroscopic Techniques,” Aerospace Corp. Report, TR-0079(4970-50)-2 (1979).
  5. G. L. Loper, A. R. Calloway, M. A. Stamps, J. A. Gelbwachs, “CO2 Laser Photoacoustic Detection of the Hydrazine-Based Rocket Fuels,” Aerospace Corp. Report, TR-0080 (5970-09)-2 (1980).
  6. C. K. N. Patel, Science 202, 157 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. L. Kerr, J. G. Atwood, Appl. Opt. 7, 915 (1968);L. B. Kreuzer, N. D. Kenyon, C. K. N. Patel, Science 177, 347 (1972);L. B. Kreuzer, Anal. Chem. 46, 239A (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. J. Brewer, C. W. Bruce, Appl. Opt. 17, 3746 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. D. Green, J. I. Steinfeld, Environ. Sci. Technol. 10, 1134 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Lann, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976);R. T. Menzies, M. S. Shumate, J. Geophys. Res. 83, C8, 4039 (1978);E. R. Murray, Opt. Eng. 17, 30 (1978);E. R. Murray, J. E. van der Laan, Opt. Eng. 17, 815 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Beck, W. Englisch, K. Gürs, Table of Laser Lines in Gases and Vapors, Springer Series in Optical Sciences, Vol. 2 (Springer, Berlin, 1978).
  12. T. F. Deaton, D. A. Depatie, T. W. Walker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 300 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. S. Shumate, U.S. Patent4,067,653 (10Jan.1978).
  14. R. S. Eng, K. W. Nill, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Applications of Laser Spectroscopy, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1975).
  15. J. R. Durig, S. F. Bash, E. E. Mercer, J. Chem. Phys. 44, 4238 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. R. Durig, W. C. Harris, D. W. Wertz, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 1449 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. R. Durig, W. C. Harris, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 4457 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Gerlach, N. M. Amer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 228 (1978);L. J. Thomas, M. J. Kelly, N. M. Amer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 736 (1978);D. R. Wake, N. M. Amer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 379 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Shtrikman, M. Slatkine, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 830 (1977);E. Kritchman, S. Shtrikman, M. Slatkine, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1257 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. K. N. Patel, R. J. Kerl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 578 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. F. Dewey, R. D. Kamm, C. E. Hackett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 633 (1973);C. W. Bruce, B. Z. Sojka, B. G. Hurd, W. R. Watkins, K. O. White, Z. Derzko, Appl. Opt. 15, 2970 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. S. Shumate, R. T. Menzies, J. S. Margolis, L.-G. Rosengren, Appl. Opt. 15, 2480 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. The use of measurements that are carefully ratioed to the sharp water peaks should allow the absorption profiles of these species to be recognizable for absorption signals that are 10% of the water background. Improvements in this 10−7-cm−1 detection sensitivity assumed above may be possible using Stark modulation or frequency modulation spectroscopy to discriminate against water vapor continuum absorption.
  24. R. A. Crane, Appl. Opt. 17, 2097 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. R. R. Patty, G. M. Russwurm, W. A. McClenny, D. R. Morgan, Appl. Opt. 13, 2850 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. A. Mayer, J. Comera, H. Charpentier, C. Jaussaud, Appl. Opt. 17, 391 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. U.S. Department Health of Education, and Welfare, Air Quality Criteria for Hydrocarbons, National Air Pollution Control Administration Publication AP-64 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1970).
  28. Sadtler Standard Spectra, Gases and Vapors, Vol. 1 (Sadtler Research Laboratories, Philadelphia, 1972).
  29. H. B. Singh, L. J. Salas, L. A. Cavanagh, Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 27, 332 (1977);D. R. Cronn, R. A. Rasmussen, E. Robinson, D. A. Harsch, J. Geophys. Res. 82, 5935 (1977).
    [CrossRef]

1978 (6)

R. Gerlach, N. M. Amer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 228 (1978);L. J. Thomas, M. J. Kelly, N. M. Amer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 736 (1978);D. R. Wake, N. M. Amer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 379 (1979).
[CrossRef]

“NIOSH Recommendations for a Hydrazines Standard,” Occup. Safety Health Reporter, 8, 672 (19Oct.1978).

C. K. N. Patel, Science 202, 157 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mayer, J. Comera, H. Charpentier, C. Jaussaud, Appl. Opt. 17, 391 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Crane, Appl. Opt. 17, 2097 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Brewer, C. W. Bruce, Appl. Opt. 17, 3746 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (3)

H. B. Singh, L. J. Salas, L. A. Cavanagh, Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 27, 332 (1977);D. R. Cronn, R. A. Rasmussen, E. Robinson, D. A. Harsch, J. Geophys. Res. 82, 5935 (1977).
[CrossRef]

S. Shtrikman, M. Slatkine, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 830 (1977);E. Kritchman, S. Shtrikman, M. Slatkine, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1257 (1978).
[CrossRef]

C. K. N. Patel, R. J. Kerl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 578 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (3)

B. D. Green, J. I. Steinfeld, Environ. Sci. Technol. 10, 1134 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Lann, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976);R. T. Menzies, M. S. Shumate, J. Geophys. Res. 83, C8, 4039 (1978);E. R. Murray, Opt. Eng. 17, 30 (1978);E. R. Murray, J. E. van der Laan, Opt. Eng. 17, 815 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Shumate, R. T. Menzies, J. S. Margolis, L.-G. Rosengren, Appl. Opt. 15, 2480 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

T. F. Deaton, D. A. Depatie, T. W. Walker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 300 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

1973 (1)

C. F. Dewey, R. D. Kamm, C. E. Hackett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 633 (1973);C. W. Bruce, B. Z. Sojka, B. G. Hurd, W. R. Watkins, K. O. White, Z. Derzko, Appl. Opt. 15, 2970 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (2)

J. R. Durig, W. C. Harris, D. W. Wertz, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 1449 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Durig, W. C. Harris, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 4457 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

1966 (1)

J. R. Durig, S. F. Bash, E. E. Mercer, J. Chem. Phys. 44, 4238 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amer, N. M.

R. Gerlach, N. M. Amer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 228 (1978);L. J. Thomas, M. J. Kelly, N. M. Amer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 736 (1978);D. R. Wake, N. M. Amer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 379 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Atwood, J. G.

Bash, S. F.

J. R. Durig, S. F. Bash, E. E. Mercer, J. Chem. Phys. 44, 4238 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beck, R.

R. Beck, W. Englisch, K. Gürs, Table of Laser Lines in Gases and Vapors, Springer Series in Optical Sciences, Vol. 2 (Springer, Berlin, 1978).

Brewer, R. J.

Bruce, C. W.

Calloway, A. R.

G. L. Loper, A. R. Calloway, M. A. Stamps, J. A. Gelbwachs, “Expected Detectabilities of Hydrazine-Based Rocket Fuels and their Selected Oxidation Products by 12C16O2 Laser Spectroscopic Techniques,” Aerospace Corp. Report, TR-0079(4970-50)-2 (1979).

G. L. Loper, A. R. Calloway, M. A. Stamps, J. A. Gelbwachs, “CO2 Laser Photoacoustic Detection of the Hydrazine-Based Rocket Fuels,” Aerospace Corp. Report, TR-0080 (5970-09)-2 (1980).

Cavanagh, L. A.

H. B. Singh, L. J. Salas, L. A. Cavanagh, Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 27, 332 (1977);D. R. Cronn, R. A. Rasmussen, E. Robinson, D. A. Harsch, J. Geophys. Res. 82, 5935 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Charpentier, H.

Comera, J.

Crane, R. A.

Deaton, T. F.

T. F. Deaton, D. A. Depatie, T. W. Walker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 300 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Depatie, D. A.

T. F. Deaton, D. A. Depatie, T. W. Walker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 300 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Dewey, C. F.

C. F. Dewey, R. D. Kamm, C. E. Hackett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 633 (1973);C. W. Bruce, B. Z. Sojka, B. G. Hurd, W. R. Watkins, K. O. White, Z. Derzko, Appl. Opt. 15, 2970 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durig, J. R.

J. R. Durig, W. C. Harris, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 4457 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Durig, W. C. Harris, D. W. Wertz, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 1449 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Durig, S. F. Bash, E. E. Mercer, J. Chem. Phys. 44, 4238 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eng, R. S.

R. S. Eng, K. W. Nill, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Applications of Laser Spectroscopy, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1975).

Englisch, W.

R. Beck, W. Englisch, K. Gürs, Table of Laser Lines in Gases and Vapors, Springer Series in Optical Sciences, Vol. 2 (Springer, Berlin, 1978).

Gelbwachs, J. A.

G. L. Loper, A. R. Calloway, M. A. Stamps, J. A. Gelbwachs, “CO2 Laser Photoacoustic Detection of the Hydrazine-Based Rocket Fuels,” Aerospace Corp. Report, TR-0080 (5970-09)-2 (1980).

G. L. Loper, A. R. Calloway, M. A. Stamps, J. A. Gelbwachs, “Expected Detectabilities of Hydrazine-Based Rocket Fuels and their Selected Oxidation Products by 12C16O2 Laser Spectroscopic Techniques,” Aerospace Corp. Report, TR-0079(4970-50)-2 (1979).

Gerlach, R.

R. Gerlach, N. M. Amer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 228 (1978);L. J. Thomas, M. J. Kelly, N. M. Amer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 736 (1978);D. R. Wake, N. M. Amer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 379 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Green, B. D.

B. D. Green, J. I. Steinfeld, Environ. Sci. Technol. 10, 1134 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gürs, K.

R. Beck, W. Englisch, K. Gürs, Table of Laser Lines in Gases and Vapors, Springer Series in Optical Sciences, Vol. 2 (Springer, Berlin, 1978).

Hackett, C. E.

C. F. Dewey, R. D. Kamm, C. E. Hackett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 633 (1973);C. W. Bruce, B. Z. Sojka, B. G. Hurd, W. R. Watkins, K. O. White, Z. Derzko, Appl. Opt. 15, 2970 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hake, R. D.

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Lann, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976);R. T. Menzies, M. S. Shumate, J. Geophys. Res. 83, C8, 4039 (1978);E. R. Murray, Opt. Eng. 17, 30 (1978);E. R. Murray, J. E. van der Laan, Opt. Eng. 17, 815 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Harris, W. C.

J. R. Durig, W. C. Harris, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 4457 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Durig, W. C. Harris, D. W. Wertz, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 1449 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Hawley, J. G.

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Lann, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976);R. T. Menzies, M. S. Shumate, J. Geophys. Res. 83, C8, 4039 (1978);E. R. Murray, Opt. Eng. 17, 30 (1978);E. R. Murray, J. E. van der Laan, Opt. Eng. 17, 815 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Jaussaud, C.

Kamm, R. D.

C. F. Dewey, R. D. Kamm, C. E. Hackett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 633 (1973);C. W. Bruce, B. Z. Sojka, B. G. Hurd, W. R. Watkins, K. O. White, Z. Derzko, Appl. Opt. 15, 2970 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kerl, R. J.

C. K. N. Patel, R. J. Kerl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 578 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kerr, E. L.

Loper, G. L.

G. L. Loper, “Gas Phase Kinetic Study of Air Oxidation of UDMH,” in Proceedings, Conference on Environmental Chemistry of Hydrazine Fuels, Tyndall AFB, 13 Sept. 1977, CEEDO-TR-78-14, pp. 129–159.

G. L. Loper, A. R. Calloway, M. A. Stamps, J. A. Gelbwachs, “Expected Detectabilities of Hydrazine-Based Rocket Fuels and their Selected Oxidation Products by 12C16O2 Laser Spectroscopic Techniques,” Aerospace Corp. Report, TR-0079(4970-50)-2 (1979).

G. L. Loper, A. R. Calloway, M. A. Stamps, J. A. Gelbwachs, “CO2 Laser Photoacoustic Detection of the Hydrazine-Based Rocket Fuels,” Aerospace Corp. Report, TR-0080 (5970-09)-2 (1980).

Margolis, J. S.

Mayer, A.

McClenny, W. A.

Menzies, R. T.

Mercer, E. E.

J. R. Durig, S. F. Bash, E. E. Mercer, J. Chem. Phys. 44, 4238 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgan, D. R.

Murray, E. R.

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Lann, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976);R. T. Menzies, M. S. Shumate, J. Geophys. Res. 83, C8, 4039 (1978);E. R. Murray, Opt. Eng. 17, 30 (1978);E. R. Murray, J. E. van der Laan, Opt. Eng. 17, 815 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Nill, K. W.

R. S. Eng, K. W. Nill, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Applications of Laser Spectroscopy, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1975).

Patel, C. K. N.

C. K. N. Patel, Science 202, 157 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. N. Patel, R. J. Kerl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 578 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Patty, R. R.

Rosengren, L.-G.

Russwurm, G. M.

Salas, L. J.

H. B. Singh, L. J. Salas, L. A. Cavanagh, Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 27, 332 (1977);D. R. Cronn, R. A. Rasmussen, E. Robinson, D. A. Harsch, J. Geophys. Res. 82, 5935 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Shtrikman, S.

S. Shtrikman, M. Slatkine, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 830 (1977);E. Kritchman, S. Shtrikman, M. Slatkine, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1257 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Shumate, M. S.

Singh, H. B.

H. B. Singh, L. J. Salas, L. A. Cavanagh, Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 27, 332 (1977);D. R. Cronn, R. A. Rasmussen, E. Robinson, D. A. Harsch, J. Geophys. Res. 82, 5935 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Slatkine, M.

S. Shtrikman, M. Slatkine, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 830 (1977);E. Kritchman, S. Shtrikman, M. Slatkine, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1257 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Stamps, M. A.

G. L. Loper, A. R. Calloway, M. A. Stamps, J. A. Gelbwachs, “CO2 Laser Photoacoustic Detection of the Hydrazine-Based Rocket Fuels,” Aerospace Corp. Report, TR-0080 (5970-09)-2 (1980).

G. L. Loper, A. R. Calloway, M. A. Stamps, J. A. Gelbwachs, “Expected Detectabilities of Hydrazine-Based Rocket Fuels and their Selected Oxidation Products by 12C16O2 Laser Spectroscopic Techniques,” Aerospace Corp. Report, TR-0079(4970-50)-2 (1979).

Steinfeld, J. I.

B. D. Green, J. I. Steinfeld, Environ. Sci. Technol. 10, 1134 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Lann, J. E.

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Lann, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976);R. T. Menzies, M. S. Shumate, J. Geophys. Res. 83, C8, 4039 (1978);E. R. Murray, Opt. Eng. 17, 30 (1978);E. R. Murray, J. E. van der Laan, Opt. Eng. 17, 815 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Walker, T. W.

T. F. Deaton, D. A. Depatie, T. W. Walker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 300 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Wertz, D. W.

J. R. Durig, W. C. Harris, D. W. Wertz, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 1449 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Air Pollut. Control Assoc. (1)

H. B. Singh, L. J. Salas, L. A. Cavanagh, Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 27, 332 (1977);D. R. Cronn, R. A. Rasmussen, E. Robinson, D. A. Harsch, J. Geophys. Res. 82, 5935 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

E. R. Murray, R. D. Hake, J. E. van der Lann, J. G. Hawley, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 542 (1976);R. T. Menzies, M. S. Shumate, J. Geophys. Res. 83, C8, 4039 (1978);E. R. Murray, Opt. Eng. 17, 30 (1978);E. R. Murray, J. E. van der Laan, Opt. Eng. 17, 815 (1978).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Deaton, D. A. Depatie, T. W. Walker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 300 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. Gerlach, N. M. Amer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 228 (1978);L. J. Thomas, M. J. Kelly, N. M. Amer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 736 (1978);D. R. Wake, N. M. Amer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 379 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. Shtrikman, M. Slatkine, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 830 (1977);E. Kritchman, S. Shtrikman, M. Slatkine, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1257 (1978).
[CrossRef]

C. K. N. Patel, R. J. Kerl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 578 (1977).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Dewey, R. D. Kamm, C. E. Hackett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 633 (1973);C. W. Bruce, B. Z. Sojka, B. G. Hurd, W. R. Watkins, K. O. White, Z. Derzko, Appl. Opt. 15, 2970 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Environ. Sci. Technol. (1)

B. D. Green, J. I. Steinfeld, Environ. Sci. Technol. 10, 1134 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys. (3)

J. R. Durig, S. F. Bash, E. E. Mercer, J. Chem. Phys. 44, 4238 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Durig, W. C. Harris, D. W. Wertz, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 1449 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Durig, W. C. Harris, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 4457 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Occup. Safety Health Reporter (1)

“NIOSH Recommendations for a Hydrazines Standard,” Occup. Safety Health Reporter, 8, 672 (19Oct.1978).

Science (1)

C. K. N. Patel, Science 202, 157 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (10)

Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, Vol. 2, (U.S. GPO,Washington, D.C., 1977).

G. L. Loper, “Gas Phase Kinetic Study of Air Oxidation of UDMH,” in Proceedings, Conference on Environmental Chemistry of Hydrazine Fuels, Tyndall AFB, 13 Sept. 1977, CEEDO-TR-78-14, pp. 129–159.

G. L. Loper, A. R. Calloway, M. A. Stamps, J. A. Gelbwachs, “Expected Detectabilities of Hydrazine-Based Rocket Fuels and their Selected Oxidation Products by 12C16O2 Laser Spectroscopic Techniques,” Aerospace Corp. Report, TR-0079(4970-50)-2 (1979).

G. L. Loper, A. R. Calloway, M. A. Stamps, J. A. Gelbwachs, “CO2 Laser Photoacoustic Detection of the Hydrazine-Based Rocket Fuels,” Aerospace Corp. Report, TR-0080 (5970-09)-2 (1980).

M. S. Shumate, U.S. Patent4,067,653 (10Jan.1978).

R. S. Eng, K. W. Nill, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Applications of Laser Spectroscopy, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1975).

R. Beck, W. Englisch, K. Gürs, Table of Laser Lines in Gases and Vapors, Springer Series in Optical Sciences, Vol. 2 (Springer, Berlin, 1978).

The use of measurements that are carefully ratioed to the sharp water peaks should allow the absorption profiles of these species to be recognizable for absorption signals that are 10% of the water background. Improvements in this 10−7-cm−1 detection sensitivity assumed above may be possible using Stark modulation or frequency modulation spectroscopy to discriminate against water vapor continuum absorption.

U.S. Department Health of Education, and Welfare, Air Quality Criteria for Hydrocarbons, National Air Pollution Control Administration Publication AP-64 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1970).

Sadtler Standard Spectra, Gases and Vapors, Vol. 1 (Sadtler Research Laboratories, Philadelphia, 1972).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical arrangement for CO2 laser absorption cross-section measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

CO2 laser nonresonant photoacoustic detection system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

CO2 laser absorption cross-section data for hydrazine (3.18- and 3.21-Torr hydrazine buffered to 760 Torr with N2).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

CO2 laser absorption cross-section data for MMH (2.87- and 6.01-Torr MMH buffered to 760 Torr with N2).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

CO2 laser absorption cross-section data for UDMH (4.88 and 5.06 Torr of UDMH buffered to 760 Torr with N2).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ratio of UDMH photoacoustic signals at the P42 to P28 CO2 laser 10.4-μm band lines as a function of UDMH concentration in N2. (Dashed line represents ratio of UDMH absorption cross sections at the P42 to the P28 laser lines.)

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Absorption Coefficients (cm−1 atm−1) of Hydrazines and Some of Their Air Oxidation Products a

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( λ ) s I 0 ( λ ) s I 0 ( λ ) R I ( λ ) R = exp [ σ ( λ ) p L ] .
P min = ( α min ) / [ σ ( λ ) ] .

Metrics