Abstract

Spectrophotometric results from the 1978 investigation of the Shroud of Turin are presented. The goals of the investigation were to characterize spectrally the body image in a region extending from the near UV to the near IR, to determine if the blood stains are actually blood, and to recommend storage parameters to prevent further degradation of the image. The bloodstained areas have the spectral characteristics of human hemoglobin. The image shows monotonically increasing (featureless) absorption with decreasing wavelength. The contrast is low: R(550 nm) = 0.85 of that for the background linen. Simulated aging by air baking reproduced the color of the background linen. Simultaneously, an invisible deposit of perspiration plus skin oils became visible and displayed a reflection spectrum closely resembling that of the body image. Lightly scorched areas on the Shroud are also somewhat similar spectrally, suggesting that a similar resultant chemistry is possible for dissimilar causes. A likely cause for the body image is cellulose degradation stimulated locally by natural or applied substances transferred to the Shroud.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. J. Culliton, Science 201, 235 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. I. Wilson, The Shroud of Turin (Doubleday, New York, 1978).
  3. K. Stevenson, Ed., Proceedings, 1977 U.S. Conference of Research on the Shroud of Turin (Holy Shroud Guild, New York, 1977).
  4. D. Devan, D. Lynn, J. Lorre, V. Miller, in preparation.
  5. V. Miller, S. F. Pellicori, “Fluorescence Photography of the Shroud of Turin,” in preparation.
  6. R. Gilbert, M. Gilbert, Appl. Opt. 19, 1930 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. F. Pellicori, M. S. Evans, “Photomicrography of the Shroud of Turin,” Archaeology, in press (1980).
  8. J. Accetta, J. S. Baumgart, Appl. Opt. 19, 1921 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. F. Pellicori, R. A. Chandos, details available on request.
  10. G. Kortum, Reflectance Spectroscopy (Springer, New York, 1969).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Weissbluth, Hemoglobin: Cooperativity and Electronic Properties (Springer, New York, 1974).
  12. J. H. Heller, A. D. Adler, “Confirmation of Blood on the Shroud of Turin,” Science (1980).
  13. R. N. Rogers, D. Soran, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratories; personal communication.
  14. Later found to have been used by others: G. G. Gray, “Determination and Significance of Activation Energy in Permanence Tests,” in Preservation of Paper and Textiles of Historic and Artistic Value, Advances in Chemistry Series 164 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1977).
  15. R. A. Morris, L. A. Schwalbe, J. R. London, “X-Ray Fluorescence Investigation of the Shroud of Turin,” X-Ray Spectrom. in press, Apr. (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. A. Schwalbe, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratories; personal communication.
  17. As do blood plasma stains on linen in the laboratory.

1980 (3)

J. H. Heller, A. D. Adler, “Confirmation of Blood on the Shroud of Turin,” Science (1980).

J. Accetta, J. S. Baumgart, Appl. Opt. 19, 1921 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Gilbert, M. Gilbert, Appl. Opt. 19, 1930 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

B. J. Culliton, Science 201, 235 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Accetta, J.

Adler, A. D.

J. H. Heller, A. D. Adler, “Confirmation of Blood on the Shroud of Turin,” Science (1980).

Baumgart, J. S.

Chandos, R. A.

S. F. Pellicori, R. A. Chandos, details available on request.

Culliton, B. J.

B. J. Culliton, Science 201, 235 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devan, D.

D. Devan, D. Lynn, J. Lorre, V. Miller, in preparation.

Evans, M. S.

S. F. Pellicori, M. S. Evans, “Photomicrography of the Shroud of Turin,” Archaeology, in press (1980).

Gilbert, M.

Gilbert, R.

Gray, G. G.

Later found to have been used by others: G. G. Gray, “Determination and Significance of Activation Energy in Permanence Tests,” in Preservation of Paper and Textiles of Historic and Artistic Value, Advances in Chemistry Series 164 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1977).

Heller, J. H.

J. H. Heller, A. D. Adler, “Confirmation of Blood on the Shroud of Turin,” Science (1980).

Kortum, G.

G. Kortum, Reflectance Spectroscopy (Springer, New York, 1969).
[CrossRef]

London, J. R.

R. A. Morris, L. A. Schwalbe, J. R. London, “X-Ray Fluorescence Investigation of the Shroud of Turin,” X-Ray Spectrom. in press, Apr. (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lorre, J.

D. Devan, D. Lynn, J. Lorre, V. Miller, in preparation.

Lynn, D.

D. Devan, D. Lynn, J. Lorre, V. Miller, in preparation.

Miller, V.

D. Devan, D. Lynn, J. Lorre, V. Miller, in preparation.

V. Miller, S. F. Pellicori, “Fluorescence Photography of the Shroud of Turin,” in preparation.

Morris, R. A.

R. A. Morris, L. A. Schwalbe, J. R. London, “X-Ray Fluorescence Investigation of the Shroud of Turin,” X-Ray Spectrom. in press, Apr. (1980).
[CrossRef]

Pellicori, S. F.

S. F. Pellicori, R. A. Chandos, details available on request.

V. Miller, S. F. Pellicori, “Fluorescence Photography of the Shroud of Turin,” in preparation.

S. F. Pellicori, M. S. Evans, “Photomicrography of the Shroud of Turin,” Archaeology, in press (1980).

Rogers, R. N.

R. N. Rogers, D. Soran, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratories; personal communication.

Schwalbe, L. A.

R. A. Morris, L. A. Schwalbe, J. R. London, “X-Ray Fluorescence Investigation of the Shroud of Turin,” X-Ray Spectrom. in press, Apr. (1980).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Schwalbe, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratories; personal communication.

Soran, D.

R. N. Rogers, D. Soran, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratories; personal communication.

Weissbluth, M.

M. Weissbluth, Hemoglobin: Cooperativity and Electronic Properties (Springer, New York, 1974).

Wilson, I.

I. Wilson, The Shroud of Turin (Doubleday, New York, 1978).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Science (2)

J. H. Heller, A. D. Adler, “Confirmation of Blood on the Shroud of Turin,” Science (1980).

B. J. Culliton, Science 201, 235 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (13)

I. Wilson, The Shroud of Turin (Doubleday, New York, 1978).

K. Stevenson, Ed., Proceedings, 1977 U.S. Conference of Research on the Shroud of Turin (Holy Shroud Guild, New York, 1977).

D. Devan, D. Lynn, J. Lorre, V. Miller, in preparation.

V. Miller, S. F. Pellicori, “Fluorescence Photography of the Shroud of Turin,” in preparation.

S. F. Pellicori, M. S. Evans, “Photomicrography of the Shroud of Turin,” Archaeology, in press (1980).

R. N. Rogers, D. Soran, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratories; personal communication.

Later found to have been used by others: G. G. Gray, “Determination and Significance of Activation Energy in Permanence Tests,” in Preservation of Paper and Textiles of Historic and Artistic Value, Advances in Chemistry Series 164 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1977).

R. A. Morris, L. A. Schwalbe, J. R. London, “X-Ray Fluorescence Investigation of the Shroud of Turin,” X-Ray Spectrom. in press, Apr. (1980).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Schwalbe, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratories; personal communication.

As do blood plasma stains on linen in the laboratory.

S. F. Pellicori, R. A. Chandos, details available on request.

G. Kortum, Reflectance Spectroscopy (Springer, New York, 1969).
[CrossRef]

M. Weissbluth, Hemoglobin: Cooperativity and Electronic Properties (Springer, New York, 1974).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reversed image of a portion of the Shroud. Photo taken through 370–500-nm bandpass filter using xenon flashlamps. Maximum contrast is obtained at these short wavelengths between sepia/straw colored image and yellow tinted background linen. Skin as well as hair features have been recorded on the Shroud with about equal density. Scorch burns and water marks from 1532 fire are evident. Scourge and apparent blood stains agree with biblical literature descriptions (photo © V. Miller, Oct. 1978).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photoelectric spectroreflectometry of 1-cm diam areas of specific Shroud features made with a quick look spectrophotometer. Bandpass was 17 nm. Values are the result of ratioing to blank linen background to emphasize differences. Curves are normalized to ∼1.0 at 700 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflectance ratio of widely separated spectral points (440 and 680 nm) is plotted vs absolute reflectance at 550 nm. Grouping by stain type is evident. The darker the feature, the redder it is. Quick look spectrophotometer results.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Integrated reflectance and (one) transmittance curve for laboratory blood preparations, including Shroud blood reflectance values. Laboratory blood is 4 days old and in one case was artificially aged by baking. The large difference in contrast of Soret and α and β bands occurs when the same sample (on glass slide) is measured in reflection as compared to transmission. Baking also reduces contrasts of bands. Different average magnitudes of curves are due to a variety of exposed background cloth. Instrument bandpasses are 4 nm for the laboratory and 5 nm for Shroud measurements at 410 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Integrated reflectances (relative to their clear backgrounds) of Shroud image and a variety of materials that might be related to burial linens. Top curve is for linen treated with saponaria glucoside13 and shows a fluorescent contribution <450 nm. Bottom curves are for scorch on this linen before and after baking. Other curves include perspiration and skin oil stains: P1, heavy body grime; P3, light perspiration; and myrrh. Scorch spectrum is included since a similarity between light scorches and body image was made. Note influence of baking (accelerated aging) at 150°C for 7.5 h.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Similar to Fig. 5 but includes curacao aloes, Fe2O3 smudges, and linen before and after 7.5-h bake at 150°C. Mean Shroud background spectrum is included for comparison with aged (baked = dashed curve) modern linen. The Fe2O3 after curve lies above the before because the linen darkens; Fe2O3 remains unchanged.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Color and visual reflectance vs bake time for linen. This method of artificially aging linen was used to attempt to reach Shroud measured values. Color is approached after 5.5 h at 165°C, but reflectance of laboratory sample does not reach that for Shroud. Weave, composition, etc. for two linens are different, however, and this fact probably explains the reflectance difference.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Combined presentation of color (right-hand curve) and Fe concentration (left-hand curve) vs reflectance at 550 nm for Fe2O3 smudges, including some blood and body points from Shroud Fe concentration measurements. Circles and triangles are color measurements. Trends for Shroud results parallel those for laboratory calibration, but optical results predict less Fe than was measured by x-ray fluorescence on the Shroud.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Fluorescent color difference between Shroud features is examined, and visual descriptions of colors are explained when the photoelectric measurements of Gilbert and Gilbert are convolved with scotopic curve of the eye. Designations refer to locations.6

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