Abstract

A pulsed dye-laser optoacoustic spectroscopy technique has been used to measure the absorption spectra of light and heavy water at 21.5°C in the visible region. Basic principles of pulsed optoacoustic spectroscopy technique and the procedure for absolute calibration are discussed with reference to its application in water. Experimental details of the application of optoacoustic spectroscopy to water are given. Our absorption coefficients, of accuracies about ±10%, are believed to be the most reliable so far. Light water has a broad absorption minimum near 475 nm where the absorption coefficient is 1.8 × 10−4 cm−1. Heavy water exhibits a totally different absorption spectrum and has a broad absorption minimum near 600 nm where the absorption coefficient is 1.9 × 10−4 cm−1. Previous measurements of the optical spectra of water were done mostly by long-path transmission measurements, and they display disagreements by factors as large as 10 near the green absorption minimum of light water. We give a critical comparison of our optoacoustic absorption spectra with other existing data.

© 1979 Optical Society of America

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1979

C. K. N. Patel, A. C. Tam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 467 (1979).
[CrossRef]

C. K. N. Patel, A. C. Tam, R. J. Kerl, J. Chem. Phys. 71, 1470 (1979).
[CrossRef]

C. K. N. Patel, A. C. Tam, Nature 280, 302 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Tam, C. K. N. Patel, R. J. Kerl, Opt. Lett. 4, 81 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978

M. R. Querry, P. G. Cary, R. C. Waring, Appl. Opt. 17, 3587 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Gorodetskii, S. V. Egerev, I. B. Esipov, K. A. Naugolnykh, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 1345 (1978).
[CrossRef]

F. A. McDonald, G. C. Wetsel, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 2313 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Sigrist, F. K. Kneubuhi, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 64, 1652 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

A. M. Bonch-Bruevich, T. K. Razumova, I. O. Starobogatov, Opt. Spectrosc. 42, 45 (1977).

P. Sladky, R. Danielius, V. Strutkaitis, M. Boudys, Czech J. Phys. B27, 1075 (1977).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Naugolnykh, Sov. Phys. Acoust. 23, 98 (1977).

S. G. Kasoev, L. M. Lyamshev, Sov. Phys. Acoust. 23, 510 (1977).

E. I. Moses, C. L. Tang, Opt. Lett. 1, 115 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hass, J. W. Davisson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 622 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

J. F. McClelland, R. N. Kniseley, Appl. Opt. 15, 2658 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rosencwaig, A. Gersho, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 64 (1976).
[CrossRef]

O. V. Kopelevich, Opt. Spectrosc. 41, 391 (1976).

M. E. Long, R. L. Swofford, A. C. Albrecht, Science 191, 183 (1976); R. L. Swofford, M. E. Long, A. C. Albrecht, J. Chem. Phys. 65, 179 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975

Y. Kohanzadeh, J. R. Whinnery, M. M. Carroll, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 57, 67 (1975).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Bonch-Bruevich, T. K. Razumova, I. O. Starobogatov, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 1, 26 (1975).

1974

A. Laubereau, G. Kehl, W. Kaiser, Opt. Commun. 11, 74 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973

G. M. Hale, M. R. Querry, Appl. Opt. 12, 555 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Harshbarger, M. B. Robin, Acc. Chem. Res. 6, 64 (1973).
[CrossRef]

A. Rosencwaig, Opt. Commun. 7, 305 (1973); Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 46, 207 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1972

F. W. E. Knoop, H. H. Brongersma, L. J. Oosterhoff, Chem. Phys. Lett. 13, 20 (1972); H. Larzul, F. Gelebart, A. Johannin-Gilles, C. R. Acad. Sci. 261, 4701 (1968).
[CrossRef]

A. Laubereau, D. von der Linde, W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 1162 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Tyler, R. C. Smith, W. H. Wilson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 83 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971

L. B. Kreuzer, C. K. N. Patel, Science 173, 45 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968

W. M. Irvine, J. B. Pollack, Icarus 8, 324 (1968).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Henny, W. Siebrand, J. Chem. Phys. 49, 5369 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967

W. Siebrand, J. Chem. Phys. 46, 330 (1967).

L. F. Drummeter, G. L. Knestrick, Appl. Opt. 6, 2101 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Kell, J. Chem. Eng. Data 12, 66 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1963

R. M. Waxler, C. E. Weir, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 67, 163 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Bayly, V. B. Kartha, W. H. Stevens, Infrared Phys. 3, 211 (1963).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Sullivan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 962 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1958

W. C. Waggener, Anal. Chem. 30, 1569 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1951

1945

1939

1938

H. R. James, E. A. Birge, Trans. Wis. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett. 31, 1 (1938).

1880

A. G. Bell, Am. J. Sci. 20, 305 (1880).

Albrecht, A. C.

M. E. Long, R. L. Swofford, A. C. Albrecht, Science 191, 183 (1976); R. L. Swofford, M. E. Long, A. C. Albrecht, J. Chem. Phys. 65, 179 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bayly, J. G.

J. G. Bayly, V. B. Kartha, W. H. Stevens, Infrared Phys. 3, 211 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Bell, A. G.

A. G. Bell, Am. J. Sci. 20, 305 (1880).

Berry, M. J.

K. V. Reddy, R. G. Bray, M. J. Berry, in Advances in Laser Chemistry, A. Zewail, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1978), p. 48.

Birge, E. A.

H. R. James, E. A. Birge, Trans. Wis. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett. 31, 1 (1938).

Bonch-Bruevich, A. M.

A. M. Bonch-Bruevich, T. K. Razumova, I. O. Starobogatov, Opt. Spectrosc. 42, 45 (1977).

A. M. Bonch-Bruevich, T. K. Razumova, I. O. Starobogatov, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 1, 26 (1975).

Boudys, M.

P. Sladky, R. Danielius, V. Strutkaitis, M. Boudys, Czech J. Phys. B27, 1075 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bray, R. G.

K. V. Reddy, R. G. Bray, M. J. Berry, in Advances in Laser Chemistry, A. Zewail, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1978), p. 48.

Brongersma, H. H.

F. W. E. Knoop, H. H. Brongersma, L. J. Oosterhoff, Chem. Phys. Lett. 13, 20 (1972); H. Larzul, F. Gelebart, A. Johannin-Gilles, C. R. Acad. Sci. 261, 4701 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Carroll, M. M.

Y. Kohanzadeh, J. R. Whinnery, M. M. Carroll, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 57, 67 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Cary, P. G.

Clarke, G. L.

Curcio, J. A.

Danielius, R.

P. Sladky, R. Danielius, V. Strutkaitis, M. Boudys, Czech J. Phys. B27, 1075 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Davisson, J. W.

Dorsey, N. E.

N. E. Dorsey, Properties of Ordinary Water-Substance (Hafner, New York, 1968).

Drummeter, L. F.

Egerev, S. V.

V. S. Gorodetskii, S. V. Egerev, I. B. Esipov, K. A. Naugolnykh, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 1345 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Esipov, I. B.

V. S. Gorodetskii, S. V. Egerev, I. B. Esipov, K. A. Naugolnykh, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 1345 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Gersho, A.

A. Rosencwaig, A. Gersho, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 64 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Gorodetskii, V. S.

V. S. Gorodetskii, S. V. Egerev, I. B. Esipov, K. A. Naugolnykh, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 1345 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hale, G. M.

Harshbarger, W. R.

W. R. Harshbarger, M. B. Robin, Acc. Chem. Res. 6, 64 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hass, M.

Henny, B. R.

B. R. Henny, W. Siebrand, J. Chem. Phys. 49, 5369 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Hulburt, E. O.

Irvine, W. M.

W. M. Irvine, J. B. Pollack, Icarus 8, 324 (1968).
[CrossRef]

James, H. R.

G. L. Clarke, H. R. James, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 29, 43 (1939).
[CrossRef]

H. R. James, E. A. Birge, Trans. Wis. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett. 31, 1 (1938).

Kaiser, W.

A. Laubereau, G. Kehl, W. Kaiser, Opt. Commun. 11, 74 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A. Laubereau, D. von der Linde, W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 1162 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kartha, V. B.

J. G. Bayly, V. B. Kartha, W. H. Stevens, Infrared Phys. 3, 211 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Kasoev, S. G.

S. G. Kasoev, L. M. Lyamshev, Sov. Phys. Acoust. 23, 510 (1977).

Kehl, G.

A. Laubereau, G. Kehl, W. Kaiser, Opt. Commun. 11, 74 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Kell, G. S.

G. S. Kell, J. Chem. Eng. Data 12, 66 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Kerl, R. J.

A. C. Tam, C. K. N. Patel, R. J. Kerl, Opt. Lett. 4, 81 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. N. Patel, A. C. Tam, R. J. Kerl, J. Chem. Phys. 71, 1470 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Knestrick, G. L.

Kneubuhi, F. K.

M. W. Sigrist, F. K. Kneubuhi, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 64, 1652 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kniseley, R. N.

Knoop, F. W. E.

F. W. E. Knoop, H. H. Brongersma, L. J. Oosterhoff, Chem. Phys. Lett. 13, 20 (1972); H. Larzul, F. Gelebart, A. Johannin-Gilles, C. R. Acad. Sci. 261, 4701 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Kohanzadeh, Y.

Y. Kohanzadeh, J. R. Whinnery, M. M. Carroll, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 57, 67 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Kopelevich, O. V.

O. V. Kopelevich, Opt. Spectrosc. 41, 391 (1976).

Kreuzer, L. B.

L. B. Kreuzer, C. K. N. Patel, Science 173, 45 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laubereau, A.

A. Laubereau, G. Kehl, W. Kaiser, Opt. Commun. 11, 74 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A. Laubereau, D. von der Linde, W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 1162 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Long, M. E.

M. E. Long, R. L. Swofford, A. C. Albrecht, Science 191, 183 (1976); R. L. Swofford, M. E. Long, A. C. Albrecht, J. Chem. Phys. 65, 179 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyamshev, L. M.

S. G. Kasoev, L. M. Lyamshev, Sov. Phys. Acoust. 23, 510 (1977).

McClelland, J. F.

McDonald, F. A.

F. A. McDonald, G. C. Wetsel, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 2313 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Moses, E. I.

Naugolnykh, K. A.

V. S. Gorodetskii, S. V. Egerev, I. B. Esipov, K. A. Naugolnykh, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 1345 (1978).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Naugolnykh, Sov. Phys. Acoust. 23, 98 (1977).

Oosterhoff, L. J.

F. W. E. Knoop, H. H. Brongersma, L. J. Oosterhoff, Chem. Phys. Lett. 13, 20 (1972); H. Larzul, F. Gelebart, A. Johannin-Gilles, C. R. Acad. Sci. 261, 4701 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Patel, C. K. N.

C. K. N. Patel, A. C. Tam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 467 (1979).
[CrossRef]

C. K. N. Patel, A. C. Tam, R. J. Kerl, J. Chem. Phys. 71, 1470 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Tam, C. K. N. Patel, R. J. Kerl, Opt. Lett. 4, 81 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. N. Patel, A. C. Tam, Nature 280, 302 (1979).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Kreuzer, C. K. N. Patel, Science 173, 45 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petty, C. C.

Pollack, J. B.

W. M. Irvine, J. B. Pollack, Icarus 8, 324 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Querry, M. R.

Razumova, T. K.

A. M. Bonch-Bruevich, T. K. Razumova, I. O. Starobogatov, Opt. Spectrosc. 42, 45 (1977).

A. M. Bonch-Bruevich, T. K. Razumova, I. O. Starobogatov, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 1, 26 (1975).

Reddy, K. V.

K. V. Reddy, R. G. Bray, M. J. Berry, in Advances in Laser Chemistry, A. Zewail, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1978), p. 48.

Robin, M. B.

W. R. Harshbarger, M. B. Robin, Acc. Chem. Res. 6, 64 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Rosencwaig, A.

A. Rosencwaig, A. Gersho, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 64 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. Rosencwaig, Opt. Commun. 7, 305 (1973); Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 46, 207 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Siebrand, W.

B. R. Henny, W. Siebrand, J. Chem. Phys. 49, 5369 (1968).
[CrossRef]

W. Siebrand, J. Chem. Phys. 46, 330 (1967).

Sigrist, M. W.

M. W. Sigrist, F. K. Kneubuhi, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 64, 1652 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sladky, P.

P. Sladky, R. Danielius, V. Strutkaitis, M. Boudys, Czech J. Phys. B27, 1075 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

Starobogatov, I. O.

A. M. Bonch-Bruevich, T. K. Razumova, I. O. Starobogatov, Opt. Spectrosc. 42, 45 (1977).

A. M. Bonch-Bruevich, T. K. Razumova, I. O. Starobogatov, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 1, 26 (1975).

Stevens, W. H.

J. G. Bayly, V. B. Kartha, W. H. Stevens, Infrared Phys. 3, 211 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Strutkaitis, V.

P. Sladky, R. Danielius, V. Strutkaitis, M. Boudys, Czech J. Phys. B27, 1075 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, S. A.

Swofford, R. L.

M. E. Long, R. L. Swofford, A. C. Albrecht, Science 191, 183 (1976); R. L. Swofford, M. E. Long, A. C. Albrecht, J. Chem. Phys. 65, 179 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tam, A. C.

C. K. N. Patel, A. C. Tam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 467 (1979).
[CrossRef]

C. K. N. Patel, A. C. Tam, R. J. Kerl, J. Chem. Phys. 71, 1470 (1979).
[CrossRef]

C. K. N. Patel, A. C. Tam, Nature 280, 302 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Tam, C. K. N. Patel, R. J. Kerl, Opt. Lett. 4, 81 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, C. L.

Tyler, J. E.

von der Linde, D.

A. Laubereau, D. von der Linde, W. Kaiser, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 1162 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Waggener, W. C.

W. C. Waggener, Anal. Chem. 30, 1569 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Waring, R. C.

Waxler, R. M.

R. M. Waxler, C. E. Weir, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 67, 163 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Weir, C. E.

R. M. Waxler, C. E. Weir, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 67, 163 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Wetsel, G. C.

F. A. McDonald, G. C. Wetsel, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 2313 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Whinnery, J. R.

Y. Kohanzadeh, J. R. Whinnery, M. M. Carroll, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 57, 67 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, W. H.

Acc. Chem. Res.

W. R. Harshbarger, M. B. Robin, Acc. Chem. Res. 6, 64 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Sci.

A. G. Bell, Am. J. Sci. 20, 305 (1880).

Anal. Chem.

W. C. Waggener, Anal. Chem. 30, 1569 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. K. N. Patel, A. C. Tam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 467 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

F. W. E. Knoop, H. H. Brongersma, L. J. Oosterhoff, Chem. Phys. Lett. 13, 20 (1972); H. Larzul, F. Gelebart, A. Johannin-Gilles, C. R. Acad. Sci. 261, 4701 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Czech J. Phys.

P. Sladky, R. Danielius, V. Strutkaitis, M. Boudys, Czech J. Phys. B27, 1075 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Icarus

W. M. Irvine, J. B. Pollack, Icarus 8, 324 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys.

J. G. Bayly, V. B. Kartha, W. H. Stevens, Infrared Phys. 3, 211 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am.

Y. Kohanzadeh, J. R. Whinnery, M. M. Carroll, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 57, 67 (1975).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Sigrist, F. K. Kneubuhi, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 64, 1652 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

A. Rosencwaig, A. Gersho, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 64 (1976).
[CrossRef]

F. A. McDonald, G. C. Wetsel, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 2313 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Eng. Data

G. S. Kell, J. Chem. Eng. Data 12, 66 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

W. Siebrand, J. Chem. Phys. 46, 330 (1967).

B. R. Henny, W. Siebrand, J. Chem. Phys. 49, 5369 (1968).
[CrossRef]

C. K. N. Patel, A. C. Tam, R. J. Kerl, J. Chem. Phys. 71, 1470 (1979).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross section of the optoacoustic cell and the transducer constructed for the present measurements in water.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Block diagram for the optoacoustic spectroscopy of water.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transducer output signal for various temperatures. In each scope picture the upper trace is the transducer output signal for liquid H2O at the indicated temperature (in °C), the lower trace is the laser pulse detected by the pyroelectric detector. The laser frequency is fixed at 16,400 cm−1. Horizontal scale is 5 μsec/cm. Vertical sensitivities are the same for all the pictures except (A) and (B), where the normal sensitivity is decreased by a factor of 2.5, as indicated. Note the phase reversal of the early part of the transducer output at 4°C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental values of the transducer output amplitude H and the ratio of H with the coefficient of thermal expansion β for liquid H2O as a function of temperature. The laser frequency is fixed at 16,400 cm−1, and the pulse energy at 3 mJ. The dashed line is drawn through the data points for H as a guide to the eye.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absorption spectra of distilled light water by optoacoustic determinations (shown by solid line). The dashed part is interpolation not covered by the tuning range of the laser dyes used. Also shown are some experimental data from other authors for comparison.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Absorption spectra of distilled heavy water by optoacoustic determinations. Notations same as in Fig. 5.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Absorption Coefficients of Liquid Water at 21.5°C by Laser Optoacoustic Spectroscopy a

Tables Icon

Table II Absorption Coefficients a of Liquid H2O Near 25°C at Selected Optical Wavelength, b as Given by Various Authors c

Equations (23)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Q = E t h ,
Q = E [ 1 - exp ( α l ) ] E α l ,
E t h = C p ρ V δ T .
π ( r + a ) 2 l - π r 2 l = β V δ T .
2 π r a l = β V δ T .
a E = β 2 π r C p ρ α .
E a c = γ a c ( δ T ) 2
Q = C p ρ V δ T + γ a c ( δ T ) 2 .
E a c = 2 π r l 0 a p ( x ) d x ,
p ( x ) = 2 r B x .
E a c = 2 π B l a 2 .
E a c ~ 10 - 7 erg
E t h ~ 10 erg
E a c E t h
s = ( 4 τ D ) 1 / 2 ~ 7 × 10 - 5 cm ,
t = R / c
H = const × c ρ a .
S = H / E ,
S = K α ,
K = K [ ( β c ) / ( C p ) ] ,
S ( ν ) = K α ( ν ) ,             S ( ν ) = K [ α ( ν ) + α 1 ( ν ) ] .
K = [ S ( ν ) - S ( ν ) ] / α 1 ( ν ) .
ν n = n ( 3620 - 63 n ) cm - 1 ,

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