Abstract

The gloss of a sample is determined as the ratio of the specular reflectance of the sample to that of a black-glass reference standard for angles of incidence of 20°, 60°, or 85°. The angle of 60° is close to the Brewster angle of the black glass, and it must be expected that the natural polarization of the incident radiation in the gloss meter affects the gloss measurements. Calculations for unpolarized and for partially polarized incident radiation show that in general the gloss value of the black glass changes drastically with increasing degree of polarization but that the gloss value of a sample, determined from the ratio mentioned above, is affected very little, particularly if the refractive index of the sample is close to that of the reference.

© 1979 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. International Standard ISO 2813 “Paint and Varnishes—Measurement of Specular Gloss of Non-metallic Paint Films at 20°, 60°, and 85°” (International Organization for Standardization, 1978).
  2. ASTM D523-67 Specular Gloss (1972).
  3. The term gloss as used in this paper is, strictly speaking, the so-called specular gloss. Other types of gloss are known and defined, such as Sheen, Distinctness-of-Image Gloss, and several psychophysical effects. Polarization may or may not affect these other types of gloss. However, this paper is restricted to the effect of polarization on specular gloss only.
  4. W. Budde, Appl. Opt. 1, 201 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Baba, E. Mori, J. Illum. Eng. Inst. Japn 58, No. 10, 27 (1974).
    [CrossRef]

1974 (1)

G. Baba, E. Mori, J. Illum. Eng. Inst. Japn 58, No. 10, 27 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

ASTM D523-67 Specular Gloss (1972).

1962 (1)

Baba, G.

G. Baba, E. Mori, J. Illum. Eng. Inst. Japn 58, No. 10, 27 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Budde, W.

Mori, E.

G. Baba, E. Mori, J. Illum. Eng. Inst. Japn 58, No. 10, 27 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

ASTM D523-67 Specular Gloss (1)

ASTM D523-67 Specular Gloss (1972).

J. Illum. Eng. Inst. Japn (1)

G. Baba, E. Mori, J. Illum. Eng. Inst. Japn 58, No. 10, 27 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

The term gloss as used in this paper is, strictly speaking, the so-called specular gloss. Other types of gloss are known and defined, such as Sheen, Distinctness-of-Image Gloss, and several psychophysical effects. Polarization may or may not affect these other types of gloss. However, this paper is restricted to the effect of polarization on specular gloss only.

International Standard ISO 2813 “Paint and Varnishes—Measurement of Specular Gloss of Non-metallic Paint Films at 20°, 60°, and 85°” (International Organization for Standardization, 1978).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Error E as a function of the refractive index ns of the sample for the 20° angle of incidence and for various values of k (= fraction of the incident radiation which is linearly polarized). The azimuth β of the linearly polarized component is 0° or 90°.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Same as Fig. 1 but for 60° angle of incidence.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Same as Fig. 1 but for 85° angle of incidence.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Error E as a function of the refractive index ns of the sample, for a fixed ratio k = 0.2, but for various azimuths β of the linearly polarized component. Angle of incidence α = 60°.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Specular Reflectance and Gloss of Black Glass (n = 1.567) for Mixed Radiation (k = 0.2) as a Function of the Azimuth β of the Linearly Polarized Component

Tables Icon

Table II Gloss Values of Black Glass (n = 1.567) as a Function of the Fraction k of the Total Incident Radiation which is Linearly Polarized (P = Degree of Polarization, α = Angle of Incidence)

Equations (23)

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G s = G r × ρ s / ρ r ,
G s ( m ) = G r ( u ) × ρ s ( m ) / ρ r ( m ) ,
ρ ( u ) = ( ρ p + ρ s ) / 2 ,
ρ p = [ n 2 cos α - ( n 2 - sin 2 α ) 1 / 2 n 2 cos α + ( n 2 - sin 2 α ) 1 / 2 ] ,
ρ s = [ ( n 2 - sin 2 α ) 1 / 2 - cos α ( n 2 - sin 2 α ) 1 / 2 + cos α ] 2 ,
ρ ( l ) = ρ p cos 2 β + ρ s sin 2 β .
ϕ 0 = ϕ l + ϕ u ,
ϕ l = k ϕ 0 and ϕ u = ( 1 - k ) ϕ 0 ,
ρ ( m ) = k ρ ( l ) + ( 1 - k ) ρ ( u ) ,
P = ( I max - I min ) / ( I max + I min ) ,
I max = c ( ϕ l + ϕ u ) ,
I min = c ϕ u ,
P = k / ( 2 - k )
k = 2 P / ( 1 + P ) .
G s ( u ) = G r ( u ) · ρ s ( u ) / ρ r ( u ) ,
G r ( u ) = 100 · ρ r ( α , n r ) / ρ 0 ( α , n 0 ) ,
G r ( u ) = F ( α ) ρ r ( α , n r )
G s ( u ) = F ( α ) ρ s ( α , n s )
G r ( m ) = 100 ρ r ( m , α , n r ) / ρ 0 ( u , α , n 0 ) .
G s ( m ) = G r ( m ) ρ s ( m ) / ρ r ( m ) ,
G s ( m ) = 100 ρ s ( m ) / ρ 0 ( u , n 0 ) = F ( α ) ρ s ( m ) .
G s ( m ) = G r ( u ) ρ s ( m ) / ρ s ( u ) .
E = G s ( m ) G s ( u ) = ρ s ( m ) ρ s ( u ) × ρ r ( u ) ρ r ( m ) .

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