Abstract

Acoustically induced optical phase modulation has been measured in single-mode fibers over the acoustic frequency range of 100–1400 Hz. These results are compared to the predictions of a simple strain-optical model. An order of magnitude increase in sensitivity was found for plastic coated fibers.

© 1979 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, Appl. Opt. 16, 1761 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1302 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. H. Cole, R. L. Johnson, P. G. Bhuta, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1136 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Culshaw, D. E. N. Davies, S. A. Kingsley, Electron. Lett. 13, 760 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. A. Bucaro, E. F. Carome, Appl. Opt. 17, 330 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. This is a type G19 calibrator supplied by NRL, Underwater Sound Reference Division, Orlando, Fla. 32806.
  7. R. J. Roark, W. C. Young, Formulas for Stress and Strain (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1975).
  8. J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Oxford U. P., London, 1957).
  9. S. Kingsley, Electron. Lett. 11, 453 (1975).
    [CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1977 (4)

J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, Appl. Opt. 16, 1761 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1302 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Cole, R. L. Johnson, P. G. Bhuta, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1136 (1977).
[CrossRef]

B. Culshaw, D. E. N. Davies, S. A. Kingsley, Electron. Lett. 13, 760 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

S. Kingsley, Electron. Lett. 11, 453 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Bhuta, P. G.

J. H. Cole, R. L. Johnson, P. G. Bhuta, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1136 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bucaro, J. A.

Carome, E. F.

Cole, J. H.

J. H. Cole, R. L. Johnson, P. G. Bhuta, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1136 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Culshaw, B.

B. Culshaw, D. E. N. Davies, S. A. Kingsley, Electron. Lett. 13, 760 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Dardy, H. D.

J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1302 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, Appl. Opt. 16, 1761 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davies, D. E. N.

B. Culshaw, D. E. N. Davies, S. A. Kingsley, Electron. Lett. 13, 760 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, R. L.

J. H. Cole, R. L. Johnson, P. G. Bhuta, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1136 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kingsley, S.

S. Kingsley, Electron. Lett. 11, 453 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Kingsley, S. A.

B. Culshaw, D. E. N. Davies, S. A. Kingsley, Electron. Lett. 13, 760 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Nye, J. F.

J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Oxford U. P., London, 1957).

Roark, R. J.

R. J. Roark, W. C. Young, Formulas for Stress and Strain (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1975).

Young, W. C.

R. J. Roark, W. C. Young, Formulas for Stress and Strain (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1975).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (2)

B. Culshaw, D. E. N. Davies, S. A. Kingsley, Electron. Lett. 13, 760 (1977).
[CrossRef]

S. Kingsley, Electron. Lett. 11, 453 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (2)

J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1302 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Cole, R. L. Johnson, P. G. Bhuta, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 1136 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

This is a type G19 calibrator supplied by NRL, Underwater Sound Reference Division, Orlando, Fla. 32806.

R. J. Roark, W. C. Young, Formulas for Stress and Strain (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1975).

J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Oxford U. P., London, 1957).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement used to measure pressure induced optical phase modulation in an optical fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Pressure induced optical phase retardation measured in 3-m spool of: ×, ITT single-mode glass fiber waveguide; ●, FCI single-mode glass fiber waveguide; ○, plastic coated ITT single-mode glass fiber waveguide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Minimum detectable pressure vs frequency for H56 piezoelectric hydrophone, for four lengths of plastic coated ITT fiber for quantum limited operation, and for the human ear (pure tone at entrance to external ear canal). The curves for the fiber and H56 are for 1-Hz bandwidths.

Equations (7)

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ϕ ( t ) = [ ( d n d P ) + n l ( d l d P ) ] k l P sin ( ω s t ) ,
d ϕ / d t = ω s ϕ [ ( ϕ / 2 ) - t ] .
V Dis ( t ) = k l ω s c μ P sin [ ( π / 2 ) - ω s t ] ,
r = - [ P ( 1 - σ ) ] / E ,
a = 2 σ P / E .
μ = d n d P + n l d l d P = n 3 2 ( P 11 + P 12 ) ( 1 - σ ) E - n 3 P 12 σ E + 2 n σ E .
P min = [ ( B h V / 2 π k q O p o 10 - α l ) 1 / 2 ] / l μ ,

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