Abstract

Visual assessments of white samples are evaluated. The range of individual hue preferences is mapped out, but no explanation can be presented. The individual differences in perceiving the contribution of luminance to whiteness are also investigated. Most subjects agree in assessing the whiteness of neutral bluish white samples. High correlation is found between the visual assessments of commercial whites and the whiteness calculated by linear whiteness formulas.

© 1979 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Berger, Report of the CIE TC-1.3 (Colorimetry) Subcommittee on Whiteness. Description of Samples Used and Their Colorimetric Measurement; Farbe 26, in press.
  2. A. S. Stenius, Report of the CIE TC-1.3 (Colorimetry) Subcommittee on Whiteness. Results of the Visual Assessment of the Whiteness Samples by Pair Comparison and Ranking; Farbe 26, in press. The figures presented in Tables I–VII of this paper are not ranks in the proper sense but rather scores.14 If circular triads occur in pair comparison, the ranks can be smaller or larger than the scores. For subjects with a coefficient of consistency ξ = 1 (no circular triads), the ranks are identical to the scores. Scores are used for all calculations in this paper, but the Stenius term ranks actually meaning scores has been retained.
  3. E. Ganz, Appl. Opt. 18, 1073 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. Ganz, J. Color Appearance 1 (5), 33 (1972).
  5. E. Ganz, Appl. Opt. 15, 2039 (1976). There is an error in Eq. (28); it should read ρ/σ = cot(ϕ + η).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. L. MacAdam, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32, 247 (1942).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. LaToison, Lux 68, 254 (1972).
  8. In Tables 12 and 13 of Ref. 2, the anomaloscope ratios are marked R/G. On inquiry, Bayer confirmed that these values are actually G/R values. Tables 12 and 13 are correct if R/G is replaced by G/R.
  9. M. Lüscher, Klinischer Lüscher-Test (Test-Verlag, Basel, 1974); Lüscher Color Test (Simon and Schuster, New York, 1969).
  10. F. Grum, R. F. Witzel, P. Stensby, J. Opt Soc. Am. 64, 210 (1974), with correlation coefficients by Ganz.5
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. B. K. Swenholt, F. Grum, R. F. Witzel, Color Res. Appl. 3, 141 (1978). The correlation coefficients were calculated with the D65 tristimulus values of the samples kindly supplied by F. Grum, Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y.
    [CrossRef]
  12. CIBA-GEIGY Publication 2406 (1973). Visual Assessment of White Effects, White Scale on Cotton, 18 Steps 70–240.
  13. A. Brockes, Bayer A. G. Leverkusen; private communication.
  14. H. A. David, Method of Paired Comparisons (Charles Griffin, London, 1969), p. 21.

1979 (1)

1978 (1)

B. K. Swenholt, F. Grum, R. F. Witzel, Color Res. Appl. 3, 141 (1978). The correlation coefficients were calculated with the D65 tristimulus values of the samples kindly supplied by F. Grum, Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y.
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

1974 (1)

F. Grum, R. F. Witzel, P. Stensby, J. Opt Soc. Am. 64, 210 (1974), with correlation coefficients by Ganz.5
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (2)

E. Ganz, J. Color Appearance 1 (5), 33 (1972).

M. LaToison, Lux 68, 254 (1972).

1942 (1)

Berger, A.

A. Berger, Report of the CIE TC-1.3 (Colorimetry) Subcommittee on Whiteness. Description of Samples Used and Their Colorimetric Measurement; Farbe 26, in press.

Brockes, A.

A. Brockes, Bayer A. G. Leverkusen; private communication.

David, H. A.

H. A. David, Method of Paired Comparisons (Charles Griffin, London, 1969), p. 21.

Ganz, E.

Grum, F.

B. K. Swenholt, F. Grum, R. F. Witzel, Color Res. Appl. 3, 141 (1978). The correlation coefficients were calculated with the D65 tristimulus values of the samples kindly supplied by F. Grum, Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y.
[CrossRef]

F. Grum, R. F. Witzel, P. Stensby, J. Opt Soc. Am. 64, 210 (1974), with correlation coefficients by Ganz.5
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LaToison, M.

M. LaToison, Lux 68, 254 (1972).

Lüscher, M.

M. Lüscher, Klinischer Lüscher-Test (Test-Verlag, Basel, 1974); Lüscher Color Test (Simon and Schuster, New York, 1969).

MacAdam, D. L.

Stenius, A. S.

A. S. Stenius, Report of the CIE TC-1.3 (Colorimetry) Subcommittee on Whiteness. Results of the Visual Assessment of the Whiteness Samples by Pair Comparison and Ranking; Farbe 26, in press. The figures presented in Tables I–VII of this paper are not ranks in the proper sense but rather scores.14 If circular triads occur in pair comparison, the ranks can be smaller or larger than the scores. For subjects with a coefficient of consistency ξ = 1 (no circular triads), the ranks are identical to the scores. Scores are used for all calculations in this paper, but the Stenius term ranks actually meaning scores has been retained.

Stensby, P.

F. Grum, R. F. Witzel, P. Stensby, J. Opt Soc. Am. 64, 210 (1974), with correlation coefficients by Ganz.5
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swenholt, B. K.

B. K. Swenholt, F. Grum, R. F. Witzel, Color Res. Appl. 3, 141 (1978). The correlation coefficients were calculated with the D65 tristimulus values of the samples kindly supplied by F. Grum, Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y.
[CrossRef]

Witzel, R. F.

B. K. Swenholt, F. Grum, R. F. Witzel, Color Res. Appl. 3, 141 (1978). The correlation coefficients were calculated with the D65 tristimulus values of the samples kindly supplied by F. Grum, Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y.
[CrossRef]

F. Grum, R. F. Witzel, P. Stensby, J. Opt Soc. Am. 64, 210 (1974), with correlation coefficients by Ganz.5
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Color Res. Appl. (1)

B. K. Swenholt, F. Grum, R. F. Witzel, Color Res. Appl. 3, 141 (1978). The correlation coefficients were calculated with the D65 tristimulus values of the samples kindly supplied by F. Grum, Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y.
[CrossRef]

J. Color Appearance (1)

E. Ganz, J. Color Appearance 1 (5), 33 (1972).

J. Opt Soc. Am. (1)

F. Grum, R. F. Witzel, P. Stensby, J. Opt Soc. Am. 64, 210 (1974), with correlation coefficients by Ganz.5
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Lux (1)

M. LaToison, Lux 68, 254 (1972).

Other (7)

In Tables 12 and 13 of Ref. 2, the anomaloscope ratios are marked R/G. On inquiry, Bayer confirmed that these values are actually G/R values. Tables 12 and 13 are correct if R/G is replaced by G/R.

M. Lüscher, Klinischer Lüscher-Test (Test-Verlag, Basel, 1974); Lüscher Color Test (Simon and Schuster, New York, 1969).

A. Berger, Report of the CIE TC-1.3 (Colorimetry) Subcommittee on Whiteness. Description of Samples Used and Their Colorimetric Measurement; Farbe 26, in press.

A. S. Stenius, Report of the CIE TC-1.3 (Colorimetry) Subcommittee on Whiteness. Results of the Visual Assessment of the Whiteness Samples by Pair Comparison and Ranking; Farbe 26, in press. The figures presented in Tables I–VII of this paper are not ranks in the proper sense but rather scores.14 If circular triads occur in pair comparison, the ranks can be smaller or larger than the scores. For subjects with a coefficient of consistency ξ = 1 (no circular triads), the ranks are identical to the scores. Scores are used for all calculations in this paper, but the Stenius term ranks actually meaning scores has been retained.

CIBA-GEIGY Publication 2406 (1973). Visual Assessment of White Effects, White Scale on Cotton, 18 Steps 70–240.

A. Brockes, Bayer A. G. Leverkusen; private communication.

H. A. David, Method of Paired Comparisons (Charles Griffin, London, 1969), p. 21.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chromaticities of the samples used in the CIE TC-1.3 Subcommittee on Whiteness round robin test. Sample pairs used for calculating the index of hue preference are marked by dotted lines.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Distribution of circular triads by subjects: — all sample groups; - - - sample groups A and C; ····· sample group B.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Histograms of rank differences assessed in pair comparison by 193 subjects for four selected sample pairs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Elliptical equiwhiteness lines for various hue preferences. Top left to right: extreme green, neutral, and extreme red. Bottom: equivalent to linear formulas, left: Berger, right: Stensby. Bottom center: chromaticities of the most greenish (dotted line) and the most reddish (broken line) samples used in the CIE TC.−1.3 round robin test. Shaded area represents range of commercial white samples.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Percent sales of cool, deluxe, and warm white fluorescent lamps in fifteen European countries (from La Toison7) shown as a function of the geographical latitude of the capitals.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Luminance factor Y vs chromaticity coordinate x of the plastic samples prepared for determining the contribution of luminous reflectance to whiteness relative to the effect of blueness.

Tables (9)

Tables Icon

Table I Average Number of Circular Triads Resulting from Visual Assessments of Whiteness by Pair Comparison

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Table II Coefficients of Concord Characterizing the Rank Distributions Allotted to the Samples by Various Groups of Subjects and by Different Techniques of Assessment

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Table III Correlation Coefficients and Increments of the Squares Determined in Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression Between the Coefficients of Concord κ of the Pairs and the Differences of the Samples in Tint ΔT and in the Components ΔC and ΔY of Whiteness ΔW = ΔC + ΔY

Tables Icon

Table IV Hue Preference angles ϕ of Linear Whiteness Formulas Determined by Multiple Linear Regression of Scaled Means of Whiteness Assessments by Pair Comparison of 193 Subjects vs the Colorimetric Data of the Samples

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Table V Distribution of the Hue Preference Index p in Various Groups of Subjects

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Table VI Comparison of Hue Preference with Slight Deviations from Normal Color Vision and with Red/Green Color Preference in Two Groups of Subjects

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Table VII Kendall’s τ and Observed Significance Level Prob0 Correlating the Hue Preference Index p with the Anomaloscope Ratio R/G and with the Red/Green Color Preference Index q, Respectively

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Table VIII Correlation Coefficients Determined Between Scaled Visual Assessments and Whiteness Values Calculated by Linear Formulas

Tables Icon

Table IX Slope ω = (∂W/∂s)/(∂W/∂Y) of Planes of Constant Whiteness Determined with Samples of Approximately Equal Whiteness but Different Luminous Reflectance: Rows E and A in Fig. 6

Equations (12)

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ξ ¯ = 1 - ( d A + d B + d C ) / 120 = 0.9.
N = m = 1 M n m
R = 1 N m = 1 M r m · n m
κ = 1 - 2 · R 2 - R 1 M - 1 ,
C = 800 ( x 0 - x ) + 1700 ( y 0 - y )
T = 1000 ( x 0 - x ) - 700 ( y 0 - y )
Red Green Sample group A Sample 53 - 3 Pairs 53 - 26 50 - 26 ] [ Red Green Red B 54 - 8 56 54 - 7 56 23 - 7 20 ] [ Green C - 5 - 6 - 6
p = 1 J j = 1 J ( r red - r green ) j
i = 1 10 ( ɛ · Y i + ρ · x i + σ · y i + κ - W i ) 2 = min ,
ϕ = arctan ( σ / ρ ) - η ,
q = 1 4 · i = 1 6 w i · v i
ω = ( W / s ) / ( W / Y ) = ( Δ Y / Δ s ) W = const ,

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