Abstract

A portable multipass cell is described in which optical transmittance and scattering measurements are made simultaneously on the same volume of aerosol. The cell is filled with ambient aerosol in which the dispersed phase has been concentrated centrifugally by more than 1 order of magnitude. The cell was tested on board a ship for a wide variety of sea and atmospheric conditions. Measurement errors were identified and evaluated. The mean resolution of the transmittances was ±0.16%, and the mean resolution of the scattering coefficients was ±5 × 10−6 m−1. Their combination gives the bulk single scattering albedo, which was resolved by ±0.1 for atmospheres with a visual range of ≈50 km and by rapidly increasing accuracy for shorter ranges. Concentrating the dispersed phase was not essential for the scattering measurements and, with achievable improvements in the cell, would not be necessary for the transmittance measurements.

© 1979 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
  2. A. Venkatram, R. Viskanta, J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1918 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  3. P. B. Russel, R. D. Hake, J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 163 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. B. Pollack, O. W. Toon, A. Summers, W. Van Camp, B. Baldwin, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 247 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  5. B. M. Herman, S. R. Browning, J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 1430 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. W. Fenn, in Handbook On Aerosols, R. Dennis, Ed. (NTIS Report TID-26608, Springfield, Va., 1976), p. 66.
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    [Crossref]
  8. J. D. Lindberg, L. S. Laude, Appl. Opt. 13, 1923 (1974).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. C. I. Lin, M. Baker, R. J. Charlson, Appl. Opt. 12, 1356 (1973).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. K. Fisher, Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 43, 244 (1970).
  11. F. Volz, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 1017 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  12. G. W. Grams, I. H. Blifford, D. A. Gillette, P. R. Russell, J. Atmos. Sci. 13, 459 (1974).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  17. K. Ya. Kondratyev, O. B. Vassilyev, V. S. Grishechkin, L. S. Ivlev, Appl. Opt. 13, 478 (1974).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  32. H. E. Gerber, “Feasibility of Shipboard Laser-Attenuation Measurements with a Portable Transmissometer,” Naval Research Laboratory Report 8290, February, 1979, unpublished.
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1978 (4)

1977 (4)

R. W. Terhune, J. E. Anderson, Opt. Lett. 1, 70 (1977).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Venkatram, R. Viskanta, J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1918 (1977).
[Crossref]

P. B. Russel, R. D. Hake, J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 163 (1977).
[Crossref]

G. Hänel, R. Dlugi, Tellus 29, 75 (1977).
[Crossref]

1976 (2)

J. B. Pollack, O. W. Toon, A. Summers, W. Van Camp, B. Baldwin, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 247 (1976).
[Crossref]

S. A. Schleusener, J. D. Lindberg, K. O. White, R. L. Johnson, Appl. Opt. 15, 2546 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1975 (2)

B. M. Herman, S. R. Browning, J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 1430 (1975).
[Crossref]

B. M. Herman, S. R. Browning, J. J. De Luisi, J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 918 (1975).
[Crossref]

1974 (4)

1973 (3)

1972 (3)

D. S. Ensor, R. J. Charlson, N. C. Ahlquist, K. T. Whitby, R. B. Husar, B. Y. H. Liu, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 39, 242 (1972).
[Crossref]

F. Volz, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 1017 (1972).
[Crossref]

D. T. Phillips, P. J. Wyatt, Appl. Opt. 11, 2082 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

B. M. Herman, S. R. Browning, J. A. Reagan, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 763 (1971).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

K. Fisher, Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 43, 244 (1970).

1967 (2)

R. J. Charlson, H. Horvath, R. F. Pueschel, Atmos. Environ. 1, 469 (1967).
[Crossref]

V. E. Zuev, M. V. Kabanov, B. A. Savel’ev, Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 3, 724 (1967).

1966 (1)

G. D. Robinson, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 92, 263 (1966).
[Crossref]

1949 (1)

R. G. Beutell, A. W. Brewer, J. Sci. Instrum. 26, 357 (1949).
[Crossref]

Ahlquist, N. C.

D. S. Ensor, R. J. Charlson, N. C. Ahlquist, K. T. Whitby, R. B. Husar, B. Y. H. Liu, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 39, 242 (1972).
[Crossref]

Anderson, J. E.

Baker, M.

Baldwin, B.

J. B. Pollack, O. W. Toon, A. Summers, W. Van Camp, B. Baldwin, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 247 (1976).
[Crossref]

Ballik, E. A.

Beutell, R. G.

R. G. Beutell, A. W. Brewer, J. Sci. Instrum. 26, 357 (1949).
[Crossref]

Blifford, I. H.

G. W. Grams, I. H. Blifford, D. A. Gillette, P. R. Russell, J. Atmos. Sci. 13, 459 (1974).

Box, M. A.

Brewer, A. W.

R. G. Beutell, A. W. Brewer, J. Sci. Instrum. 26, 357 (1949).
[Crossref]

Browning, S. R.

B. M. Herman, S. R. Browning, J. J. De Luisi, J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 918 (1975).
[Crossref]

B. M. Herman, S. R. Browning, J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 1430 (1975).
[Crossref]

B. M. Herman, S. R. Browning, J. A. Reagan, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 763 (1971).
[Crossref]

Buser, R. G.

H. E. Gerber, R. K. Stilling, R. G. Buser, R. S. Rhode, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Radiation in the Atmosphere (Garmisch-Partenkirchen, FRG, 1977), p. 97.

Charlson, R. J.

C. I. Lin, M. Baker, R. J. Charlson, Appl. Opt. 12, 1356 (1973).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Ensor, R. J. Charlson, N. C. Ahlquist, K. T. Whitby, R. B. Husar, B. Y. H. Liu, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 39, 242 (1972).
[Crossref]

R. J. Charlson, H. Horvath, R. F. Pueschel, Atmos. Environ. 1, 469 (1967).
[Crossref]

Cushing, K. M.

De Luisi, J. J.

B. M. Herman, S. R. Browning, J. J. De Luisi, J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 918 (1975).
[Crossref]

Deepak, A.

Dlugi, R.

G. Hänel, R. Dlugi, Tellus 29, 75 (1977).
[Crossref]

Drummond, A. J.

Duntley, S. Q.

S. Q. Duntley, R. W. Johnson, J. I. Gordon, “Airborne Measurements of Optical Atmospheric Properties, Summary and Review II,” Scripps Institute of Oceanography Report 76–17, 1975, unpublished.

Ebersole, J. F.

J. F. Ebersole, “Experimental Investigation of Battlefield Aerosols Pertinent to High Energy Laser Propagation,” Aerodyne Research Inc., Report ARI-RR-115, December1977, unpublished.

El-Sherbiny, M.

Ensor, D. S.

D. S. Ensor, R. J. Charlson, N. C. Ahlquist, K. T. Whitby, R. B. Husar, B. Y. H. Liu, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 39, 242 (1972).
[Crossref]

Fenn, R. W.

R. W. Fenn, in Handbook On Aerosols, R. Dennis, Ed. (NTIS Report TID-26608, Springfield, Va., 1976), p. 66.

Fiocco, G.

A. Mugnai, G. Fiocco, G. Grams, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 104, 793 (1978).
[Crossref]

Fisher, K.

K. Fisher, Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 43, 244 (1970).

Garside, B. K.

Gerber, H. E.

H. E. Gerber, R. K. Stilling, R. G. Buser, R. S. Rhode, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Radiation in the Atmosphere (Garmisch-Partenkirchen, FRG, 1977), p. 97.

H. E. Gerber, “Feasibility of Shipboard Laser-Attenuation Measurements with a Portable Transmissometer,” Naval Research Laboratory Report 8290, February, 1979, unpublished.

Gillette, D. A.

G. W. Grams, I. H. Blifford, D. A. Gillette, P. R. Russell, J. Atmos. Sci. 13, 459 (1974).

Gordon, J. I.

S. Q. Duntley, R. W. Johnson, J. I. Gordon, “Airborne Measurements of Optical Atmospheric Properties, Summary and Review II,” Scripps Institute of Oceanography Report 76–17, 1975, unpublished.

Grams, G.

A. Mugnai, G. Fiocco, G. Grams, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 104, 793 (1978).
[Crossref]

Grams, G. W.

G. W. Grams, I. H. Blifford, D. A. Gillette, P. R. Russell, J. Atmos. Sci. 13, 459 (1974).

Green, A. E. S.

Grishechkin, V. S.

Hake, R. D.

P. B. Russel, R. D. Hake, J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 163 (1977).
[Crossref]

Hänel, G.

G. Hänel, R. Dlugi, Tellus 29, 75 (1977).
[Crossref]

Herman, B. M.

B. M. Herman, S. R. Browning, J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 1430 (1975).
[Crossref]

B. M. Herman, S. R. Browning, J. J. De Luisi, J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 918 (1975).
[Crossref]

R. A. Rabinoff, B. M. Herman, J. Appl. Meteorol. 12, 184 (1973).
[Crossref]

B. M. Herman, S. R. Browning, J. A. Reagan, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 763 (1971).
[Crossref]

Horvath, H.

R. J. Charlson, H. Horvath, R. F. Pueschel, Atmos. Environ. 1, 469 (1967).
[Crossref]

Husar, R. B.

D. S. Ensor, R. J. Charlson, N. C. Ahlquist, K. T. Whitby, R. B. Husar, B. Y. H. Liu, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 39, 242 (1972).
[Crossref]

Ivlev, L. S.

Johnson, R. L.

Johnson, R. W.

S. Q. Duntley, R. W. Johnson, J. I. Gordon, “Airborne Measurements of Optical Atmospheric Properties, Summary and Review II,” Scripps Institute of Oceanography Report 76–17, 1975, unpublished.

Kabanov, M. V.

V. E. Zuev, M. V. Kabanov, B. A. Savel’ev, Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 3, 724 (1967).

Kondratyev, K. Ya.

Laude, L. S.

Lin, C. I.

Lindberg, J. D.

Liu, B. Y. H.

D. S. Ensor, R. J. Charlson, N. C. Ahlquist, K. T. Whitby, R. B. Husar, B. Y. H. Liu, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 39, 242 (1972).
[Crossref]

Mann, D.

R. C. Sepucha, D. Mann, “Aerosol Attenuation in the 2–4-μm Region,” DARPA-Report RADC-TR-75-113, March1975, unpublished.

McPeters, R. D.

Mugnai, A.

A. Mugnai, G. Fiocco, G. Grams, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 104, 793 (1978).
[Crossref]

Phillips, D. T.

Pollack, J. B.

J. B. Pollack, O. W. Toon, A. Summers, W. Van Camp, B. Baldwin, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 247 (1976).
[Crossref]

Pueschel, R. F.

R. J. Charlson, H. Horvath, R. F. Pueschel, Atmos. Environ. 1, 469 (1967).
[Crossref]

Rabinoff, R. A.

R. A. Rabinoff, B. M. Herman, J. Appl. Meteorol. 12, 184 (1973).
[Crossref]

Reagan, J. A.

B. M. Herman, S. R. Browning, J. A. Reagan, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 763 (1971).
[Crossref]

Reid, J.

Rhode, R. S.

H. E. Gerber, R. K. Stilling, R. G. Buser, R. S. Rhode, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Radiation in the Atmosphere (Garmisch-Partenkirchen, FRG, 1977), p. 97.

Robinson, G. D.

Russel, P. B.

P. B. Russel, R. D. Hake, J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 163 (1977).
[Crossref]

Russell, P. R.

G. W. Grams, I. H. Blifford, D. A. Gillette, P. R. Russell, J. Atmos. Sci. 13, 459 (1974).

Savel’ev, B. A.

V. E. Zuev, M. V. Kabanov, B. A. Savel’ev, Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 3, 724 (1967).

Schleusener, S. A.

Sepucha, R. C.

R. C. Sepucha, D. Mann, “Aerosol Attenuation in the 2–4-μm Region,” DARPA-Report RADC-TR-75-113, March1975, unpublished.

Shewchun, J.

Stilling, R. K.

H. E. Gerber, R. K. Stilling, R. G. Buser, R. S. Rhode, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Radiation in the Atmosphere (Garmisch-Partenkirchen, FRG, 1977), p. 97.

Summers, A.

J. B. Pollack, O. W. Toon, A. Summers, W. Van Camp, B. Baldwin, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 247 (1976).
[Crossref]

Terhune, R. W.

Toon, O. W.

J. B. Pollack, O. W. Toon, A. Summers, W. Van Camp, B. Baldwin, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 247 (1976).
[Crossref]

Van Camp, W.

J. B. Pollack, O. W. Toon, A. Summers, W. Van Camp, B. Baldwin, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 247 (1976).
[Crossref]

Vassilyev, O. B.

Venkatram, A.

A. Venkatram, R. Viskanta, J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1918 (1977).
[Crossref]

Viskanta, R.

A. Venkatram, R. Viskanta, J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1918 (1977).
[Crossref]

Volz, F.

F. Volz, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 1017 (1972).
[Crossref]

Ward, G.

Whitby, K. T.

D. S. Ensor, R. J. Charlson, N. C. Ahlquist, K. T. Whitby, R. B. Husar, B. Y. H. Liu, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 39, 242 (1972).
[Crossref]

White, K. O.

Wyatt, P. J.

Zuev, V. E.

V. E. Zuev, M. V. Kabanov, B. A. Savel’ev, Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 3, 724 (1967).

Appl. Opt. (10)

Atmos. Environ. (1)

R. J. Charlson, H. Horvath, R. F. Pueschel, Atmos. Environ. 1, 469 (1967).
[Crossref]

Beitr. Phys. Atmos. (1)

K. Fisher, Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 43, 244 (1970).

Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. (1)

V. E. Zuev, M. V. Kabanov, B. A. Savel’ev, Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 3, 724 (1967).

J. Appl. Meteorol. (2)

R. A. Rabinoff, B. M. Herman, J. Appl. Meteorol. 12, 184 (1973).
[Crossref]

J. B. Pollack, O. W. Toon, A. Summers, W. Van Camp, B. Baldwin, J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 247 (1976).
[Crossref]

J. Atmos. Sci. (6)

B. M. Herman, S. R. Browning, J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 1430 (1975).
[Crossref]

A. Venkatram, R. Viskanta, J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1918 (1977).
[Crossref]

P. B. Russel, R. D. Hake, J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 163 (1977).
[Crossref]

B. M. Herman, S. R. Browning, J. A. Reagan, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 763 (1971).
[Crossref]

B. M. Herman, S. R. Browning, J. J. De Luisi, J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 918 (1975).
[Crossref]

G. W. Grams, I. H. Blifford, D. A. Gillette, P. R. Russell, J. Atmos. Sci. 13, 459 (1974).

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

D. S. Ensor, R. J. Charlson, N. C. Ahlquist, K. T. Whitby, R. B. Husar, B. Y. H. Liu, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 39, 242 (1972).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

F. Volz, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 1017 (1972).
[Crossref]

J. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. G. Beutell, A. W. Brewer, J. Sci. Instrum. 26, 357 (1949).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (2)

G. D. Robinson, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 92, 263 (1966).
[Crossref]

A. Mugnai, G. Fiocco, G. Grams, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 104, 793 (1978).
[Crossref]

Tellus (1)

G. Hänel, R. Dlugi, Tellus 29, 75 (1977).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

R. W. Fenn, in Handbook On Aerosols, R. Dennis, Ed. (NTIS Report TID-26608, Springfield, Va., 1976), p. 66.

S. Q. Duntley, R. W. Johnson, J. I. Gordon, “Airborne Measurements of Optical Atmospheric Properties, Summary and Review II,” Scripps Institute of Oceanography Report 76–17, 1975, unpublished.

J. F. Ebersole, “Experimental Investigation of Battlefield Aerosols Pertinent to High Energy Laser Propagation,” Aerodyne Research Inc., Report ARI-RR-115, December1977, unpublished.

R. C. Sepucha, D. Mann, “Aerosol Attenuation in the 2–4-μm Region,” DARPA-Report RADC-TR-75-113, March1975, unpublished.

H. E. Gerber, R. K. Stilling, R. G. Buser, R. S. Rhode, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Radiation in the Atmosphere (Garmisch-Partenkirchen, FRG, 1977), p. 97.

H. E. Gerber, “Feasibility of Shipboard Laser-Attenuation Measurements with a Portable Transmissometer,” Naval Research Laboratory Report 8290, February, 1979, unpublished.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the transmission and scattering cell showing the laser beam path, location of the optics, and dimensions (cm).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Block diagram of the phase-locked demultiplexer, which separates the pulses of I0 and I incident on the photosensor into analog outputs of I0 and ΔI = I0I (A = amplifier, S + H = sample and hold).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Representative samples of transmittance measurements during the naval cruise. The decrease of transmittance after several minutes coincides with the filling of the cell with concentrated ambient aerosol, and the following sharp increase in the start of flushing the cell with filtered air.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Increase of the particle concentration over ambient values at the output of the aerosol concentrator for two instrument rpm values. The horizontal lines show the width of the sizing channels in the Royco particle counter. The vertical lines are 90% confidence intervals.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A measurement of the aerosol scattering coefficient bs with the integrating nephelometer as the cell containing clean air is filled with aerosol and then is flushed with filtered air.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The 80% confidence limits of the relative particulate absorption coefficient ba/b as a function of the extinction coefficient b measured in the concentrated ambient aerosol during the cruise.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ I / I 0 = 1 - I / I 0 = 1 - exp [ - ( b s + b a ) x ] .
F = ( b s I 0 S ) / ( 2 π h ) ,
F = b s S 2 π ( I 1 + I 2 2 h 1 + I 3 + I 4 2 h 2 + + I 19 + I 20 2 h 10 ) ,
I i + 1 / I i = exp [ - b x ( i + 1 ) / 2 ] ,             i = 1 , 3 , 5 , , 19 ;
I i + 1 = I i R ,             i = 2 , 4 , 6 , , 18 ,
h i + 1 ( cm ) = 2.684 + 1.732 i ,             i = 0 , 1 , 2 , , 9 ;
F c = b s c S I 1 2 π i = 1 10 R i - 1 h i ,
F = b s F c i = 1 10 R i - 1 h i { [ exp ( - b j = 0 i - 1 x j ) ] [ 1 + exp ( - b x i ] } 2 b s c i = 1 10 R i - 1 h i ,

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