Abstract

The residual thermal stresses in optical waveguide fibers can be large enough to cause substantial changes in the refractive-index profile and to create optical anisotropy. This paper presents a method of calculating these effects and illustrates the influence of various dopants on the magnitudes of the stresses.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Errata

George W. Scherer, "Stress-induced index profile distortion in optical waveguides: correction," Appl. Opt. 19, 2656-2656 (1980)
https://www.osapublishing.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-19-16-2656

References

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  1. K. Nagano, S. Kawakami, S. Nishida, Appl. Opt. 17, 2080 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. H. Hannay, Electron. Lett. 12, 173 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  3. O. G. Leminger, Electron. Lett. 13, 370 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Brugger, Appl. Opt. 10, 437 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. R. Norman, D. N. Payne, M. J. Adams, in Proceedings, Fifth European Conference on Optical Communication, 1979, article 10-1.
  6. H. Mueller, Physics, 6, No. 6, 179 (1935);J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 21, 27 (1938).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. W. Morey, Properties of Glass (Reinhold, New York, 1938), pp. 442–447.
  8. W. Primak, D. Post, J. Appl. Phys. 30, No. 5, 779 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Neumann, Ann. Phys. 54, 449 (1841).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. W. Scherer, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 34, 223 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Nakahara, Y. Masuda, K. Fujiwara, S. Sudoh, T. Miyashita, in Proceedings, Electrochemical Society, Fall Meeting, 1978, Abstract 138.
  12. G. W. Scherer, in Proceedings, Electrochemical Society, Fall Meeting, 1978, Abstract 142;J. Non-Cryst. Solids 34, 239 (1979).
  13. P. C. Schultz, Appl. Opt. 18, 3684 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. A. Krohn, A. R. Cooper, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 52, 661 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  15. U. C. Paek, C. R. Kurkjian, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 58, 330 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. W. Scherer, A. R. Cooper, at Conference on the Physics of Fiber Optics, Chicago (1980).
  17. G. W. Scherer, A. R. Cooper, accepted for publication in J. Am. Ceram. Soc.
  18. D. A. Krohn, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 53, 505 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. Marcuse, H. M. Presby, Appl. Opt. 18, 3242 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. R. Olshansky, Appl. Opt. 18, 683 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. I. P. Kaminow, H. M. Presby, Appl. Opt. 16, 108 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. T. Katsuyama, T. Suganuma, K. Ishida, G. Toda, Opt. Commun. 21, 182 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  23. F. M. E. Sladen, D. N. Payne, M. J. Adams, Electron. Lett. 13, 212 (1977);Proceedings, Fourth European Conference on Optical Communications1978, p. 48.
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. Olshansky, Corning Glass Works; private communication.
  25. F. V. DiMarcello, A. C. Hart, J. C. Williams, C. R. Kurkjian, in Proceedings, Electrochemical Society Fall Meeting, 1978, Abstract 146.

1979 (5)

S. R. Norman, D. N. Payne, M. J. Adams, in Proceedings, Fifth European Conference on Optical Communication, 1979, article 10-1.

G. W. Scherer, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 34, 223 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Schultz, Appl. Opt. 18, 3684 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Marcuse, H. M. Presby, Appl. Opt. 18, 3242 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Olshansky, Appl. Opt. 18, 683 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (4)

T. Nakahara, Y. Masuda, K. Fujiwara, S. Sudoh, T. Miyashita, in Proceedings, Electrochemical Society, Fall Meeting, 1978, Abstract 138.

G. W. Scherer, in Proceedings, Electrochemical Society, Fall Meeting, 1978, Abstract 142;J. Non-Cryst. Solids 34, 239 (1979).

K. Nagano, S. Kawakami, S. Nishida, Appl. Opt. 17, 2080 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. V. DiMarcello, A. C. Hart, J. C. Williams, C. R. Kurkjian, in Proceedings, Electrochemical Society Fall Meeting, 1978, Abstract 146.

1977 (4)

O. G. Leminger, Electron. Lett. 13, 370 (1977).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow, H. M. Presby, Appl. Opt. 16, 108 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Katsuyama, T. Suganuma, K. Ishida, G. Toda, Opt. Commun. 21, 182 (1977).
[CrossRef]

F. M. E. Sladen, D. N. Payne, M. J. Adams, Electron. Lett. 13, 212 (1977);Proceedings, Fourth European Conference on Optical Communications1978, p. 48.
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

J. H. Hannay, Electron. Lett. 12, 173 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

U. C. Paek, C. R. Kurkjian, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 58, 330 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

1970 (1)

D. A. Krohn, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 53, 505 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

D. A. Krohn, A. R. Cooper, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 52, 661 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

W. Primak, D. Post, J. Appl. Phys. 30, No. 5, 779 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1935 (1)

H. Mueller, Physics, 6, No. 6, 179 (1935);J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 21, 27 (1938).
[CrossRef]

1841 (1)

F. Neumann, Ann. Phys. 54, 449 (1841).
[CrossRef]

Adams, M. J.

S. R. Norman, D. N. Payne, M. J. Adams, in Proceedings, Fifth European Conference on Optical Communication, 1979, article 10-1.

F. M. E. Sladen, D. N. Payne, M. J. Adams, Electron. Lett. 13, 212 (1977);Proceedings, Fourth European Conference on Optical Communications1978, p. 48.
[CrossRef]

Brugger, K.

Cooper, A. R.

D. A. Krohn, A. R. Cooper, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 52, 661 (1969).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Scherer, A. R. Cooper, at Conference on the Physics of Fiber Optics, Chicago (1980).

G. W. Scherer, A. R. Cooper, accepted for publication in J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

DiMarcello, F. V.

F. V. DiMarcello, A. C. Hart, J. C. Williams, C. R. Kurkjian, in Proceedings, Electrochemical Society Fall Meeting, 1978, Abstract 146.

Fujiwara, K.

T. Nakahara, Y. Masuda, K. Fujiwara, S. Sudoh, T. Miyashita, in Proceedings, Electrochemical Society, Fall Meeting, 1978, Abstract 138.

Hannay, J. H.

J. H. Hannay, Electron. Lett. 12, 173 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hart, A. C.

F. V. DiMarcello, A. C. Hart, J. C. Williams, C. R. Kurkjian, in Proceedings, Electrochemical Society Fall Meeting, 1978, Abstract 146.

Ishida, K.

T. Katsuyama, T. Suganuma, K. Ishida, G. Toda, Opt. Commun. 21, 182 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kaminow, I. P.

Katsuyama, T.

T. Katsuyama, T. Suganuma, K. Ishida, G. Toda, Opt. Commun. 21, 182 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, S.

Krohn, D. A.

D. A. Krohn, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 53, 505 (1970).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Krohn, A. R. Cooper, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 52, 661 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Kurkjian, C. R.

F. V. DiMarcello, A. C. Hart, J. C. Williams, C. R. Kurkjian, in Proceedings, Electrochemical Society Fall Meeting, 1978, Abstract 146.

U. C. Paek, C. R. Kurkjian, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 58, 330 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Leminger, O. G.

O. G. Leminger, Electron. Lett. 13, 370 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Marcuse, D.

Masuda, Y.

T. Nakahara, Y. Masuda, K. Fujiwara, S. Sudoh, T. Miyashita, in Proceedings, Electrochemical Society, Fall Meeting, 1978, Abstract 138.

Miyashita, T.

T. Nakahara, Y. Masuda, K. Fujiwara, S. Sudoh, T. Miyashita, in Proceedings, Electrochemical Society, Fall Meeting, 1978, Abstract 138.

Morey, G. W.

G. W. Morey, Properties of Glass (Reinhold, New York, 1938), pp. 442–447.

Mueller, H.

H. Mueller, Physics, 6, No. 6, 179 (1935);J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 21, 27 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Nagano, K.

Nakahara, T.

T. Nakahara, Y. Masuda, K. Fujiwara, S. Sudoh, T. Miyashita, in Proceedings, Electrochemical Society, Fall Meeting, 1978, Abstract 138.

Neumann, F.

F. Neumann, Ann. Phys. 54, 449 (1841).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, S.

Norman, S. R.

S. R. Norman, D. N. Payne, M. J. Adams, in Proceedings, Fifth European Conference on Optical Communication, 1979, article 10-1.

Olshansky, R.

R. Olshansky, Appl. Opt. 18, 683 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Olshansky, Corning Glass Works; private communication.

Paek, U. C.

U. C. Paek, C. R. Kurkjian, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 58, 330 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

S. R. Norman, D. N. Payne, M. J. Adams, in Proceedings, Fifth European Conference on Optical Communication, 1979, article 10-1.

F. M. E. Sladen, D. N. Payne, M. J. Adams, Electron. Lett. 13, 212 (1977);Proceedings, Fourth European Conference on Optical Communications1978, p. 48.
[CrossRef]

Post, D.

W. Primak, D. Post, J. Appl. Phys. 30, No. 5, 779 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Presby, H. M.

Primak, W.

W. Primak, D. Post, J. Appl. Phys. 30, No. 5, 779 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, G. W.

G. W. Scherer, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 34, 223 (1979).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Scherer, in Proceedings, Electrochemical Society, Fall Meeting, 1978, Abstract 142;J. Non-Cryst. Solids 34, 239 (1979).

G. W. Scherer, A. R. Cooper, at Conference on the Physics of Fiber Optics, Chicago (1980).

G. W. Scherer, A. R. Cooper, accepted for publication in J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

Schultz, P. C.

Sladen, F. M. E.

F. M. E. Sladen, D. N. Payne, M. J. Adams, Electron. Lett. 13, 212 (1977);Proceedings, Fourth European Conference on Optical Communications1978, p. 48.
[CrossRef]

Sudoh, S.

T. Nakahara, Y. Masuda, K. Fujiwara, S. Sudoh, T. Miyashita, in Proceedings, Electrochemical Society, Fall Meeting, 1978, Abstract 138.

Suganuma, T.

T. Katsuyama, T. Suganuma, K. Ishida, G. Toda, Opt. Commun. 21, 182 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Toda, G.

T. Katsuyama, T. Suganuma, K. Ishida, G. Toda, Opt. Commun. 21, 182 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J. C.

F. V. DiMarcello, A. C. Hart, J. C. Williams, C. R. Kurkjian, in Proceedings, Electrochemical Society Fall Meeting, 1978, Abstract 146.

Ann. Phys. (1)

F. Neumann, Ann. Phys. 54, 449 (1841).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Electron. Lett. (3)

F. M. E. Sladen, D. N. Payne, M. J. Adams, Electron. Lett. 13, 212 (1977);Proceedings, Fourth European Conference on Optical Communications1978, p. 48.
[CrossRef]

J. H. Hannay, Electron. Lett. 12, 173 (1976).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Leminger, Electron. Lett. 13, 370 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (3)

D. A. Krohn, A. R. Cooper, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 52, 661 (1969).
[CrossRef]

U. C. Paek, C. R. Kurkjian, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 58, 330 (1975).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Krohn, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 53, 505 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Primak, D. Post, J. Appl. Phys. 30, No. 5, 779 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

G. W. Scherer, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 34, 223 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. Katsuyama, T. Suganuma, K. Ishida, G. Toda, Opt. Commun. 21, 182 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Physics (1)

H. Mueller, Physics, 6, No. 6, 179 (1935);J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 21, 27 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Proceedings, Electrochemical Society Fall Meeting (1)

F. V. DiMarcello, A. C. Hart, J. C. Williams, C. R. Kurkjian, in Proceedings, Electrochemical Society Fall Meeting, 1978, Abstract 146.

Proceedings, Electrochemical Society, Fall Meeting (2)

T. Nakahara, Y. Masuda, K. Fujiwara, S. Sudoh, T. Miyashita, in Proceedings, Electrochemical Society, Fall Meeting, 1978, Abstract 138.

G. W. Scherer, in Proceedings, Electrochemical Society, Fall Meeting, 1978, Abstract 142;J. Non-Cryst. Solids 34, 239 (1979).

Proceedings, Fifth European Conference on Optical Communication (1)

S. R. Norman, D. N. Payne, M. J. Adams, in Proceedings, Fifth European Conference on Optical Communication, 1979, article 10-1.

Other (4)

G. W. Morey, Properties of Glass (Reinhold, New York, 1938), pp. 442–447.

G. W. Scherer, A. R. Cooper, at Conference on the Physics of Fiber Optics, Chicago (1980).

G. W. Scherer, A. R. Cooper, accepted for publication in J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

R. Olshansky, Corning Glass Works; private communication.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Assumed temperature dependence of thermal expansion coefficient X; setting temperature is Ts.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Parabolic dopant profile of fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Corresponding stress profile to that shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Stress-induced change in refractive-index profile.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Parabolic dopant profile of fiber.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Corresponding stress profile to that shown in Fig. 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Stress-induced change in refractive-index profile.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Parabolic dopant profile of fiber.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Corresponding stress profile to that shown in Fig. 8.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Stress-induced change in refractive-index profile.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Parabolic dopant profile of fiber.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Corresponding stress profile to that shown in Fig. 11.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Stress-induced change in refractive-index profile.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Refractive-index change from Fig. 4 superimposed on parabolic-index profile.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table II Influence of P2O5/GeO2 Ratio

Tables Icon

Table III Influence of Choice of X1/X0 and ΔTa

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ n r = n r n = B 2 σ r B 1 ( σ θ + σ z ) ,
Δ n θ = n θ n = B 2 σ θ B 1 ( σ r + σ z ) ,
Δ n z = n z n = B 2 σ z B 1 ( σ r + σ θ ) ,
σ r = 1 r 2 0 r f ( r ) rdr ,
σ r ( 0 ) = ½ f ( 0 ) ,
σ θ = f ( r ) σ r ,
σ z = σ r + σ θ = f ( r ) ,
f ( r ) = E ( r ) 1 ν ( r ) ( c f ) ,
c = 0 b ( E f 1 ν ) rdr 0 b ( E 1 ν ) rdr ,
f = X ( r ) Δ T ,
δ f ( r , T ) = X ( r , T ) δ T ,
δ f ( r , T ) = E ( r , T ) 1 ν ( r , T ) δ T { 0 b [ E ( r , T ) X ( r , T ) 1 ν ( r , T ) ] rdr 0 b [ E ( r , T ) 1 ν ( r , T ) ] rdr X ( r , T ) } .
σ z ( r ) = T S ( b ) T R δ f .
σ r ( r ) = 1 r 2 0 r σ z ( r ) rdr ,
σ r ( O ) = ½ σ z ( O ) ,
σ θ ( r ) = σ z ( r ) σ r ( r ) .
n ( r ) = { ( n o n s ) [ 1 ( r / r c ) α ] + n s , 0 r r c , n s r c r ,

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