Abstract

A multimode fiber-optic hydrophone based upon the principle of frustrated total internal reflection has been constructed and tested. The sensitivity of the device to acoustic waves in water is in good agreement with predictions derived from its measured sensitivity to applied static displacements in air. The minimum detectable pressure for the device was 62 dB relative to 1 μPa at 500 Hz. Static displacements as small as 4.8 × 10−3 Å can be detected. The sensor is compatible with present multimode fiber-optic sources, detectors, and components.

© 1980 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1302 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, Appl. Opt. 17, 1761 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  3. E. F. Carome, M. P. Satyshur, ONR Technical Report PH 78-2 (1978).
  4. B. Culshaw et al., in Annual Review of the Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering (University College London, October1978), p. 22.
  5. P. Shajenko, U.S. Patent4,115,753 (1979).
  6. J. A. Bucaro, E. F. Carome, Appl. Opt. 17, 330 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. L. M. Brekhovskikh, Waves in Layered Media (Academic, New York, 1960).
  8. R. P. Feynmann, Lectures on Physics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1963), Vol. 1.
  9. A. Yariv, Introduction to Optical Electronics (Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York, 1971).
  10. J. N. Fields et al., in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper WD3.

1978 (1)

1977 (2)

J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1302 (1977).
[Crossref]

J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, Appl. Opt. 17, 1761 (1977).
[Crossref]

Brekhovskikh, L. M.

L. M. Brekhovskikh, Waves in Layered Media (Academic, New York, 1960).

Bucaro, J. A.

J. A. Bucaro, E. F. Carome, Appl. Opt. 17, 330 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1302 (1977).
[Crossref]

J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, Appl. Opt. 17, 1761 (1977).
[Crossref]

Carome, E. F.

J. A. Bucaro, E. F. Carome, Appl. Opt. 17, 330 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1302 (1977).
[Crossref]

J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, Appl. Opt. 17, 1761 (1977).
[Crossref]

E. F. Carome, M. P. Satyshur, ONR Technical Report PH 78-2 (1978).

Culshaw, B.

B. Culshaw et al., in Annual Review of the Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering (University College London, October1978), p. 22.

Dardy, H. D.

J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, Appl. Opt. 17, 1761 (1977).
[Crossref]

J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1302 (1977).
[Crossref]

Feynmann, R. P.

R. P. Feynmann, Lectures on Physics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1963), Vol. 1.

Fields, J. N.

J. N. Fields et al., in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper WD3.

Satyshur, M. P.

E. F. Carome, M. P. Satyshur, ONR Technical Report PH 78-2 (1978).

Shajenko, P.

P. Shajenko, U.S. Patent4,115,753 (1979).

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Introduction to Optical Electronics (Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York, 1971).

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, Appl. Opt. 17, 1761 (1977).
[Crossref]

J. A. Bucaro, E. F. Carome, Appl. Opt. 17, 330 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1302 (1977).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

L. M. Brekhovskikh, Waves in Layered Media (Academic, New York, 1960).

R. P. Feynmann, Lectures on Physics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1963), Vol. 1.

A. Yariv, Introduction to Optical Electronics (Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York, 1971).

J. N. Fields et al., in Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979), paper WD3.

E. F. Carome, M. P. Satyshur, ONR Technical Report PH 78-2 (1978).

B. Culshaw et al., in Annual Review of the Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering (University College London, October1978), p. 22.

P. Shajenko, U.S. Patent4,115,753 (1979).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Light coupled between two multimode optical fibers via frustrated total internal reflection.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relative intensity vs fiber gap for 85-μm core, 0.02-N.A. multimode optical fiber for various fiber-cut angles.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of FTIR optical hydrophone.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Assembled FTIR optical hydrophone in test tank.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setup.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Theoretical and measured relative intensity vs vertical fiber displacement for FTIR optical hydrophone.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

FTIR hydrophone minimum detectable pressure vs frequency with predicted behavior using (A) theoretical sensitivity vertical fiber displacement and (B) measured sensitivity to vertical fiber displacement.

Equations (18)

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T = 1 - ( z 2 + δ 2 ) 2 [ ( z 2 - δ 2 ) 2 coth 2 ( β / 2 ) ] - 1 ,
β = ( 4 π x g λ ) ( n 2 sin 2 θ - 1 ) 1 / 2 ,
z = 1 / ( n cos θ ) ,
θ = - ( n 2 sin 2 θ - 1 ) - 1 / 2 ,
z = cos θ / n ,
δ = ( n 2 sin 2 θ - 1 ) 1 / 2 .
χ = A cos ( ω t - k x ) ,
Δ ρ = - ρ 0 χ x ,
Δ P = c 2 Δ ρ ,
Δ P = 2 π f ρ 0 c χ ,
SNR = 2 P 0 2 ( e η / h ν ) 2 P 0 ( 3 e 2 η Δ ν / h ν ) + P B ( 3 e 2 η Δ ν / h ν ) + 2 e i d Δ ν = 4 k B T Δ ν / R L ,
P 0 = N s / 2 N 0 + ( 1 / 2 N 0 ) ( N s 2 + 4 N 0 N T ) 1 / 2 ,
N T = 3 e 2 η Δ ν P B / h ν + 2 e i d Δ ν + 4 k B T Δ ν / R L ,
N s = 3 e 2 η Δ ν / h ν ,
N 0 = 2 e 2 η 2 / h 2 ν 2 .
R = I - 1 [ ( d I ) / ( d x g ) ] ,
Δ I = I R Δ x g = I R Δ x sin θ ,
Δ P = ( 2 π P 0 ρ 0 c / I R sin θ ) f .

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