Abstract

The dependence of the coupling strength of titanium-diffused lithium niobate directional couplers upon fabrication parameters and guided wavelength has been investigated. Measurements of the coupling strength as a function of interguide separation have been made at He–Ne, GaAs, and Nd:YAG wavelengths. To good approximation, the coupling strength depends exponentially upon guide separation. Rather strong dependence upon the metal thickness diffused and the guided wavelength were observed. Good comparison was obtained with theoretical results calculated using an effective index method. Transfer lengths as short as 200 μm have been obtained. Fabrication parameters for which the coupling strength for the TE and TM modes are equal were determined.

© 1979 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. V. Schmidt, I. P. Kaminow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 458 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. V. Schmidt, H. Kogelnik, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 503 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. B. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. M. Roy, B. Sejourne, M. Werner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 289 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. V. Schmidt, P. S. Cross, Opt. Lett. 2, 45 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. C. Alferness, R. V. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 161 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. P. Kaminow, L. W. Stulz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 62 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  7. See, for example, H. Kogelnik, in Integrated Optics, T. Tamir, Ed. (Springer, Heidelberg, 1975), (Chap. 2.).
  8. R. C. Alferness, P. S. Cross, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 843 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. A. J. Marcatili, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2071 (1969).
  10. V. Ramaswamy, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 697 (1974).
  11. G. B. Hocker, W. K. Burns, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 270 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. B. Hocker, W. K. Burns, Appl. Opt. 16, 113 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Kogelnik, R. V. Schmidt, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 396 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Findakly, Chin-Lin Chen, Appl. Opt. 17, 469 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. A. Steinberg, T. G. Giallorenzi, Appl. Opt. 15, 2440 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. F. P. Kapron, N. F. Borrelli, D. B. Keck, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 222 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. Ramaswamy, R. D. Standley, D. Sze, W. G. French, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 57, 635 (1978).
  18. R. C. Alferness, to be published.

1978 (6)

R. V. Schmidt, P. S. Cross, Opt. Lett. 2, 45 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Alferness, R. V. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 161 (1978).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow, L. W. Stulz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 62 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Alferness, P. S. Cross, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 843 (1978).
[CrossRef]

T. Findakly, Chin-Lin Chen, Appl. Opt. 17, 469 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ramaswamy, R. D. Standley, D. Sze, W. G. French, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 57, 635 (1978).

1977 (1)

1976 (3)

H. Kogelnik, R. V. Schmidt, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 396 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Steinberg, T. G. Giallorenzi, Appl. Opt. 15, 2440 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. V. Schmidt, H. Kogelnik, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 503 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. B. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. M. Roy, B. Sejourne, M. Werner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 289 (1975).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Hocker, W. K. Burns, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 270 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

R. V. Schmidt, I. P. Kaminow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 458 (1974).
[CrossRef]

V. Ramaswamy, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 697 (1974).

1972 (1)

F. P. Kapron, N. F. Borrelli, D. B. Keck, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 222 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

E. A. J. Marcatili, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2071 (1969).

Alferness, R. C.

R. C. Alferness, R. V. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 161 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Alferness, P. S. Cross, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 843 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Alferness, to be published.

Borrelli, N. F.

F. P. Kapron, N. F. Borrelli, D. B. Keck, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 222 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Burns, W. K.

G. B. Hocker, W. K. Burns, Appl. Opt. 16, 113 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. B. Hocker, W. K. Burns, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 270 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Chin-Lin

Combemale, Y.

M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. B. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. M. Roy, B. Sejourne, M. Werner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 289 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Cross, P. S.

R. V. Schmidt, P. S. Cross, Opt. Lett. 2, 45 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Alferness, P. S. Cross, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 843 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Findakly, T.

French, W. G.

V. Ramaswamy, R. D. Standley, D. Sze, W. G. French, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 57, 635 (1978).

Giallorenzi, T. G.

Hocker, G. B.

G. B. Hocker, W. K. Burns, Appl. Opt. 16, 113 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. B. Hocker, W. K. Burns, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 270 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Kaminow, I. P.

I. P. Kaminow, L. W. Stulz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 62 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Schmidt, I. P. Kaminow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 458 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Kapron, F. P.

F. P. Kapron, N. F. Borrelli, D. B. Keck, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 222 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Keck, D. B.

F. P. Kapron, N. F. Borrelli, D. B. Keck, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 222 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, R. V. Schmidt, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 396 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Schmidt, H. Kogelnik, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 503 (1976).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, H. Kogelnik, in Integrated Optics, T. Tamir, Ed. (Springer, Heidelberg, 1975), (Chap. 2.).

Marcatili, E. A. J.

E. A. J. Marcatili, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2071 (1969).

Mathieu, X.

M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. B. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. M. Roy, B. Sejourne, M. Werner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 289 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ostrowsky, D. B.

M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. B. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. M. Roy, B. Sejourne, M. Werner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 289 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Papuchon, M.

M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. B. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. M. Roy, B. Sejourne, M. Werner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 289 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ramaswamy, V.

V. Ramaswamy, R. D. Standley, D. Sze, W. G. French, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 57, 635 (1978).

V. Ramaswamy, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 697 (1974).

Reiber, L.

M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. B. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. M. Roy, B. Sejourne, M. Werner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 289 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Roy, A. M.

M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. B. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. M. Roy, B. Sejourne, M. Werner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 289 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, R. V.

R. C. Alferness, R. V. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 161 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Schmidt, P. S. Cross, Opt. Lett. 2, 45 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. V. Schmidt, H. Kogelnik, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 503 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. Kogelnik, R. V. Schmidt, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 396 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Schmidt, I. P. Kaminow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 458 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Sejourne, B.

M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. B. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. M. Roy, B. Sejourne, M. Werner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 289 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Standley, R. D.

V. Ramaswamy, R. D. Standley, D. Sze, W. G. French, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 57, 635 (1978).

Steinberg, R. A.

Stulz, L. W.

I. P. Kaminow, L. W. Stulz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 62 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sze, D.

V. Ramaswamy, R. D. Standley, D. Sze, W. G. French, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 57, 635 (1978).

Werner, M.

M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. B. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. M. Roy, B. Sejourne, M. Werner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 289 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

R. V. Schmidt, I. P. Kaminow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 458 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Schmidt, H. Kogelnik, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 503 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. B. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. M. Roy, B. Sejourne, M. Werner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 289 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Alferness, R. V. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 161 (1978).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow, L. W. Stulz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 62 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (3)

E. A. J. Marcatili, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2071 (1969).

V. Ramaswamy, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 697 (1974).

V. Ramaswamy, R. D. Standley, D. Sze, W. G. French, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 57, 635 (1978).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

R. C. Alferness, P. S. Cross, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 843 (1978).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Kapron, N. F. Borrelli, D. B. Keck, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 222 (1972).
[CrossRef]

H. Kogelnik, R. V. Schmidt, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 396 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Hocker, W. K. Burns, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 270 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

See, for example, H. Kogelnik, in Integrated Optics, T. Tamir, Ed. (Springer, Heidelberg, 1975), (Chap. 2.).

R. C. Alferness, to be published.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of direction coupler; n s is the substrate refractive index, n g the. guide index.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

sin−1η vs coupler interaction length.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transfer length vs interguide separation distance. (□) τ = 310 Å, w = 3 μm, λ = 0.633 μm; (Δ) τ = 300 Å, w = 2 μm, λ = 0.633 μm; (+) τ = 400 Å, w = 4 μm, λ = 0.83 μm; and (○) τ = 460 Å, w = 5 μm, λ = 1.06 μmm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Wavelength dependence of the transfer length with titanium metal thickness τ as a parameter.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transfer length dependence upon interguide separation distance for TE and TM modes, τ = 300 Å, w = 2 μm, and λ = 0.633 μm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Summary of Measured and Calculated Results

Equations (4)

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η = sin 2 ( κ L + 2 ϕ ) ,
l = l 0 exp ( d / γ ) ,
l 0 = π k z w ( 1 + k x 2 γ 2 ) 4 k x 2 γ ,
γ = 1 / k ( 2 n s Δ n b ) 1 / 2 ,

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