Abstract

Wavelength-multiplexed matched spatial filters are used in an incoherent optical pattern recognition system. The system produces color-coded correlation responses which allow the simultaneous recognition of several objects and, in addition, reduces the requirements on filter positioning devices. Analysis of the system, comparison with previous systems, experimental results, and discussions are given.

© 1979 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Bescos, T. C. Strand, Appl. Opt. 17, 2524 (1978).
    [PubMed]
  2. J. D. Armitage, A. W. Lohmann, D. P. Paris, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 4 (Suppl. 1), 273 (1965).
  3. A. A. Friesem, U. Levy, Opt. Lett. 2, 133 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Vander Lugt, F. B. Rotz, A. Klooster, in Optical and Electro-Optical Information Processing, J. T. Tippett et al., Eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, 1965).
  5. S. P. Almeida, J. K. T. Eu, Appl. Opt. 15, 510 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Recording several superimposed filters, each at the same wavelength but with a different reference beam angle, would also reduce filter positioning requirements.
  7. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968), p. 176.
  8. R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971), p. 258.
  9. H. Fleisher et al., in Optical and Electro-Optical Information Processing, J. T. Tippett et al., Eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, 1965), p. 1.
  10. S. K. Case, R. Alferness, Appl. Phys. 10, 41 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Braunecker, University of Essen, FB Physik, 4300 Essen 1, West Germany; private communication.
  12. S. Voelker, R. M. MacFarlane, J. H. Van Der Waals, Chem. Phys. Lett. 53, 8 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  13. See, for instance, R. G. Zech, “Data Storage in Volume Holograms,” Thesis, University of Michigan (1974) (University Microfilms, Inc., order 74-25, 369), p. 257.
  14. The system could also be used in reverse for code translation. A green point source (such as a λ-multiplexed signal emerging from a fiber optic) could be used to produce the word GO, while a red point signal would produce the word STOP.
  15. N. K. Shi, Opt. Lett. 3, 85 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. Bartelt, Opt. Commun. (May1979), accepted for publication.

1978 (4)

1976 (2)

1965 (1)

J. D. Armitage, A. W. Lohmann, D. P. Paris, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 4 (Suppl. 1), 273 (1965).

Alferness, R.

S. K. Case, R. Alferness, Appl. Phys. 10, 41 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, S. P.

Armitage, J. D.

J. D. Armitage, A. W. Lohmann, D. P. Paris, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 4 (Suppl. 1), 273 (1965).

Bartelt, H.

H. Bartelt, Opt. Commun. (May1979), accepted for publication.

Bescos, J.

Braunecker, B.

B. Braunecker, University of Essen, FB Physik, 4300 Essen 1, West Germany; private communication.

Burckhardt, C. B.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971), p. 258.

Case, S. K.

S. K. Case, R. Alferness, Appl. Phys. 10, 41 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Collier, R. J.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971), p. 258.

Eu, J. K. T.

Fleisher, H.

H. Fleisher et al., in Optical and Electro-Optical Information Processing, J. T. Tippett et al., Eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, 1965), p. 1.

Friesem, A. A.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968), p. 176.

Klooster, A.

A. Vander Lugt, F. B. Rotz, A. Klooster, in Optical and Electro-Optical Information Processing, J. T. Tippett et al., Eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, 1965).

Levy, U.

Lin, L. H.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971), p. 258.

Lohmann, A. W.

J. D. Armitage, A. W. Lohmann, D. P. Paris, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 4 (Suppl. 1), 273 (1965).

MacFarlane, R. M.

S. Voelker, R. M. MacFarlane, J. H. Van Der Waals, Chem. Phys. Lett. 53, 8 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Paris, D. P.

J. D. Armitage, A. W. Lohmann, D. P. Paris, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 4 (Suppl. 1), 273 (1965).

Rotz, F. B.

A. Vander Lugt, F. B. Rotz, A. Klooster, in Optical and Electro-Optical Information Processing, J. T. Tippett et al., Eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, 1965).

Shi, N. K.

Strand, T. C.

Van Der Waals, J. H.

S. Voelker, R. M. MacFarlane, J. H. Van Der Waals, Chem. Phys. Lett. 53, 8 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Vander Lugt, A.

A. Vander Lugt, F. B. Rotz, A. Klooster, in Optical and Electro-Optical Information Processing, J. T. Tippett et al., Eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, 1965).

Voelker, S.

S. Voelker, R. M. MacFarlane, J. H. Van Der Waals, Chem. Phys. Lett. 53, 8 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Zech, R. G.

See, for instance, R. G. Zech, “Data Storage in Volume Holograms,” Thesis, University of Michigan (1974) (University Microfilms, Inc., order 74-25, 369), p. 257.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. (1)

S. K. Case, R. Alferness, Appl. Phys. 10, 41 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Voelker, R. M. MacFarlane, J. H. Van Der Waals, Chem. Phys. Lett. 53, 8 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. D. Armitage, A. W. Lohmann, D. P. Paris, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 4 (Suppl. 1), 273 (1965).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (9)

H. Bartelt, Opt. Commun. (May1979), accepted for publication.

See, for instance, R. G. Zech, “Data Storage in Volume Holograms,” Thesis, University of Michigan (1974) (University Microfilms, Inc., order 74-25, 369), p. 257.

The system could also be used in reverse for code translation. A green point source (such as a λ-multiplexed signal emerging from a fiber optic) could be used to produce the word GO, while a red point signal would produce the word STOP.

B. Braunecker, University of Essen, FB Physik, 4300 Essen 1, West Germany; private communication.

A. Vander Lugt, F. B. Rotz, A. Klooster, in Optical and Electro-Optical Information Processing, J. T. Tippett et al., Eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, 1965).

Recording several superimposed filters, each at the same wavelength but with a different reference beam angle, would also reduce filter positioning requirements.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968), p. 176.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971), p. 258.

H. Fleisher et al., in Optical and Electro-Optical Information Processing, J. T. Tippett et al., Eds. (MIT Press, Cambridge, 1965), p. 1.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Color-coded correlation signals: intense green signal is response to GO mask in (a); intense red signal is response to STOP mask in (b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Impulse response of double-exposure matched spatial filter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Correlation plane output O with input.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Correlation plane output with X input.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Correlation Plane Output with O Input

Tables Icon

Table II Correlation Plane Output with O Input

Tables Icon

Table III Correlation Plane Output with X Input

Equations (9)

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U 21 ( x 2 , y 2 ) = R exp { - j [ 2 π sin θ x 2 ) / λ 1 ] } + 1 j λ 1 f 1 exp { + j [ ( 2 π x 2 x 0 ) / λ 1 f 1 ) ] } O ˜ ( x 2 λ 1 f 1 , y 2 λ 1 f 1 ) ,
U 22 ( x 2 , y 2 ) = R exp { - j [ ( 2 π sin θ x 2 } / λ 2 ) ] } + 1 j λ 2 f 1 X ˜ ( x 2 λ 2 f 1 , y 2 λ 2 f 1 ) .
t ~ 1 λ 1 f 1 exp [ - j 2 π ( sin θ / λ 1 + x 0 / λ 1 f 1 ) x 2 ] O ˜ * ( x 2 λ 1 f 1 , y 2 λ 1 f 1 ) + 1 λ 2 f 1 exp [ - j 2 π ( sin θ ) / λ 2 ) x 2 ] X ˜ * ( x 2 λ 2 f 1 , y 2 λ 2 f 1 ) ,
U 1 = O ( x 1 , y 1 , λ 2 ) + O ( x 1 , y 1 , λ 1 ) ,
U 2 = 1 j λ 2 f 1 O ˜ ( x 2 λ 2 f 1 , y 2 λ 2 f 1 ) + 1 j λ 1 f 1 O ˜ ( x 2 λ 1 f 1 , y 2 λ 1 f 1 ) .
U 2 + = t U 2 .
x 0 = 1 2 ( λ 1 λ 2 - 1 ) f 1 sin θ .
W ( λ 1 λ 2 - 1 ) f 1 sin θ ( λ 1 λ 2 + 3 ) .
O ( x λ 1 λ 2 , y λ 1 λ 2 , λ 2 ) , X ( x , y , λ 2 ) , O ( x , y , λ 1 ) , and X ( x λ 2 λ 1 , y λ 2 λ 1 λ 1 ) .

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