Abstract

Multispectral middle IR (8–13-μm) data were acquired with an aircraft scanner over Utah. Because these digital image data were dominated by temperature, all six channels were highly correlated. Extensive processing was required to allow geologic photointerpretation based on subtle variations in spectral emittance between rock types. After preliminary processing, ratio images were produced and color ratio composites created from these. Sensor calibration and an atmospheric model allowed determination of surface brightness, temperature, emittance, and color composite emittance images. The best separation of major rock types was achieved with a principal component transformation, followed by a Gaussian stretch, followed by an inverse transformation to the original axes.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. R. Hunt, J. W. Salisbury, “Mid-infrared Spectral Behavior of Igneous Rocks,” Air Force Cambridge Research Lab., AFCRL-TR-74-0625 (1974).
  2. G. R. Hunt, J. W. Salisbury, “Mid-infrared Spectral Behavior of Sedimentary Rocks,” Air Force Cambridge Research Lab., AFCRL-TR-75-0356 (1975).
  3. G. R. Hunt, J. W. Salisbury, “Mid-infrared Spectral Behavior of Metamorphic Rocks,” Air Force Cambridge Research Lab., AFCRL-TR-76-0003 (1976).
  4. R. K. Vincent, L. C. Rowan, R. E. Gillespie, C. Knapp, Remote Sensing Environ. 4, 199 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. J. P. Lyon, Econ. Geol. 60, 715 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. S. Vickers, R. J. P. Lyon, Thermophysics of Spacecraft and Planetary Bodies (Academic, New York, 1967), pp. 585–607.
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. K. Vincent, F. Thomson, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 2465 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. K. Vincent, Proc. IEEE 63, 137 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. A. Hovis, L. R. Blaine, W. R. Callahan, Appl. Opt. 7, 1137 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. J. P. Lyon, Science 175, 983 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. K. Vincent, F. Thomson, K. Watson, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 2473 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. R. Gillespie, A. B. Kahle, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 43, 983 (1977).
  13. R. K. Vincent, “A Thermal Infrared Imaging Method for Mapping Compositional Variations among Silicate Rock Types,” Dissertation, U. Michigan, Ann Arbor (1973).
  14. R. K. Vincent, “Rock-Type Discrimination from Ratio Images of Pisgah Crater, California,” Technical Report 31650-77-T, Willow Run Lab. (1972).
  15. J. E. A. Selby, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: Computer Code Lowtran 4,” Air Force Geophysics Lab., AFGL-TR-78-0053 (1978).
  16. J. M. Soha, A. A. Schwartz, Proceedings, Fifth Canadian Symposium on Remote Sensing, Victoria, B. C, Canada (1978), pp. 86–93.
  17. P. J. Ready, P. A. Wintz, IEEE Trans Commun. COM-21, 1123 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. M. Taylor, Third Earth Resources Satellite-1 Symposium, NASA SP-351 (1973), pp. 1877–1897.
  19. A. B. Kahle, L. C. Rowan, Geology 8, 234 (1979).
    [CrossRef]

1979 (1)

A. B. Kahle, L. C. Rowan, Geology 8, 234 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. R. Gillespie, A. B. Kahle, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 43, 983 (1977).

1975 (2)

R. K. Vincent, L. C. Rowan, R. E. Gillespie, C. Knapp, Remote Sensing Environ. 4, 199 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Vincent, Proc. IEEE 63, 137 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

P. J. Ready, P. A. Wintz, IEEE Trans Commun. COM-21, 1123 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (3)

R. J. P. Lyon, Science 175, 983 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Vincent, F. Thomson, K. Watson, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 2473 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Vincent, F. Thomson, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 2465 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

1965 (1)

R. J. P. Lyon, Econ. Geol. 60, 715 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Blaine, L. R.

Callahan, W. R.

Chetwynd, J. H.

J. E. A. Selby, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: Computer Code Lowtran 4,” Air Force Geophysics Lab., AFGL-TR-78-0053 (1978).

Gillespie, A. R.

A. R. Gillespie, A. B. Kahle, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 43, 983 (1977).

Gillespie, R. E.

R. K. Vincent, L. C. Rowan, R. E. Gillespie, C. Knapp, Remote Sensing Environ. 4, 199 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Hovis, W. A.

Hunt, G. R.

G. R. Hunt, J. W. Salisbury, “Mid-infrared Spectral Behavior of Metamorphic Rocks,” Air Force Cambridge Research Lab., AFCRL-TR-76-0003 (1976).

G. R. Hunt, J. W. Salisbury, “Mid-infrared Spectral Behavior of Igneous Rocks,” Air Force Cambridge Research Lab., AFCRL-TR-74-0625 (1974).

G. R. Hunt, J. W. Salisbury, “Mid-infrared Spectral Behavior of Sedimentary Rocks,” Air Force Cambridge Research Lab., AFCRL-TR-75-0356 (1975).

Kahle, A. B.

A. B. Kahle, L. C. Rowan, Geology 8, 234 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Gillespie, A. B. Kahle, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 43, 983 (1977).

Knapp, C.

R. K. Vincent, L. C. Rowan, R. E. Gillespie, C. Knapp, Remote Sensing Environ. 4, 199 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Kneizys, F. X.

J. E. A. Selby, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: Computer Code Lowtran 4,” Air Force Geophysics Lab., AFGL-TR-78-0053 (1978).

Lyon, R. J. P.

R. J. P. Lyon, Science 175, 983 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. P. Lyon, Econ. Geol. 60, 715 (1965).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Vickers, R. J. P. Lyon, Thermophysics of Spacecraft and Planetary Bodies (Academic, New York, 1967), pp. 585–607.
[CrossRef]

McClatchey, R. A.

J. E. A. Selby, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: Computer Code Lowtran 4,” Air Force Geophysics Lab., AFGL-TR-78-0053 (1978).

Ready, P. J.

P. J. Ready, P. A. Wintz, IEEE Trans Commun. COM-21, 1123 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Rowan, L. C.

A. B. Kahle, L. C. Rowan, Geology 8, 234 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Vincent, L. C. Rowan, R. E. Gillespie, C. Knapp, Remote Sensing Environ. 4, 199 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Salisbury, J. W.

G. R. Hunt, J. W. Salisbury, “Mid-infrared Spectral Behavior of Metamorphic Rocks,” Air Force Cambridge Research Lab., AFCRL-TR-76-0003 (1976).

G. R. Hunt, J. W. Salisbury, “Mid-infrared Spectral Behavior of Sedimentary Rocks,” Air Force Cambridge Research Lab., AFCRL-TR-75-0356 (1975).

G. R. Hunt, J. W. Salisbury, “Mid-infrared Spectral Behavior of Igneous Rocks,” Air Force Cambridge Research Lab., AFCRL-TR-74-0625 (1974).

Schwartz, A. A.

J. M. Soha, A. A. Schwartz, Proceedings, Fifth Canadian Symposium on Remote Sensing, Victoria, B. C, Canada (1978), pp. 86–93.

Selby, J. E. A.

J. E. A. Selby, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: Computer Code Lowtran 4,” Air Force Geophysics Lab., AFGL-TR-78-0053 (1978).

Soha, J. M.

J. M. Soha, A. A. Schwartz, Proceedings, Fifth Canadian Symposium on Remote Sensing, Victoria, B. C, Canada (1978), pp. 86–93.

Taylor, M. M.

M. M. Taylor, Third Earth Resources Satellite-1 Symposium, NASA SP-351 (1973), pp. 1877–1897.

Thomson, F.

R. K. Vincent, F. Thomson, K. Watson, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 2473 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Vincent, F. Thomson, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 2465 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Vickers, R. S.

R. S. Vickers, R. J. P. Lyon, Thermophysics of Spacecraft and Planetary Bodies (Academic, New York, 1967), pp. 585–607.
[CrossRef]

Vincent, R. K.

R. K. Vincent, Proc. IEEE 63, 137 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Vincent, L. C. Rowan, R. E. Gillespie, C. Knapp, Remote Sensing Environ. 4, 199 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Vincent, F. Thomson, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 2465 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Vincent, F. Thomson, K. Watson, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 2473 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Vincent, “A Thermal Infrared Imaging Method for Mapping Compositional Variations among Silicate Rock Types,” Dissertation, U. Michigan, Ann Arbor (1973).

R. K. Vincent, “Rock-Type Discrimination from Ratio Images of Pisgah Crater, California,” Technical Report 31650-77-T, Willow Run Lab. (1972).

Watson, K.

R. K. Vincent, F. Thomson, K. Watson, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 2473 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Wintz, P. A.

P. J. Ready, P. A. Wintz, IEEE Trans Commun. COM-21, 1123 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Econ. Geol. (1)

R. J. P. Lyon, Econ. Geol. 60, 715 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Geology (1)

A. B. Kahle, L. C. Rowan, Geology 8, 234 (1979).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans Commun. (1)

P. J. Ready, P. A. Wintz, IEEE Trans Commun. COM-21, 1123 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

R. K. Vincent, F. Thomson, K. Watson, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 2473 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Vincent, F. Thomson, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 2465 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing (1)

A. R. Gillespie, A. B. Kahle, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 43, 983 (1977).

Proc. IEEE (1)

R. K. Vincent, Proc. IEEE 63, 137 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sensing Environ. (1)

R. K. Vincent, L. C. Rowan, R. E. Gillespie, C. Knapp, Remote Sensing Environ. 4, 199 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

R. J. P. Lyon, Science 175, 983 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (9)

R. S. Vickers, R. J. P. Lyon, Thermophysics of Spacecraft and Planetary Bodies (Academic, New York, 1967), pp. 585–607.
[CrossRef]

G. R. Hunt, J. W. Salisbury, “Mid-infrared Spectral Behavior of Igneous Rocks,” Air Force Cambridge Research Lab., AFCRL-TR-74-0625 (1974).

G. R. Hunt, J. W. Salisbury, “Mid-infrared Spectral Behavior of Sedimentary Rocks,” Air Force Cambridge Research Lab., AFCRL-TR-75-0356 (1975).

G. R. Hunt, J. W. Salisbury, “Mid-infrared Spectral Behavior of Metamorphic Rocks,” Air Force Cambridge Research Lab., AFCRL-TR-76-0003 (1976).

M. M. Taylor, Third Earth Resources Satellite-1 Symposium, NASA SP-351 (1973), pp. 1877–1897.

R. K. Vincent, “A Thermal Infrared Imaging Method for Mapping Compositional Variations among Silicate Rock Types,” Dissertation, U. Michigan, Ann Arbor (1973).

R. K. Vincent, “Rock-Type Discrimination from Ratio Images of Pisgah Crater, California,” Technical Report 31650-77-T, Willow Run Lab. (1972).

J. E. A. Selby, F. X. Kneizys, J. H. Chetwynd, R. A. McClatchey, “Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: Computer Code Lowtran 4,” Air Force Geophysics Lab., AFGL-TR-78-0053 (1978).

J. M. Soha, A. A. Schwartz, Proceedings, Fifth Canadian Symposium on Remote Sensing, Victoria, B. C, Canada (1978), pp. 86–93.

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Figures (10)

Fig.1
Fig.1

Geometrically corrected and contrast enhanced images of signal from channels (a) 17, (b) 18, (c) 19, (d) 20, (e) 21, and (f) 22. Only the southern half of the image is shown.

Figure 2
Figure 2

Color composite of channels 17, 18, and 20, individually contrast enhanced as in Figure 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Southern half of contrast enhanced ratio images (a) 17/18, (b) 18/19, (c) 19/20, (d) 20/21, and (e) 21/22.

Figure 4
Figure 4

Color ratio composite of ratios 17/18, 18/19, 19/20 as blue, green and red, respectively.

Fig.5
Fig.5

Temperature image derived from 21 = constant = 0.93.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Emittance images for channels (a) 17, (b) 18, (c) 19, and (d) 20, using temperature from Fig. 5. Images have been contrast enhanced for display.

Figure 7
Figure 7

Emittance color composite, using channels 17, 18, and 20, as blue, green, and red respectively.

Fig.8
Fig.8

Two-dimensional histogram plotting data distribution of channel 17 vs channel 18.

Figure 9
Figure 9

Color enhanced emittance composite.

Figure 10
Figure 10

Color enhanced radiance composite.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Position and Band Limits of Bendix 24-Channel Scanner

Tables Icon

Table II Atmospheric Parameters from lowtran4

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L ¯ i = 1 N i λ 1 i λ 2 i R i ( λ ) L ( λ ) d λ ,
N i = λ 1 i λ 2 i R i ( λ ) d λ .
D V i = A i L ¯ i + B i .
L b b i ( λ , T ) = c 1 π λ 5 [ exp ( c 2 / λ T ) 1 ] W m 2 sr ,
L ¯ b b i ( T ) = 1 π N i λ 1 i λ 2 i c 1 R i ( λ ) d λ λ 5 [ exp ( c 2 / λ T ) 1 ] .
[ D V C i , L ¯ b b i ( T C ) ] , [ D V H i , L ¯ b b i ( T H ) ] ,
D V C i = A i L ¯ b b i ( T C ) + B i , D V H i = A i L ¯ b b i ( T H ) + B i ,
L ¯ i = 1 A i ( D V i B i ) .
L λ = [ λ L b b λ ( T ) + ( 1 λ ) L sky λ ] τ A λ + L υ λ ,
L ¯ i ( T , i ) = 1 N i λ 1 i λ 2 i L λ i R i ( λ ) d λ = i τ A i L ¯ b b i ( T ) + ( 1 i ) τ A i L sky i + L υ i ,
D V 22 = A 22 L ¯ 22 ( T , 22 0.96 ) + B 22 .
i = [ 1 L ¯ b b i ( T ) · τ A i L ¯ sky i · τ A i ] [ 1 A i ( D V i B i ) L ¯ υ i τ A i · L ¯ sky i ] .
y i = I i ( x i ) ,
( y 17 , y 18 , y 20 ) = D [ ( x 17 , x 18 , x 20 ) ]
C i j = ( x i x ¯ i ) ( x j x ¯ j ) N ,

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