Abstract

Prism or grating couplers are used to couple out guided modes propagating in optical waveguides. The directions of the beams propagating out of the guided medium are evaluated, in general, with the intent to assess the effect of the coupler on the propagation direction. In particular, the results are applied for the determination of m-line curvatures and beam deflectors. It is interesting to point out that deflections in a direction lateral to the coupling structure depend only on the relative effective index of refraction of the guided mode and that of the surrounding medium and are not affected by the coupler itself.

© 1979 Optical Society of America

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