Abstract

In this paper we present the results of the IR investigations of the controversial Turin Shroud. Reflectance spectroscopy in the 3–5- and 8–14-μm bands was attempted in situ using commercial equipment with moderate success. Spectral comparisons are made between laboratory reflectance data and selected Shroud features. Infrared thermographic imaging was accomplished with an enhanced contrast technique using external illumination. Due to the spectral similarities of most features observed, we show that the results are inconclusive. The IR imagery yielded results that are consistent with expectations with no anomalies observed.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. J. Jumper, R. W. Mettern, Appl. Opt. 19, 1909 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. For a rather vague reference to possible parallels see Encyclopedia Britannica (U. Chicago, 1979), Vol. 14, p. 1085.
  3. N. L. Alpert, W. E. Keiser, H. A. Symanski, IR: Theory and Practice of Infrared Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1970), pp. 7, 8.
  4. W. Wolfe, U. Arizona private communication.
  5. W. Wolfe, G. Zissis, The Infrared Handbook (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1978), pp. 3-84–3-154.
  6. S. Pellicori, Appl. Opt. this issue 19, 1913 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (2)

Alpert, N. L.

N. L. Alpert, W. E. Keiser, H. A. Symanski, IR: Theory and Practice of Infrared Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1970), pp. 7, 8.

Jumper, E. J.

Keiser, W. E.

N. L. Alpert, W. E. Keiser, H. A. Symanski, IR: Theory and Practice of Infrared Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1970), pp. 7, 8.

Mettern, R. W.

Pellicori, S.

Symanski, H. A.

N. L. Alpert, W. E. Keiser, H. A. Symanski, IR: Theory and Practice of Infrared Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1970), pp. 7, 8.

Wolfe, W.

W. Wolfe, U. Arizona private communication.

W. Wolfe, G. Zissis, The Infrared Handbook (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1978), pp. 3-84–3-154.

Zissis, G.

W. Wolfe, G. Zissis, The Infrared Handbook (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1978), pp. 3-84–3-154.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Other (4)

For a rather vague reference to possible parallels see Encyclopedia Britannica (U. Chicago, 1979), Vol. 14, p. 1085.

N. L. Alpert, W. E. Keiser, H. A. Symanski, IR: Theory and Practice of Infrared Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1970), pp. 7, 8.

W. Wolfe, U. Arizona private communication.

W. Wolfe, G. Zissis, The Infrared Handbook (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1978), pp. 3-84–3-154.

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Figures (21)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental configuration of reflectance spectroscopy measurement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral resolution comparisons between a moderate resolution laboratory instrument and experimental setup (dotted curve) using polyethylene as a sample (8–14 μm).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absolute spectral reflectance of linen and cotton in 3–5-μm band. Sadtler standard cotton in transmission is also shown for comparison.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absolute spectral reflectance comparison of linen and scorched linen in 3–5-μm band.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absolute spectral reflectance comparisons of cotton and whole blood-on-cotton in 3–5-μm band.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Absolute spectral reflectance comparisons of linen and cotton in 8–14-μm band.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Absolute spectral reflectance comparisons of linen and scorched linen in 8–14-μm band.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Absolute spectral reflectance comparisons of cotton and whole blood-on-cotton in 8–14-μm band.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Normalized spectral reflectance comparisons of scorched linen with averaged Shroud image and scorch areas in 3–5-μm band.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Normalized spectral reflectance comparisons of scorched linen with averaged Shroud image and scorch areas in 8–14-μm band.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Normalized spectral reflectance comparisons of blood-on-cotton with Shroud averaged blood areas in 3–5-μm band.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Normalized spectral reflectance comparisons of whole blood-on-cotton with averaged Shroud blood in 8–14-μm band.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Experimental configuration for IR imaging experiments.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Face region in 8–14-μm band. Features observed correspond closely to those observed in the visible with reversed contrast.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

As in Fig. 14 with slightly less contrast and scale lights turned off.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

As in Fig. 15 with image expansion.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Back of head in 8–14-μm band. Irregularly shaped brighter areas in upper part of photo correspond to red crimson stains in visible.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Hands in 8–14-μm band. Bright spot in upper left of photograph corresponds to red crimson stain on wrist in visible.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Foot area in 8–14-μm band.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Chest wound in 8–14-μm band. Bright patch corresponds to large crimson stain in visible. Irregular darker area corresponds to cloth patch sewn over a burned region from 1532 fire.

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

Gold reflectance standard illuminated with floodlamps. Black level indicative of no detectable 8–14-μm radiation from floodlamps.

Equations (12)

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V s ( λ ) = K 0 ρ s ( λ ) L ( λ ) S ( λ λ ) d λ ,
V s ( λ ) K ρ s ( λ ) L ( λ ) R ( λ ) .
V R ( λ ) K ρ R ( λ ) L ( λ ) R ( λ ) .
ρ S ( λ ) V S ( λ ) V R ( λ ) ρ R ( λ )
E = A σ B T b 4 + B ( 1 B ) σ T e 4 ,
E T b = 4 A σ B T b 3 , E b = A σ T b 4 B σ T e 4 .
Δ E = E T b Δ T B = E b Δ b .
Δ T b T b = Δ b 4 b ( 1 B T e 4 A T b 4 ) ,
0 α b ( λ ) I 0 ( λ ) d λ = b σ T b 4 ,
Δ E = σ A ( b 1 T b 1 4 b 2 T b 2 4 ) B σ T e 4 ( b 1 b 2 ) .
Δ E = σ A { 0 [ α b 1 ( λ ) α b 2 ( λ ) ] I 0 ( λ ) d λ } B T e 4 ( b 1 b 2 ) ,
Δ E = σ A 0 [ ρ b 2 ( λ ) ρ b 1 ( λ ) ] I 0 ( λ ) d λ ,

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