Abstract

The effects of optical feedback on the performance of Pb1−xSnxSe semiconductor lasers are reported. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate that uncontrolled optical feedback can occur from optics external to the laser cavity and that these external optical elements can result in the formation of a composite cavity. This composite cavity can sustain a number of narrow closely spaced emission modes with the spectral characteristics of these modes dependent upon the parameters of the cavity. With weak feedback, the spectral width of the amplitude envelope of the new lasing modes resembles that of the original laser mode with no optical feedback. With strongly coupled feedback the envelope of the external cavity modes substantially broadens the apparent linewidth of the laser. Results will be presented that show that these effects can be eliminated, and, moreover, they offer the potential for obtaining spectrally narrow single-mode emission from Pb–salt lasers through the use of carefully designed external cavities.

© 1979 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. H. S. Boyne, J. L. Hall, R. L. Barger, P. L. Bender, J. Ward, J. Levine, J. Fuller, Laser Applications in the Geosciences (Western Periodicals, North Hollywood, Calif., 1970), p. 215.
  3. J. Levine, J. L. Hall, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 2595 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. J. Brannon, Appl. Opt. 15, 1119 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. Tanaka, T. Kurosawa, J. Appl. Phys. 15, 2271 (1976).
  6. V. I. Little, A. C. Selden, T. Stamatakis, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1295 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, L. P. Ivanov, A. S. Logginov, M. A. Manko, K. Y. Senatorov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 392 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Ludike, E. P. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 499 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. A. Rossi, S. R. Chinn, H. Heckscher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 25 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. L. Paoli, J. E. Ripper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 744 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Weidel, Electron. Lett. 11, 436 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Paoli, J. E. Ripper, A. C. Morosini, N. B. Patel, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 525 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. Voumard, R. Salathé, H. Weber, Appl. Phys. 12, 369 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. D. Wright, J. J. Coleman, N. Holonyak, M. J. Ludowise, G. E. Stillman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 18 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. F. Butler, in Proceedings of the First European Electro-Optics Markets and Technology Conference, Geneva, 13–15 Sept. 1972IPC Science and Technology Press, (Guildford, 1973), p. 99.
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    [CrossRef]
  19. E. D. Hinkley, “Development and Application of Tunable Diode Lasers to the Detection and Quantitative Evaluation of Pollutant Gases,” Lincoln Laboratory, MIT Final Report/Contract F19628-70-C-0230/Sept.1971.
  20. K. W. Nill, F. A. Blum, A. R. Catawa, T. C. Harman, J. Nonmetals 1, 211 (1973).
  21. J. P. Sattler, G. J. Simonis, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 461 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. T. Menzies, J. S. Margolis, E. D. Hinkley, R. A. Toth, Appl. Opt. 16, 523 (1977).
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  25. D. E. Jennings, J. J. Hillman, Opt. Lett. 2, 157 (1978).
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  26. D. E. Jennings, Geophys. Res. Lett. 5, 241 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  27. E. D. Hinkley, Opto-Electronics 4, 69 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Mumma, T. Kostiak, S. Cohen, D. Buhl, P. C. Von Thuna, Nature 253, 514 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  29. C. E. Hackett, Sandia Laboratories Report SAND 77-0601 (1977).
  30. R. T. Ku, D. L. Spears, Opt. Lett. 1, 84 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. M. A. Frecking, Conference on Laser Engineering and Applications, Washington, D.C., 1–3 June, 1977.
  32. C. N. Harward, Technical Report PGSTR-AP77-63, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Va.
  33. E. Hinkley, C. Freed, Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 277 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  34. W. R. Shurcliff, Polarized Light Production and Use (Harvard U. P., Cambridge, Mass., 1962).
  35. L. J. Aplet, J. W. Carson, Appl. Opt. 3, 1038 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  36. V. J. Corcoran, Institute for Defense Analysis, Final Report IDA P-1240 (1977).
  37. S. Poultney, Sensor System Division, Perkin-Elmer, has recently observed similar phenomena in a PbSnSe laser.
  38. T. L. Paoli, J. E. Ripper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 105 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  39. J. E. Ripper, T. L. Paoli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 466 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  40. T. L. Paoli, J. E. Ripper, Phy. Rev. Lett. 22, 1085 (1969).
    [CrossRef]

1978 (5)

1977 (5)

R. T. Ku, D. L. Spears, Opt. Lett. 1, 84 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Voumard, R. Salathé, H. Weber, Appl. Phys. 12, 369 (1977).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Linden, K. W. Nill, J. F. Butler, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 720 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Sattler, G. J. Simonis, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 461 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Menzies, J. S. Margolis, E. D. Hinkley, R. A. Toth, Appl. Opt. 16, 523 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (4)

P. D. Wright, J. J. Coleman, N. Holonyak, M. J. Ludowise, G. E. Stillman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 18 (1976).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Brannon, Appl. Opt. 15, 1119 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tanaka, T. Kurosawa, J. Appl. Phys. 15, 2271 (1976).

V. I. Little, A. C. Selden, T. Stamatakis, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1295 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (3)

E. Weidel, Electron. Lett. 11, 436 (1975).
[CrossRef]

T. Paoli, J. E. Ripper, A. C. Morosini, N. B. Patel, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 525 (1975).
[CrossRef]

M. Mumma, T. Kostiak, S. Cohen, D. Buhl, P. C. Von Thuna, Nature 253, 514 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

T. L. Paoli, J. E. Ripper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 744 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (3)

J. A. Rossi, S. R. Chinn, H. Heckscher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 25 (1973).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, L. P. Ivanov, A. S. Logginov, M. A. Manko, K. Y. Senatorov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 392 (1973).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Nill, F. A. Blum, A. R. Catawa, T. C. Harman, J. Nonmetals 1, 211 (1973).

1972 (3)

R. Ludike, E. P. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 499 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Levine, J. L. Hall, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 2595 (1972).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Hinkley, Opto-Electronics 4, 69 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

J. E. Ripper, T. L. Paoli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 466 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969 (3)

T. L. Paoli, J. E. Ripper, Phy. Rev. Lett. 22, 1085 (1969).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Paoli, J. E. Ripper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 105 (1969).
[CrossRef]

E. Hinkley, C. Freed, Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 277 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

L. J. Aplet, J. W. Carson, Appl. Opt. 3, 1038 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

D. E. T. F. Ashby, D. E. Jephcott, Appl. Phys. Lett. 3, 13 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Allario, F.

Aplet, L. J.

L. J. Aplet, J. W. Carson, Appl. Opt. 3, 1038 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Ashby, D. E. T. F.

D. E. T. F. Ashby, D. E. Jephcott, Appl. Phys. Lett. 3, 13 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Bair, C. H.

Barger, R. L.

H. S. Boyne, J. L. Hall, R. L. Barger, P. L. Bender, J. Ward, J. Levine, J. Fuller, Laser Applications in the Geosciences (Western Periodicals, North Hollywood, Calif., 1970), p. 215.

Bender, P. L.

H. S. Boyne, J. L. Hall, R. L. Barger, P. L. Bender, J. Ward, J. Levine, J. Fuller, Laser Applications in the Geosciences (Western Periodicals, North Hollywood, Calif., 1970), p. 215.

Blum, F. A.

K. W. Nill, F. A. Blum, A. R. Catawa, T. C. Harman, J. Nonmetals 1, 211 (1973).

Bogatov, A. P.

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, L. P. Ivanov, A. S. Logginov, M. A. Manko, K. Y. Senatorov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 392 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Boyne, H. S.

H. S. Boyne, J. L. Hall, R. L. Barger, P. L. Bender, J. Ward, J. Levine, J. Fuller, Laser Applications in the Geosciences (Western Periodicals, North Hollywood, Calif., 1970), p. 215.

Brannon, P. J.

Brockman, J.

Buhl, D.

M. Mumma, T. Kostiak, S. Cohen, D. Buhl, P. C. Von Thuna, Nature 253, 514 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Burke, W. J.

Butler, J. F.

K. J. Linden, K. W. Nill, J. F. Butler, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 720 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Butler, in Proceedings of the First European Electro-Optics Markets and Technology Conference, Geneva, 13–15 Sept. 1972IPC Science and Technology Press, (Guildford, 1973), p. 99.

Carson, J. W.

L. J. Aplet, J. W. Carson, Appl. Opt. 3, 1038 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Catawa, A. R.

K. W. Nill, F. A. Blum, A. R. Catawa, T. C. Harman, J. Nonmetals 1, 211 (1973).

Chinn, S. R.

J. A. Rossi, S. R. Chinn, H. Heckscher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 25 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, S.

M. Mumma, T. Kostiak, S. Cohen, D. Buhl, P. C. Von Thuna, Nature 253, 514 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Coleman, J. J.

P. D. Wright, J. J. Coleman, N. Holonyak, M. J. Ludowise, G. E. Stillman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 18 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Copeland, G. E.

Corcoran, V. J.

V. J. Corcoran, Institute for Defense Analysis, Final Report IDA P-1240 (1977).

Eliseev, P. G.

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, L. P. Ivanov, A. S. Logginov, M. A. Manko, K. Y. Senatorov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 392 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Ettenberg, M.

Frecking, M. A.

M. A. Frecking, Conference on Laser Engineering and Applications, Washington, D.C., 1–3 June, 1977.

Freed, C.

E. Hinkley, C. Freed, Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 277 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Fuller, J.

H. S. Boyne, J. L. Hall, R. L. Barger, P. L. Bender, J. Ward, J. Levine, J. Fuller, Laser Applications in the Geosciences (Western Periodicals, North Hollywood, Calif., 1970), p. 215.

Hackett, C. E.

C. E. Hackett, Sandia Laboratories Report SAND 77-0601 (1977).

Hall, J. L.

J. Levine, J. L. Hall, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 2595 (1972).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Boyne, J. L. Hall, R. L. Barger, P. L. Bender, J. Ward, J. Levine, J. Fuller, Laser Applications in the Geosciences (Western Periodicals, North Hollywood, Calif., 1970), p. 215.

Harman, T. C.

K. W. Nill, F. A. Blum, A. R. Catawa, T. C. Harman, J. Nonmetals 1, 211 (1973).

Harris, E. P.

R. Ludike, E. P. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 499 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Harward, C. N.

C. N. Harward, Technical Report PGSTR-AP77-63, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Va.

Heckscher, H.

J. A. Rossi, S. R. Chinn, H. Heckscher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 25 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hillman, J. J.

Hinkley, E.

E. Hinkley, C. Freed, Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 277 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Hinkley, E. D.

R. T. Menzies, J. S. Margolis, E. D. Hinkley, R. A. Toth, Appl. Opt. 16, 523 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. D. Hinkley, Opto-Electronics 4, 69 (1972).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Hinkley, “Development and Application of Tunable Diode Lasers to the Detection and Quantitative Evaluation of Pollutant Gases,” Lincoln Laboratory, MIT Final Report/Contract F19628-70-C-0230/Sept.1971.

Hoell, J. M.

Holonyak, N.

P. D. Wright, J. J. Coleman, N. Holonyak, M. J. Ludowise, G. E. Stillman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 18 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, L. P.

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, L. P. Ivanov, A. S. Logginov, M. A. Manko, K. Y. Senatorov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 392 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Jennings, D. E.

Jephcott, D. E.

D. E. T. F. Ashby, D. E. Jephcott, Appl. Phys. Lett. 3, 13 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Kostiak, T.

M. Mumma, T. Kostiak, S. Cohen, D. Buhl, P. C. Von Thuna, Nature 253, 514 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Kressel, H.

Ku, R. T.

Kurosawa, T.

K. Tanaka, T. Kurosawa, J. Appl. Phys. 15, 2271 (1976).

Levine, J.

J. Levine, J. L. Hall, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 2595 (1972).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Boyne, J. L. Hall, R. L. Barger, P. L. Bender, J. Ward, J. Levine, J. Fuller, Laser Applications in the Geosciences (Western Periodicals, North Hollywood, Calif., 1970), p. 215.

Linden, K. J.

K. J. Linden, K. W. Nill, J. F. Butler, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 720 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Little, V. I.

V. I. Little, A. C. Selden, T. Stamatakis, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1295 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Logginov, A. S.

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, L. P. Ivanov, A. S. Logginov, M. A. Manko, K. Y. Senatorov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 392 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Ludike, R.

R. Ludike, E. P. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 499 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ludowise, M. J.

P. D. Wright, J. J. Coleman, N. Holonyak, M. J. Ludowise, G. E. Stillman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 18 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Manko, M. A.

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, L. P. Ivanov, A. S. Logginov, M. A. Manko, K. Y. Senatorov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 392 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Margolis, J. S.

Melngailis, I.

I. Melngailis, Optoelectronics and Laser Technology; Region Six Conference, Albuquerque, N. Mex, 24–26 April 1974 (IEEE, New York, 1974), p. 88.

Menzies, R. T.

Morosini, A. C.

T. Paoli, J. E. Ripper, A. C. Morosini, N. B. Patel, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 525 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Mumma, M.

M. Mumma, T. Kostiak, S. Cohen, D. Buhl, P. C. Von Thuna, Nature 253, 514 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Nill, K. W.

K. J. Linden, K. W. Nill, J. F. Butler, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 720 (1977).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Nill, F. A. Blum, A. R. Catawa, T. C. Harman, J. Nonmetals 1, 211 (1973).

Paoli, T.

T. Paoli, J. E. Ripper, A. C. Morosini, N. B. Patel, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 525 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Paoli, T. L.

T. L. Paoli, J. E. Ripper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 744 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Ripper, T. L. Paoli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 466 (1971).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Paoli, J. E. Ripper, Phy. Rev. Lett. 22, 1085 (1969).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Paoli, J. E. Ripper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 105 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Patel, N. B.

T. Paoli, J. E. Ripper, A. C. Morosini, N. B. Patel, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 525 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Poultney, S.

S. Poultney, Sensor System Division, Perkin-Elmer, has recently observed similar phenomena in a PbSnSe laser.

Ripper, J. E.

T. Paoli, J. E. Ripper, A. C. Morosini, N. B. Patel, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 525 (1975).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Paoli, J. E. Ripper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 744 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Ripper, T. L. Paoli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 466 (1971).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Paoli, J. E. Ripper, Phy. Rev. Lett. 22, 1085 (1969).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Paoli, J. E. Ripper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 105 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Rogowski, R. S.

Rossi, J. A.

J. A. Rossi, S. R. Chinn, H. Heckscher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 25 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Salathé, R.

C. Voumard, R. Salathé, H. Weber, Appl. Phys. 12, 369 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sattler, J. P.

J. P. Sattler, G. J. Simonis, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 461 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Selden, A. C.

V. I. Little, A. C. Selden, T. Stamatakis, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1295 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Senatorov, K. Y.

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, L. P. Ivanov, A. S. Logginov, M. A. Manko, K. Y. Senatorov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 392 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Shurcliff, W. R.

W. R. Shurcliff, Polarized Light Production and Use (Harvard U. P., Cambridge, Mass., 1962).

Simonis, G. J.

J. P. Sattler, G. J. Simonis, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 461 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Spears, D. L.

Stamatakis, T.

V. I. Little, A. C. Selden, T. Stamatakis, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1295 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Stillman, G. E.

P. D. Wright, J. J. Coleman, N. Holonyak, M. J. Ludowise, G. E. Stillman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 18 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka, T. Kurosawa, J. Appl. Phys. 15, 2271 (1976).

Toth, R. A.

Von Thuna, P. C.

M. Mumma, T. Kostiak, S. Cohen, D. Buhl, P. C. Von Thuna, Nature 253, 514 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Voumard, C.

C. Voumard, R. Salathé, H. Weber, Appl. Phys. 12, 369 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Wade, W. R.

Ward, J.

H. S. Boyne, J. L. Hall, R. L. Barger, P. L. Bender, J. Ward, J. Levine, J. Fuller, Laser Applications in the Geosciences (Western Periodicals, North Hollywood, Calif., 1970), p. 215.

Weber, H.

C. Voumard, R. Salathé, H. Weber, Appl. Phys. 12, 369 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Weidel, E.

E. Weidel, Electron. Lett. 11, 436 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Wright, P. D.

P. D. Wright, J. J. Coleman, N. Holonyak, M. J. Ludowise, G. E. Stillman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 18 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Voumard, R. Salathé, H. Weber, Appl. Phys. 12, 369 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

P. D. Wright, J. J. Coleman, N. Holonyak, M. J. Ludowise, G. E. Stillman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 18 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. E. T. F. Ashby, D. E. Jephcott, Appl. Phys. Lett. 3, 13 (1963).
[CrossRef]

R. Ludike, E. P. Harris, Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 499 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Rossi, S. R. Chinn, H. Heckscher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 25 (1973).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Paoli, J. E. Ripper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 744 (1974).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Paoli, J. E. Ripper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 105 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Ripper, T. L. Paoli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 466 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

E. Weidel, Electron. Lett. 11, 436 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

D. E. Jennings, Geophys. Res. Lett. 5, 241 (1978).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

J. P. Sattler, G. J. Simonis, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 461 (1977).
[CrossRef]

T. Paoli, J. E. Ripper, A. C. Morosini, N. B. Patel, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 525 (1975).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, L. P. Ivanov, A. S. Logginov, M. A. Manko, K. Y. Senatorov, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 392 (1973).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Linden, K. W. Nill, J. F. Butler, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 720 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

K. Tanaka, T. Kurosawa, J. Appl. Phys. 15, 2271 (1976).

V. I. Little, A. C. Selden, T. Stamatakis, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 1295 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

J. Levine, J. L. Hall, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 2595 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonmetals (1)

K. W. Nill, F. A. Blum, A. R. Catawa, T. C. Harman, J. Nonmetals 1, 211 (1973).

Nature (1)

M. Mumma, T. Kostiak, S. Cohen, D. Buhl, P. C. Von Thuna, Nature 253, 514 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opto-Electronics (1)

E. D. Hinkley, Opto-Electronics 4, 69 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phy. Rev. Lett. (1)

T. L. Paoli, J. E. Ripper, Phy. Rev. Lett. 22, 1085 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

E. Hinkley, C. Freed, Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 277 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

W. R. Shurcliff, Polarized Light Production and Use (Harvard U. P., Cambridge, Mass., 1962).

V. J. Corcoran, Institute for Defense Analysis, Final Report IDA P-1240 (1977).

S. Poultney, Sensor System Division, Perkin-Elmer, has recently observed similar phenomena in a PbSnSe laser.

M. A. Frecking, Conference on Laser Engineering and Applications, Washington, D.C., 1–3 June, 1977.

C. N. Harward, Technical Report PGSTR-AP77-63, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Va.

C. E. Hackett, Sandia Laboratories Report SAND 77-0601 (1977).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical system for evaluation of feedback effects.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectrum analyzer display of the beat signal between Pb1− x Sn x Se semiconductor laser and a CO2 laser. The structure centered at 640 MHz is the semiconductor–CO2 laser beat. The structure near zero results from self-beats between modes which have been generated by optical feedback from the face of the optical photomixer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Enhanced self-beats obtained by slight realignment of the optical photomixer and its focusing lens. The structure has a separation of 3 MHz. The distance between the photomixer and the Pb1− x Sn x Se laser was 456 cm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Self-beat signal obtain by increasing the separation between the semiconductor laser and the photomixer. The conditions are the same as in Fig. 3, except the distance is 543 cm. The self-beat separation is 26 MHz.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Self-beat signal induced using the optical feedback path installed in front of the photomixer. The photomixer was tilted 30° to eliminate feedback from its surface.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Single self-beat feature due to external optical feedback. This is the self-beat that occurs at 30 MHz in Fig. 5. The resolution of the spectrum analyzer was 300 kHz.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectrum analyzer display of the Pb1− x Sn x Se semiconductor–CO2 laser beat signal obtained with an aperture in the semiconductor path to reduce the optical feedback. The width of the beat signal was 6 MHz.

Equations (2)

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Δ ν = A α π h ν 0 ( Δ ν c ) 2 / P ,
Δ ν C = ( β / π ) Δ ν F P ,

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