Abstract

We have developed a modified Penning discharge lamp for use in the soft x-ray and extreme uv spectral regions. The source produces a number of intense lines in the 50–300-Å range and can be operated for substantial periods of time at high output levels before refurbishment is required. Refurbishment of this source, when required, is very easily effected.

© 1979 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. Paresce, “Astrophysics in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Physics and Astrophysics from Spacelab, R. Ruffini, P. L. Bernacca, Eds. (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1977).
  2. J. Freeman, F. Paresce, S. Bowyer, M. Lampton, R. Stern, B. Margon, Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 215, L83 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Paresce, S. Bowyer, S. Kumar, J. Geophys. Res. 79, 174 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. L. Henke, M. L. Tester, Adv. X-ray Anal. 18, 76 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Paresce, S. Kumar, C. S. Bowyer, Appl. Opt. 10, 1904 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. M. Penning, Physica 4, 71 (1937).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. D. Deslattes, T. J. Peterson, D. H. Tamboulian, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 302 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. L. Hartman, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 4, Supp. 1, 532 (1965).
  9. E. S. Warden, H. W. Moos, Appl. Opt. 16, 1902 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Carter, J. S. Colligon, Ion Bombardment of Solids (American Elsevier, New York, 1968, pp. 310–353.
  11. J. E. Mack, F. Paresce, S. Bowyer, Appl. Opt. 15, 861 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. L. Kelly, L. J. Palumbo, Atomic and Ionic Emission Lines Below 2000 Angstroms (U.S. GPO, Washington, D. C., 1973), NRL Report 7599.

1977 (2)

J. Freeman, F. Paresce, S. Bowyer, M. Lampton, R. Stern, B. Margon, Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 215, L83 (1977).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Warden, H. W. Moos, Appl. Opt. 16, 1902 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

1975 (1)

B. L. Henke, M. L. Tester, Adv. X-ray Anal. 18, 76 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

F. Paresce, S. Bowyer, S. Kumar, J. Geophys. Res. 79, 174 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

1965 (1)

P. L. Hartman, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 4, Supp. 1, 532 (1965).

1963 (1)

1937 (1)

E. M. Penning, Physica 4, 71 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Bowyer, C. S.

Bowyer, S.

J. Freeman, F. Paresce, S. Bowyer, M. Lampton, R. Stern, B. Margon, Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 215, L83 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Mack, F. Paresce, S. Bowyer, Appl. Opt. 15, 861 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Paresce, S. Bowyer, S. Kumar, J. Geophys. Res. 79, 174 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Carter, G.

G. Carter, J. S. Colligon, Ion Bombardment of Solids (American Elsevier, New York, 1968, pp. 310–353.

Colligon, J. S.

G. Carter, J. S. Colligon, Ion Bombardment of Solids (American Elsevier, New York, 1968, pp. 310–353.

Deslattes, R. D.

Freeman, J.

J. Freeman, F. Paresce, S. Bowyer, M. Lampton, R. Stern, B. Margon, Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 215, L83 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hartman, P. L.

P. L. Hartman, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 4, Supp. 1, 532 (1965).

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, M. L. Tester, Adv. X-ray Anal. 18, 76 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, R. L.

R. L. Kelly, L. J. Palumbo, Atomic and Ionic Emission Lines Below 2000 Angstroms (U.S. GPO, Washington, D. C., 1973), NRL Report 7599.

Kumar, S.

F. Paresce, S. Bowyer, S. Kumar, J. Geophys. Res. 79, 174 (1974).
[CrossRef]

F. Paresce, S. Kumar, C. S. Bowyer, Appl. Opt. 10, 1904 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lampton, M.

J. Freeman, F. Paresce, S. Bowyer, M. Lampton, R. Stern, B. Margon, Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 215, L83 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Mack, J. E.

Margon, B.

J. Freeman, F. Paresce, S. Bowyer, M. Lampton, R. Stern, B. Margon, Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 215, L83 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Moos, H. W.

Palumbo, L. J.

R. L. Kelly, L. J. Palumbo, Atomic and Ionic Emission Lines Below 2000 Angstroms (U.S. GPO, Washington, D. C., 1973), NRL Report 7599.

Paresce, F.

J. Freeman, F. Paresce, S. Bowyer, M. Lampton, R. Stern, B. Margon, Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 215, L83 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Mack, F. Paresce, S. Bowyer, Appl. Opt. 15, 861 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Paresce, S. Bowyer, S. Kumar, J. Geophys. Res. 79, 174 (1974).
[CrossRef]

F. Paresce, S. Kumar, C. S. Bowyer, Appl. Opt. 10, 1904 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Paresce, “Astrophysics in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Physics and Astrophysics from Spacelab, R. Ruffini, P. L. Bernacca, Eds. (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1977).

Penning, E. M.

E. M. Penning, Physica 4, 71 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, T. J.

Stern, R.

J. Freeman, F. Paresce, S. Bowyer, M. Lampton, R. Stern, B. Margon, Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 215, L83 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Tamboulian, D. H.

Tester, M. L.

B. L. Henke, M. L. Tester, Adv. X-ray Anal. 18, 76 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Warden, E. S.

Adv. X-ray Anal. (1)

B. L. Henke, M. L. Tester, Adv. X-ray Anal. 18, 76 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Astrophys. J. (Lett.) (1)

J. Freeman, F. Paresce, S. Bowyer, M. Lampton, R. Stern, B. Margon, Astrophys. J. (Lett.) 215, L83 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

F. Paresce, S. Bowyer, S. Kumar, J. Geophys. Res. 79, 174 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. L. Hartman, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 4, Supp. 1, 532 (1965).

Physica (1)

E. M. Penning, Physica 4, 71 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

G. Carter, J. S. Colligon, Ion Bombardment of Solids (American Elsevier, New York, 1968, pp. 310–353.

R. L. Kelly, L. J. Palumbo, Atomic and Ionic Emission Lines Below 2000 Angstroms (U.S. GPO, Washington, D. C., 1973), NRL Report 7599.

F. Paresce, “Astrophysics in the Extreme Ultraviolet,” Physics and Astrophysics from Spacelab, R. Ruffini, P. L. Bernacca, Eds. (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1977).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of source. Gas inlet is normal to the plane of the diagram. The main body of the source has cylindrical symmetry about a vertical centerline.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Picture of the fully assembled source.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectrum of magnesium and neon. Proportional counter detector, 700-mA discharge current, 100-μm slits.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectrum of aluminum and neon. Channel electron multiplier detector, 500-mA discharge current, 1.5 kV, 6.5 × 10−5 Torr, 40-μm slits.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Spectrum produced by aluminum cathodes in a neon discharge. 500-mA discharge current, 1.87 kV, 1.0 × 10−4 Torr, 100-μm slits, proportional counter detector. (b) Spectrum produced by aluminum cathodes in an argon discharge. 500-mA discharge current, 2.26 kV, 8.0 × 10−5 Torr, 100-μm slits, proportional counter detector.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectrum produced by aluminum cathodes in an argon discharge. 6.5 × 10−5 Torr, 100-μm slits, proportional counter detector.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectrum produced by oxidized aluminum cathodes in an argon discharge. 500-mA discharge current, 1.03 kV, 9.5 × 10−5 Torr, 100-μm slits, channel electron multiplier detector.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Line intensity vs discharge current of Al iv 161-Å lines at 7.2 × 10−5 Torr (neon discharge) and of the Ne iv 204-Å line at 3.0 × 10−5 Torr. (b) Discharge current vs applied voltage with aluminum cathodes in a neon discharge at 7.2 × 10−5 Torr, with a 1.25 kΩ ballast resistor.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Normalized line intensities vs pressure of aluminum cathodes in a neon discharge. 500-mA discharge current.

Tables (1)

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Table I Summary of Cathode Materials and Discharge Gases for use in a Penning Source

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