Abstract

Hardened dichromated gelatin is the best material available today for the fabrication of holographic optical elements (HOEs) because of its low scattering, large refractive index modulation capacity, and other unique properties such as reprocessibility. On the basis of experimental data accumulated during the last several years, we describe holographic characteristics of the dichromated gelatin, including exposure characteristics with a bulk exposure model, hologram thickness change, and environmental stability. Basic chemistry, hologram formation in the dichromated gelatin, and generalized processing techniques are also discussed.

© 1979 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. I. Cindrich, Appl. Opt. 6, 1531 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. N. Latta, Appl. Opt. 11, 1686 (1972); J. N. Latta, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan (1970); “Holograms as Optical Elements,” in Proceedings of the Engineering Applications of Holography Symposium (SPIE, New York, 1972), p. 345.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. T. Welford, Opt. Commun. 9, 268 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. G. McCauley, C. E. Simpson, W. J. Murback, Appl. Opt. 12, 232 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. W. Rose, Ph.D. Dissertation, Ohio State University (1972); also Tech. Report, AFAL-TR-73-101 (March1973).
  6. D. H. Close, “Hologram Optics in Head-Up Displays,” 1974 SID International Symposium Digest of Tech. Papers (1974), p. 58.
  7. R. N. Winner, J. H. Brindle, “A Holographic Visor Helmet-Mounted Display System,” Proceedings of the 1974 Conference on Display Devices and Systems, New York (1974).
  8. D. H. Close, Opt. Eng. 14, 408 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. J. Chang, W. S. Colburn, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1373A (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. R. Fienup, C. D. Leonard, “Holographic Optics for a Matched-Filter Optical Processor,” to be published in Appl. Opt.18 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. N. Latta, R. C. Fairchild, “New Developments in the Design of Holographic Optics,” in Proceedings of the Seminar on Applications of Geometrical Optics, W. J. Smith, Ed., SPIE, New York, p. 107 (1973).
  12. D. H. Close, “The Use of Ray Intercept Curves for Evaluating Holographic Optical Elements,” Proceedings of the Seminar on Application of Geometrical Optics, W. J. Smith, Ed., SPIE, 101 in Ref. 11, p. 101.
  13. W. C. Sweatt, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Arizona (1977).
  14. T. A. Shankoff, Appl. Opt. 7, 2101 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. L. H. Lin, Appl. Opt. 8, 963 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. G. Brandes, E. E. Francois, T. A. Shankoff, Appl. Opt. 8, 2346 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T. P. Sosnowski, H. Kogelnik, Appl. Opt. 9, 2186 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. G. L. Fillmore, R. F. Tynn, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 199 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. K. Curran, T. A. Shankoff, Appl. Opt. 10, 2551 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Chang, Appl. Opt. 10, 2250 (1971).
  21. D. Meyerhofer, RCA Rev. 33, 110 (1972).
  22. W. S. Colburn, R. G. Zech, L. M. Ralston, “Holographic Optical Elements,” Tech. Report AFAL-TR-72-409 (January1973), p. 93.
  23. A. Graube, Opt. Commun. 8, 251 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. H. Close, A. Graube, “Materials for Holographic Optical Elements,” Tech. Report AFAL-TR-73-267 (1973).
  25. B. J. Chang, Opt. Commun. 17, 270 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  26. T. Kubata, T. Ose, M. Sasaki, K. Honda, Appl. Opt. 15, 556 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. K. Case, R. Alferness, Appl. Phys. 10, 41 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. Graube, “Holographic Element Material Research,” Interim Scientific Report, contact F44620-76-C-0064 (March1977).
  29. H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
  30. R. J. Collier, C. B. Burchhart, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971), Chap. 9.
  31. B. J. Chang, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1435A (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  32. D. H. Close, G. E. Moss, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1324A (1973).
  33. J. Kosar, Light Sensitive Systems (Wiley, New York, 1965), Chap. 2, p. 74.
  34. D. G. Zech, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan (1974).
  35. B. L. Booth, Appl. Opt. 14, 593 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. B. J. Chang, J. Upatnieks, “Design Techniques for Efficient Holographic Lenses with Wavelength-Shift Reconstruction,” to be published.
  37. D. Meyerhofer, Appl. Opt. 10, 416 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. J. E. Jolley, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 14, 169 (1970).
  39. B. J. Chang, “Formation of Dichromated Gelatin Holograms,” to be published.
  40. D. A. Marcroft, M.S. Dissertation, Air Force Institute of Technology (December1975).
  41. A detailed discussion will be given in a future paper.

1977 (2)

B. J. Chang, W. S. Colburn, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1373A (1977).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Chang, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1435A (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (3)

B. J. Chang, Opt. Commun. 17, 270 (1976).
[CrossRef]

T. Kubata, T. Ose, M. Sasaki, K. Honda, Appl. Opt. 15, 556 (1976).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Case, R. Alferness, Appl. Phys. 10, 41 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

1974 (1)

D. H. Close, “Hologram Optics in Head-Up Displays,” 1974 SID International Symposium Digest of Tech. Papers (1974), p. 58.

1973 (4)

W. T. Welford, Opt. Commun. 9, 268 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. G. McCauley, C. E. Simpson, W. J. Murback, Appl. Opt. 12, 232 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Graube, Opt. Commun. 8, 251 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Close, G. E. Moss, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1324A (1973).

1972 (2)

1971 (4)

1970 (2)

J. E. Jolley, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 14, 169 (1970).

T. P. Sosnowski, H. Kogelnik, Appl. Opt. 9, 2186 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (3)

1968 (1)

1967 (1)

Alferness, R.

S. K. Case, R. Alferness, Appl. Phys. 10, 41 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Booth, B. L.

Brandes, R. G.

Brindle, J. H.

R. N. Winner, J. H. Brindle, “A Holographic Visor Helmet-Mounted Display System,” Proceedings of the 1974 Conference on Display Devices and Systems, New York (1974).

Burchhart, C. B.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burchhart, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971), Chap. 9.

Case, S. K.

S. K. Case, R. Alferness, Appl. Phys. 10, 41 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Chang, B. J.

B. J. Chang, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1435A (1977).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Chang, W. S. Colburn, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1373A (1977).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Chang, Opt. Commun. 17, 270 (1976).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Chang, J. Upatnieks, “Design Techniques for Efficient Holographic Lenses with Wavelength-Shift Reconstruction,” to be published.

B. J. Chang, “Formation of Dichromated Gelatin Holograms,” to be published.

Chang, M.

M. Chang, Appl. Opt. 10, 2250 (1971).

Cindrich, I.

Close, D. H.

D. H. Close, Opt. Eng. 14, 408 (1975).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Close, “Hologram Optics in Head-Up Displays,” 1974 SID International Symposium Digest of Tech. Papers (1974), p. 58.

D. H. Close, G. E. Moss, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1324A (1973).

D. H. Close, A. Graube, “Materials for Holographic Optical Elements,” Tech. Report AFAL-TR-73-267 (1973).

D. H. Close, “The Use of Ray Intercept Curves for Evaluating Holographic Optical Elements,” Proceedings of the Seminar on Application of Geometrical Optics, W. J. Smith, Ed., SPIE, 101 in Ref. 11, p. 101.

Colburn, W. S.

B. J. Chang, W. S. Colburn, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1373A (1977).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Colburn, R. G. Zech, L. M. Ralston, “Holographic Optical Elements,” Tech. Report AFAL-TR-72-409 (January1973), p. 93.

Collier, R. J.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burchhart, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971), Chap. 9.

Curran, R. K.

Fairchild, R. C.

J. N. Latta, R. C. Fairchild, “New Developments in the Design of Holographic Optics,” in Proceedings of the Seminar on Applications of Geometrical Optics, W. J. Smith, Ed., SPIE, New York, p. 107 (1973).

Fienup, J. R.

J. R. Fienup, C. D. Leonard, “Holographic Optics for a Matched-Filter Optical Processor,” to be published in Appl. Opt.18 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fillmore, G. L.

Francois, E. E.

Graube, A.

A. Graube, Opt. Commun. 8, 251 (1973).
[CrossRef]

A. Graube, “Holographic Element Material Research,” Interim Scientific Report, contact F44620-76-C-0064 (March1977).

D. H. Close, A. Graube, “Materials for Holographic Optical Elements,” Tech. Report AFAL-TR-73-267 (1973).

Honda, K.

Jolley, J. E.

J. E. Jolley, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 14, 169 (1970).

Kogelnik, H.

T. P. Sosnowski, H. Kogelnik, Appl. Opt. 9, 2186 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

Kosar, J.

J. Kosar, Light Sensitive Systems (Wiley, New York, 1965), Chap. 2, p. 74.

Kubata, T.

Latta, J. N.

J. N. Latta, Appl. Opt. 11, 1686 (1972); J. N. Latta, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan (1970); “Holograms as Optical Elements,” in Proceedings of the Engineering Applications of Holography Symposium (SPIE, New York, 1972), p. 345.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Latta, R. C. Fairchild, “New Developments in the Design of Holographic Optics,” in Proceedings of the Seminar on Applications of Geometrical Optics, W. J. Smith, Ed., SPIE, New York, p. 107 (1973).

Leonard, C. D.

J. R. Fienup, C. D. Leonard, “Holographic Optics for a Matched-Filter Optical Processor,” to be published in Appl. Opt.18 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, L. H.

L. H. Lin, Appl. Opt. 8, 963 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burchhart, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971), Chap. 9.

Marcroft, D. A.

D. A. Marcroft, M.S. Dissertation, Air Force Institute of Technology (December1975).

McCauley, D. G.

Meyerhofer, D.

D. Meyerhofer, RCA Rev. 33, 110 (1972).

D. Meyerhofer, Appl. Opt. 10, 416 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moss, G. E.

D. H. Close, G. E. Moss, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1324A (1973).

Murback, W. J.

Ose, T.

Ralston, L. M.

W. S. Colburn, R. G. Zech, L. M. Ralston, “Holographic Optical Elements,” Tech. Report AFAL-TR-72-409 (January1973), p. 93.

Rose, H. W.

H. W. Rose, Ph.D. Dissertation, Ohio State University (1972); also Tech. Report, AFAL-TR-73-101 (March1973).

Sasaki, M.

Shankoff, T. A.

Simpson, C. E.

Sosnowski, T. P.

Sweatt, W. C.

W. C. Sweatt, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Arizona (1977).

Tynn, R. F.

Upatnieks, J.

B. J. Chang, J. Upatnieks, “Design Techniques for Efficient Holographic Lenses with Wavelength-Shift Reconstruction,” to be published.

Welford, W. T.

W. T. Welford, Opt. Commun. 9, 268 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Winner, R. N.

R. N. Winner, J. H. Brindle, “A Holographic Visor Helmet-Mounted Display System,” Proceedings of the 1974 Conference on Display Devices and Systems, New York (1974).

Zech, D. G.

D. G. Zech, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan (1974).

Zech, R. G.

W. S. Colburn, R. G. Zech, L. M. Ralston, “Holographic Optical Elements,” Tech. Report AFAL-TR-72-409 (January1973), p. 93.

1974 SID International Symposium Digest of Tech. Papers (1)

D. H. Close, “Hologram Optics in Head-Up Displays,” 1974 SID International Symposium Digest of Tech. Papers (1974), p. 58.

Appl. Opt. (12)

Appl. Phys. (1)

S. K. Case, R. Alferness, Appl. Phys. 10, 41 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

B. J. Chang, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1435A (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Close, G. E. Moss, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1324A (1973).

G. L. Fillmore, R. F. Tynn, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 199 (1971).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Chang, W. S. Colburn, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1373A (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

W. T. Welford, Opt. Commun. 9, 268 (1973).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Chang, Opt. Commun. 17, 270 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. Graube, Opt. Commun. 8, 251 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

D. H. Close, Opt. Eng. 14, 408 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Photogr. Sci. Eng. (1)

J. E. Jolley, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 14, 169 (1970).

RCA Rev. (1)

D. Meyerhofer, RCA Rev. 33, 110 (1972).

Other (16)

W. S. Colburn, R. G. Zech, L. M. Ralston, “Holographic Optical Elements,” Tech. Report AFAL-TR-72-409 (January1973), p. 93.

H. W. Rose, Ph.D. Dissertation, Ohio State University (1972); also Tech. Report, AFAL-TR-73-101 (March1973).

J. R. Fienup, C. D. Leonard, “Holographic Optics for a Matched-Filter Optical Processor,” to be published in Appl. Opt.18 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Latta, R. C. Fairchild, “New Developments in the Design of Holographic Optics,” in Proceedings of the Seminar on Applications of Geometrical Optics, W. J. Smith, Ed., SPIE, New York, p. 107 (1973).

D. H. Close, “The Use of Ray Intercept Curves for Evaluating Holographic Optical Elements,” Proceedings of the Seminar on Application of Geometrical Optics, W. J. Smith, Ed., SPIE, 101 in Ref. 11, p. 101.

W. C. Sweatt, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Arizona (1977).

A. Graube, “Holographic Element Material Research,” Interim Scientific Report, contact F44620-76-C-0064 (March1977).

D. H. Close, A. Graube, “Materials for Holographic Optical Elements,” Tech. Report AFAL-TR-73-267 (1973).

R. N. Winner, J. H. Brindle, “A Holographic Visor Helmet-Mounted Display System,” Proceedings of the 1974 Conference on Display Devices and Systems, New York (1974).

J. Kosar, Light Sensitive Systems (Wiley, New York, 1965), Chap. 2, p. 74.

D. G. Zech, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan (1974).

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burchhart, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971), Chap. 9.

B. J. Chang, J. Upatnieks, “Design Techniques for Efficient Holographic Lenses with Wavelength-Shift Reconstruction,” to be published.

B. J. Chang, “Formation of Dichromated Gelatin Holograms,” to be published.

D. A. Marcroft, M.S. Dissertation, Air Force Institute of Technology (December1975).

A detailed discussion will be given in a future paper.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diffraction efficiency as a function of exposure for plane wave gratings recorded in seven phase materials at a K ratio of unity22; the K ratio is defined by Eq. (9).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross-linking and hardness change of gelatin.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Recording procedures of holograms in dichromated gelatin.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diffraction efficiency (a) and angular modulation (b) as a function of exposure for dichromated gelatin holograms in air and in water. The angular modulation is defined by Eq. (1), and the angular modulations of 90° and 270° correspond to the first and second peak diffraction efficiencies, respectively. The diffraction efficiency is defined by the ratio of the diffracted intensity to the incident intensity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absorption of dichromated gelatin (15 μm thick) at a wavelength of 514.5 nm; (a) absolute absorption as a function of exposure, (b) absolute absorption as a function of sensitizer concentration, and (c) net increase in the absorption as a function of exposure.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Angular modulation as a function of exposure: solid lines are theoretical, and symbols are experimental data.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Characteristic parameters M and D as a function of sensitizer concentration.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Effect of delayed development on angular modulation.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Effect of exposure rate on angular modulation.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Effect of K ratio on angular modulation.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Spatial frequency response of dichromated gelatin.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Bragg angle deviation (or hologram thickness change) as a function of exposure before and after baking for various fringe structures; (a) single set of slanted fringes, (b) two sets of slanted fringes (incoherent addition), and (c) two sets of slanted fringes and another set of unslanted fringes (coherent addition).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Effect of relative humidity on Bragg angle deviation.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Effect of baking (in air) on angular modulation.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table I Generalized Processing Procedures for Hardened Dichromated Gelatin Holograms

Tables Icon

Table II Preparation of Dichromated Gelatin Plates (Derived from Kodak 649F)

Tables Icon

Table III Development of Dichromated Gelatin Plates (Derived from Kodak 649F)

Tables Icon

Table IV Examples of Chemical Mixing Formula

Equations (13)

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m = ( π / λ cos θ 0 ) Δ n d ,
Δ n w = k i Δ h ,
Δ n = k f Δ n w = k f k i Δ h ,
A = I i - ( I r + I t ) I i × 100 % ,
A = A - A 0 ,
m = M [ 1 - exp ( - E e / D ) ] ,
E e = 2 ( I o I r ) 1 / 2 t ,
d m d E = M D exp ( - E e / D ) .
K = I r / I 0 .
M = M 0 [ 1 - exp ( - C / N ) ] ,
D = D 0 + D 1 exp ( - C / E ) ,
x % = hardener volume water + concentrate volume × 100 %
x % ammonium - dichromate ( g ) water ( m 1 ) × 100 %

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