Abstract

A miniature LiNdP4O12 laser with a compact resonator is reported. Stable cw laser operation at 1.047 μm was obtained in a single-longitudinal and single-transverse mode by coaxial pumping with an argon laser (5145 Å). Threshold pump power was 7.2 mW, and the maximum output power in the single-mode operation was 4 mW. The conditions for single-mode operation were considered in detail experimentally and theoretically.

© 1979 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Yamada, K. Otsuka, J. Nakano, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5096 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  2. K. Otsuka, T. Yamada, M. Saruwatari, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 330 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. Singh, R. G. Smith, L. G. Uitert, Phys. Rev. B 10, 2566 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  4. K. Kubodera, J. Nakano, K. Otsuka, S. Miyazawa, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 65 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Saruwatari, T. Kimura, K. Otsuka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 291 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  6. K. Otsuka, T. Yamada, Proc. IEEE 63, 1621 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  7. K. Otsuka, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 49 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  8. K. Otsuka, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 520 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  9. K. Kubodera, K. Otsuka, J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).
  10. K. Kurata, Y. Ono, M. Morioka, K. Ito, M. Mori, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 525 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. Stone, C. A. Burrus, A. G. Dentai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 37 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  12. C. A. Burrus, J. Stone, A. G. Dentai, Electron. Lett. 12, 600 (1976).
    [Crossref]

1978 (2)

K. Kubodera, J. Nakano, K. Otsuka, S. Miyazawa, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 65 (1978).
[Crossref]

K. Otsuka, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 49 (1978).
[Crossref]

1977 (2)

K. Otsuka, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 520 (1977).
[Crossref]

K. Kurata, Y. Ono, M. Morioka, K. Ito, M. Mori, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 525 (1977).
[Crossref]

1976 (3)

J. Stone, C. A. Burrus, A. G. Dentai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 37 (1976).
[Crossref]

C. A. Burrus, J. Stone, A. G. Dentai, Electron. Lett. 12, 600 (1976).
[Crossref]

M. Saruwatari, T. Kimura, K. Otsuka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 291 (1976).
[Crossref]

1975 (2)

K. Otsuka, T. Yamada, Proc. IEEE 63, 1621 (1975).
[Crossref]

K. Otsuka, T. Yamada, M. Saruwatari, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 330 (1975).
[Crossref]

1974 (2)

S. Singh, R. G. Smith, L. G. Uitert, Phys. Rev. B 10, 2566 (1974).
[Crossref]

T. Yamada, K. Otsuka, J. Nakano, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5096 (1974).
[Crossref]

Burrus, C. A.

J. Stone, C. A. Burrus, A. G. Dentai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 37 (1976).
[Crossref]

C. A. Burrus, J. Stone, A. G. Dentai, Electron. Lett. 12, 600 (1976).
[Crossref]

Dentai, A. G.

C. A. Burrus, J. Stone, A. G. Dentai, Electron. Lett. 12, 600 (1976).
[Crossref]

J. Stone, C. A. Burrus, A. G. Dentai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 37 (1976).
[Crossref]

Ito, K.

K. Kurata, Y. Ono, M. Morioka, K. Ito, M. Mori, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 525 (1977).
[Crossref]

Kimura, T.

M. Saruwatari, T. Kimura, K. Otsuka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 291 (1976).
[Crossref]

K. Otsuka, T. Yamada, M. Saruwatari, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 330 (1975).
[Crossref]

Kubodera, K.

K. Kubodera, J. Nakano, K. Otsuka, S. Miyazawa, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 65 (1978).
[Crossref]

K. Kubodera, K. Otsuka, J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).

Kurata, K.

K. Kurata, Y. Ono, M. Morioka, K. Ito, M. Mori, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 525 (1977).
[Crossref]

Miyazawa, S.

K. Kubodera, J. Nakano, K. Otsuka, S. Miyazawa, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 65 (1978).
[Crossref]

Mori, M.

K. Kurata, Y. Ono, M. Morioka, K. Ito, M. Mori, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 525 (1977).
[Crossref]

Morioka, M.

K. Kurata, Y. Ono, M. Morioka, K. Ito, M. Mori, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 525 (1977).
[Crossref]

Nakano, J.

K. Kubodera, J. Nakano, K. Otsuka, S. Miyazawa, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 65 (1978).
[Crossref]

T. Yamada, K. Otsuka, J. Nakano, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5096 (1974).
[Crossref]

Ono, Y.

K. Kurata, Y. Ono, M. Morioka, K. Ito, M. Mori, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 525 (1977).
[Crossref]

Otsuka, K.

K. Otsuka, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 49 (1978).
[Crossref]

K. Kubodera, J. Nakano, K. Otsuka, S. Miyazawa, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 65 (1978).
[Crossref]

K. Otsuka, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 520 (1977).
[Crossref]

M. Saruwatari, T. Kimura, K. Otsuka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 291 (1976).
[Crossref]

K. Otsuka, T. Yamada, Proc. IEEE 63, 1621 (1975).
[Crossref]

K. Otsuka, T. Yamada, M. Saruwatari, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 330 (1975).
[Crossref]

T. Yamada, K. Otsuka, J. Nakano, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5096 (1974).
[Crossref]

K. Kubodera, K. Otsuka, J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).

Saruwatari, M.

M. Saruwatari, T. Kimura, K. Otsuka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 291 (1976).
[Crossref]

K. Otsuka, T. Yamada, M. Saruwatari, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 330 (1975).
[Crossref]

Singh, S.

S. Singh, R. G. Smith, L. G. Uitert, Phys. Rev. B 10, 2566 (1974).
[Crossref]

Smith, R. G.

S. Singh, R. G. Smith, L. G. Uitert, Phys. Rev. B 10, 2566 (1974).
[Crossref]

Stone, J.

J. Stone, C. A. Burrus, A. G. Dentai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 37 (1976).
[Crossref]

C. A. Burrus, J. Stone, A. G. Dentai, Electron. Lett. 12, 600 (1976).
[Crossref]

Uitert, L. G.

S. Singh, R. G. Smith, L. G. Uitert, Phys. Rev. B 10, 2566 (1974).
[Crossref]

Yamada, T.

K. Otsuka, T. Yamada, M. Saruwatari, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 330 (1975).
[Crossref]

K. Otsuka, T. Yamada, Proc. IEEE 63, 1621 (1975).
[Crossref]

T. Yamada, K. Otsuka, J. Nakano, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5096 (1974).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Saruwatari, T. Kimura, K. Otsuka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 291 (1976).
[Crossref]

J. Stone, C. A. Burrus, A. G. Dentai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 37 (1976).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

C. A. Burrus, J. Stone, A. G. Dentai, Electron. Lett. 12, 600 (1976).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

K. Kurata, Y. Ono, M. Morioka, K. Ito, M. Mori, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 525 (1977).
[Crossref]

K. Otsuka, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 49 (1978).
[Crossref]

K. Otsuka, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 520 (1977).
[Crossref]

K. Otsuka, T. Yamada, M. Saruwatari, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 330 (1975).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

T. Yamada, K. Otsuka, J. Nakano, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 5096 (1974).
[Crossref]

K. Kubodera, J. Nakano, K. Otsuka, S. Miyazawa, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 65 (1978).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. Singh, R. G. Smith, L. G. Uitert, Phys. Rev. B 10, 2566 (1974).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE (1)

K. Otsuka, T. Yamada, Proc. IEEE 63, 1621 (1975).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

K. Kubodera, K. Otsuka, J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

LNP compact laser: (a) photograph; (b) cross-sectional view and experimental setup for cw operation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output power Pout at 1.047 μm through mirror M2 as a function of pump power Pin at 5145 Å impinged on M1. Mirror reflectivities are r1 = 99.9% and r2 = 98.6%.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Oscillating spectra at various pump powers. wcPin/Pth is relative pump power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Far-field patterns of the output beam at distance d = 260 mm from M2. Resolution is 50 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Continuous wave output waveforms at various pump powers. Time scale is 10 μsec/div: (a) wc = 1.3, Pout = 0.1 mW; (b) wc = 1.9, Pout = 0.3 mW; (c) wc = 2.7, Pout = 0.6 mW.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relaxation oscillation frequency fr as a function of relative excess pump power wc − 1. Solid circles: experimental results measured from the cw output waveforms; solid line: theoretical result assuming τc = 1.19 nsec.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Oscillating spectra near 1.047 μm at Pout = 4 mW after different manipulations of the crystal position.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Continuous wave output waveforms in two-longitudinal-mode operation shown in Fig. 7(a). Time scale is 10 msec/div.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Output waveforms at the onset of the laser oscillation in two-longitudinal-mode operation when the pump beam was chopped to pulses. Time scale is 10 μsec/div.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Transverse modes and their threshold values as a function of pump-beam misalignment Δx.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Calculated threshold pump power Pth impinged on M1 as a function of LED pump-beam spot size wp averaged over the crystal length. Round-trip cavity loss was assumed to be Lc,1 = 3.9% (solid line) and 1.9% (dashed line). wl = 33.9 μm, ηa = 52%.

Equations (19)

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R 2 = ( n 2 n 1 l 1 + l 2 ) { 1 + [ n 2 π w 0 2 λ 0 ( n 2 n 1 l 1 + l 2 ) ] 2 } ,
w 2 = w 0 { 1 + [ λ 0 ( n 2 n 1 l 1 + l 2 ) n 2 π w 0 2 ] 2 } 1 / 2 ,
η a = T M 1 ( 1 - R LNP ) [ 1 - exp ( - α p l 1 ) ] ,
f r = ( 1 / 2 π ) [ ( w c - 1 ) / τ f τ c ] 1 / 2 ,
τ c = 2 ( n 1 l 1 + n 2 l 2 ) / c 0 L c ,
J i ( S 1 S 2 ) cavity s 0 , i ( x y z ) r 0 ( x y z ) 1 + j S j s 0 , j ( x y z ) / I 0 d v = I 0 γ i / R ,
R = η a P in / h ν p ,
I 0 n 1 / c 0 σ l τ f ,
γ i c 0 L c , i / 2 l op ,
cavity s 0 , i ( x y z ) d v = 1 ,
crystal r 0 ( x y z ) d v = 1 ,
s 0 , 1 ( x y z ) = 2 n 1 π w l 2 l op exp [ - 2 ( x 2 + y 2 ) w l 2 ]             ( for TEM 00 mode ) ,
s 0 , 2 ( x y z ) = 8 n 1 π w l 4 l op x 2 exp [ - 2 ( x 2 + y 2 ) w l 2 ]             ( for TEM 10 mode ) ,
r 0 ( x y z ) = 2 α p π w p 2 ( 1 - exp ( - α p l 1 ) ] × exp [ - 2 ( x - Δ x ) 2 w p 2 - 2 y 2 w p 2 - α p z ] ,
P th ( TEM 00 ) = n 1 L c , 1 h ν p 2 l op σ l τ f η a [ cavity s 0 , 1 ( x y z ) r 0 ( x y z ) d v ] - 1 = L c , 1 h ν p 2 σ l τ f η a π ( w l 2 + w p 2 ) 2 exp [ 2 Δ x 2 / w l 2 + w p 2 ) ] .
P th ( TEM 10 ) = L c , 2 h ν p 2 σ l τ f η a π ( w l 2 + w p 2 ) 3 2 ( w p 4 + w p 2 w l 2 + 4 w l 2 Δ x 2 ) × exp [ 2 Δ x 2 / w l 2 + w p 2 ) ] .
J 1 ( S 1 0 0 ) = I 0 γ 1 / R th , 2 , J 2 ( S 1 0 0 ) = I 0 γ 2 / R th , 2 ,
J 1 ( 0 S 2 0 ) = I 0 γ 1 / R th , 1 , J 2 ( 0 S 2 0 ) = I 0 γ 2 / R th , 1 .
S e 1 - r 2 L c , 1 λ p λ 0 η a = 14 %             ( for r 2 = 986 % ) ,

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